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Recent Exemplifications of False Philology. Pp. 124. New York : Scribner, 

Armstrong, & Co. 1872. 
For opinions of the press, see the end of this volume. 

In preparation. 

A volume of Philological Essays, in which most of the following subjectH, 
and perhaps some others, will be treated of. English Dictionaries. Modern 
English in Making. The English of the Bible. Popular Etymology. English 
Hybrids. Americanisms. ReUable, Dilation, and their Respective Con- 
geners. Sundry Modernisms, Established and Unestablished, Lawful and 

O^-' "-l. 




M.A., HON. D.C.L. OXON., 


El rt; ^e cAey^ai, Kal irapourr^crat ftoi, ort ovk opffStq viroAa/yij3av(i> ^ vpd<r<rto, Svva- 
rai, x<'^P<^*' iteTaBiqaoixau.. ZrfTw yap ttjv dA^0eiai/, v<^' ^( ovfiei$ irunore 
c^Aa^1). BAairreroi Se 6 inifUviav eirt t^« eavrov airanf? ical ayvoia^. Marcv.t 

La materia do' libri par cosa di poco memento, perchd tratta di parole. Ma 
da queste parole vengono Topinioui nel mondo, cho causano le partialitu, 
lo sedlzloiie, e finalmente le guerre. Sono parole, si, mk che, in cousc- 
qiienza, tirano seco esserciti armati Paolo Sarpi. 

Ye know not what hurt ye do to learning, that care not for wordes, but for 
matter, and so make a devorse betwixt the tong and the hai-t. Rofi» r 





Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by 

In the oflBce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 





Jig Jlotijer. 









VII. OUR grandfathers' ENGLISH 


















The contents of this volume are made up, in the 
main, of selections from a large number of essays 
which I have composed, within the last ten years, for 
my own amusement. As to the particular chapters 
here grouped together, seeing that they were written 
at considerable intervals, and, as soon as written, 
were laid aside and well nigh forgotten, I found, on 
revising them, that, almost of course, I had, here and 
there, in some measure repeated myself. After all, 
however, the repetitions have seemed too slight to 
demand that I should be at the trouble of removing 
them ; and, accordingly, I have let them stand. For 
the rest, it is not impossible, that things which have 
offered themselves, at various times, as worth the 
saying, may deserve that attention which they might, 
if said only once, have failed to secure. 

When it is announced, that the object of this dis- 
quisition is to justify modem English, as well as to 
exemplify it, the principle which has actuated my 
division and disposition of my subject-matter will at 
once become intelligible. 

To assist a right judgment of language, as pre- 
sented either in our own age, or in any other age, I 
have thought it good, first of alls to emphasize its 
abiding instability ; and, next, I have dwelt on pro- 
priety in speech, as divisible into correctness and 
appropriateneaa. Then follow specimens of such 
erroneous conclusions as one is sure to be landed in, 
from electing, in philology, assumption and ■divina- 
tion, in preference to investigation and induction. 
Purism and neotorism are, in course, discussed ; and 
to these discussions some experimental rules are sub- 
joined, which devisers of new words, if they wish 
their dovisings to outlive themselves, neglect to their 
cost. The two last chapters exhibit abundant exem- 
plifications of English which has dropped oway, and 
of English which has come into vogue, within the 
last hundred years or thereabouts. In the Appendix 
I have reprinted, in essentially its original form, a 
paper which, written in 1871, has already appeared 
in the pages of a Magazine. I will here add, touch- 
ing the idiom vindicated in the Appendix, that a 
very learned and ciitical neighbour of mine, a gen- 
tleman now in his eighty-fifth year, assures me, that 
expressions like h being bitilChave been colloquially cur- 
rent in the beat English society ever since his boyhood. 

It has been well observed, by an acute observer and 
profound thinker of our time, that " popular opinions, 
on subjects not palpable to sense, are often true, but 
seldom or never the whole truth." In OA'Crwhelming 
proportion, we further find, as the groundwork of hu- 
man assents, unverified traditions, eked out by the sug- 
gestions of greed and of whim ; and it is hardly tc 


denied, that, regarding any truth whatsoever which is 
not of obvious perception in its fulness, paradoxy is like- 
ly to be orthodoxy. Error, save in the exact sciences, 
and in awards by the rule of thumb, has still, pretty 
nearly everywhere, the ascendency; and, as concerns 
the sphere of later English philology, in especial, I 
have looked only to be disappointed, for a guide to it in 
whom I can trust otherwise than occasionally. To no 
one can any benefit accrue from such aerial specula- 
tions, shallow sophisms, and self-sufficient reveries, as 
crowd almost every book on our language that we 
turn to. Philologists are much too apt to forget, that 
their function is, chiefly, to record, and never to 
legislate; and, instead of the wholesome bread of 
truth, they beguile us, far too often, with the worthless 
stone of their own caprice. If we choose to dissert 
on English, it may, at least, be demanded of us to 
beware of substituting fictions for facts, and dog- 
matism for dialectic inference, and, like the frog in 
the fable, of mistaking the kerb of our own little 
philologic well for the far-off horizon of science. For 
my own part, I have striven to build on a foundation 
of due amplitude, the verities of history, a thing 
totally impersonal to myself. No more than the cut 
of one's coat, or the style of one's nose, have private 
chimeras here any relevance ; and, except in reliance 
on explicit testimony and straightforward logic, the 
philologist may depend upon it, that he will never 
reach any goal which he would not much better avoid. 
I have thus indicated, negatively, my general mode 
of procedure ; and, as best I could, I have adhered 
to it. 

In a work like the present, it ia unavoidflble tkat 
one should not say something about usage. I do not 
hold, however, as I have been charged with holding, 
that "usage is the one criterion of proper speech." 
The general consent of the best writers and speakers 
among our contemporaries should be accepted for 
our guidance in matters of syntax and idiom ; but, aa 
to our choice of phraseology, whether it is to be 
simple or scholastic, popular or technical, established 
or neoteric, we ought, in reason, to be governed by 
considerations of expedience. And then there is the 
minting of new words, a direct innovation on usage, 
and yet a thing which we ought not to prevent, even 
if it were preventible. No one will arraign these 
positions aa wanting in liberalism; but there "is, 
nevertheless, nothing, in their liberalism, of lawless- 
ness. The more closely one looks into usage, the 
firmer must be one's conviction, that its adjudications 
have greatly more of freedom and elasticity than find 
countenance with the rabble of mere word- fanciers. 
Solecisms apart, it is much leaa the choice of expres- 
sions, than the use we put thom to, 1;hat makes true 
English. My views on such points, and, indeed, on 
most of the various topics handled in the following 
pages, are, I know, novel, as coming from an 
American. At the same time, they are those of the 
majority of educated Englishmen. And this I assert 
with confidence ; for my intercourse with educated 
Englishmen haa, perhaps, been, as of longer duration, 
80 of a more intimate character, than has fallen to 
the lot of any other American who has made the 
English language a subject of serious study. The 


weight of this argument will, I ain aware, be de- 
nied ; but, let Englishmen scorn us, and move our 
just aversion, as they may, the fact still stands, that, 
looking to their superior culture, literary and social, 
we shall do wisely in deferring to their example, if 
we would learn how best to speak and to write. 

It occurred to me, while meditating the prepara- 
tion of this volume, that it might be prudent to salute 
the public with something of smaller bulk first. In 
prosecution of this idea, and in the belief, that there 
is no more effective way to teach sound principles 
than by dissecting and exploding unsound, I picked 
out a handful of material from a mass which lay 
ready at my elbow, and worked it up into my Recent 
Exemplifications of False Philology. But opinion, 
in matters of language, is, with most people, every- 
thing ; and ninety-nine in a hundred, if only once 
certified, that adhesion to a given view is associated 
with a name of popular weight, are quite ready to 
acquiesce in it without further ado. All but univers- 
ally, in truth, it is simply the prejudices and the 
crotchets of persons w£o have risen to reputation, 
that, by being adopted, enable vulgar minds to 
escape from absolute vacancy. In the critique which 
I am speaking of, regardless of anything but facts 
and a scientific treatment of facts, I passed in review 
a motley cluster of philologists, semi-philologists, 
and entire philologasters. Abstractedly from their 
avowed pretensions, the authors of the misleading 
fallacies and decisions which I scrutinized, were 
nothing to me. If they had written anonymously, 
I should have done by them precisely as I did. 

Personality, otherwise than hy way of holding up a 
mirror to them, I diligently eschewed. There ia 
one of their numher, however, a wholesale sponsor, 
and also an originator, of superficial conceits, whose 
clientry of clapper-clawers, miarepresenting the chii- 
rdcter of my strictures, and fathering on me, vrith 
irontless mendacity, the most preposterous prin- 
ciples, have, in requital, shown themselves, as aii old 
author phrases it, valiantly railipotent. Pretension 
to knowledge they make none whatever; and, in 
justice, I concede to them, for not making any, — ^but 
for nothing else, — the credit of a ludicrous honesty. 
It was, further, only to Jbe expected, that persona 
capable, in their anger, of merely malting a senseless 
clatter, and of comporting themselves after a wholly 
unseemly fashion, should he unable to conceal the 
real ground of their disquietude. Their favourite 
persuasions have, without question, rei^eived a shock 
of unusual severity ; and they vainlj' hope, by a de- 
monstration of violence and incredulity, to piece 
together their shattered illusions. I might, to be 
sure, easily have afi'orded to jjass them by in silence; 
and I have here spoken of them, only because of 
their supplying an instructive niustration, how com- 
mon it is for the sons of feebleness, immediately on 
being confronted with the discomfort of new ideas, 
to throw honesty to tlie winds, and to wax warm 
and hysterical. By seliolars my critique has been 
welcomed with great cordiality and many kind 
words ; and the demand for it was so unexpected, 
that, within a month after its publication, I felt en- 


couraged to put to press, without delay, the volume 
now in the hand of the reader. 

Almost ever since I left college, in 1846, I have 
held laborious official positions, mostly in India. 
For many years, while there, spending a consider- 
able part of every day in the saddle, I had little 
leisure for study. In fact, until four years ago, I 
have rarely, since I came to man's estate, had any 
hours for reading and writing, except such as would 
rightfully have been given to sleep. Scant oppor- 
tunity, therefore, have I enjoyed of becoming a 
thorough scholar; and to thorough scholarship I 
lay no claim. For all that, I have contrived, at odd 
times, to run through something of divers literatures, 
and to give some thought to my mother-tongue. On 
not a tithe of the books I have skimmed have I taken 
notes serviceable for philological purposes ; and yet 
my memoranda on English words and uses of words 
have grown to a matter of half a million. Hitherto, 
only a small share of these has been turned to 
account ; and, whether the residue of this apparatus 
shall go the way of waste paper, circumstances must 

Marlesfordj Wickham Market^ Suffolk, 
Julf/ 15, 1873. 








Hooker [?] 








the Rev. 



















EccL Vmd. 

The Hist, of Episc, 












Rev. Dr. 




Mutantur in aevum 
Singula, et inceptum alternat natura tenorem, 
Quodque dies antiqua tulit post auferet ipsa. 


Not many years ago, a member of the House of 
Lords, on being taken to task, by one of his august 
peers, for some solecism of speech, desired to be in- 
fopned whether the right could be denied him, as a 
free-born Briton, of devising English of his own. 
Befitting though this style of retort may be to delin- 
quents of exceptional immunities, a less lofty tone is 
more appropriate to ordinary transgressors. And 
these, we find, when charged with verbal or gram- 
matic ofience, are wont, in strict obedience to the 
proprieties, to defend themselves from a humbler 
vantage-ground. Much on a parity, however, with 
the noble senator's self-assertive interrogatory, for 
availing to foreclose every avenue to rational re- 
ply, is the demand, so often advanced by practi- 
tioners of anomalous words and phrases, what it is 
they are speaking, if not English. But, as will 
appear in the course of these pages, men of leandxv^ 



and reflection, equally with mere parrots, are seen, 
when discoursing on language, to deal in utterances 
quite as inconsiderate or fallacious as the samples 
just instanced. 

Even in Cicero we meet with the strain of thought- 
lessness here adverted to, where he writes: "quo 
magis expurgandus est sermo, et adhibenda, tan- 
quam obrussa, ratio quae mutari non potest, nee 
utendum pravissima consuetudinis regula." ^ " One 
great end of this undertaking is to fix the English 
language," says Dr. Johnson, in his Plan of an 
English Dictionary,^ Previously, Swift had had 
much at heart, " that some method should be thought 
on for ascertaining and fixing our language for ever, 
after such alterations are made in it as shall be 
thought requisite ; " and hence his Proposal for 
Correctingy Improving, and Ascertaining the English 
Tongue? Still earlier than the time of Swift, the 

» Brutus, LXXIV. 

^ Dr. Johnson, in The History of the English Language, pre- 
fixed to his Dictionary y speaks of causes " which, notwithstanding 
the care of writers and societies instituted to obviate them, are 
even now daily making innovations in every living language." 

It seems, from this, that Dr. Johnson really conceived a living 
language to be capable of fixation. Nor is this the only other 
place where he has given token of such a belief. 

^ This Proposal was written in 1712. There we also read, with 
reference to our language : " If it were once refined to a certain 
standard, perhaps there might be ways found out to fix it for ever, 
or, at least, till we are invaded and made a conquest [.^u?] by some 
other State." 

Again : " What Horace says of words' going off and perishing 
like leaves, and new ones' coming in their place, is a misfortune 
he laments, rather than a thing he approves." 

Once more : " I see no absolute necessity why any language 
should be perpetually changing ; for we find many examples to 
the contrary. From Homer to Plutarch was above a thousand 


Earl of Roscommon " formed the plan of a society 
for refining our language, and fixing its standard." ^ 
To the visionaries here quoted the elementary fact, 
regarding language, that irresistible mutability is 
one of its invariable characteristics, can never, it 
should seem, have seriously presented itself. 

Expressions of satisfaction with English as already 
developed, deprecations of any further alteration of 
it, and lamentations over its degeneracy, may be 
expected, as matters of course, from those who 
believe a language to be susceptible of fixation, and 
repine at the perversity which has refused to fix it. 

As long ago as 1557, Sir John Cheke expressed 
himself as follows : 

"I am of this opinion, that our own tung shold be 
written cleane and pure, unmixt and unmangeled with 
borowing of other tunges, wherin if we take not heed bi 

years : so long, at least, the purity of the Greek tongue may be 
allowed to last ; and we know not how far before." 

Swift would have found it difificult, consistently with scholar- 
ship, to define " purity," as he here applies the term. His Greek, 
like Shakespeare's Latin, must have been ".small ". 

With an extravagance which he should have blushed even to 
imagine, he tells Lord Oxford, to whom his Proposal is addressed : 
" If you will not take some care to settle our language, and put it 
into a state of continuance, I cannot promise that your memory 
sliall be preserved above a hundred years, farther than by imper- 
fect tradition." 

The sound sense of an anonymous writer who commented on 
the Dean's dream will be evident from the following extract. 
*' The Doctor may as well set up a society to find out the Grand 
Elixir, the Perpetual Motion, the Longitude, and other such dis- 
coveries, as to fix our language beyond their own times. The 
test of their successors will vary with the age, and their rules grow 
obsolete, as well as their words." lleflections on Br, Swift's Let- 
ter to tlie Earl of Oxford, &c., p. 25. 

^ Dr. Johnson, Life of Boscommon, 

tiim, ever borowing and never pajeng, she shall be fain to 
keep her house as bankrupt. For then doth our tung 
naturallie and praiaablie utter her meaning, whan she 
bouraweth no conterfeitneBs of other tungea to attire her 
self withall, but usetli plainlie her own, with such shift as 
nature, craft, experiena, and folowing of other excellent 
doth lead her unto; and, if she want, at am tiim {as, 
being unperfight, she must), yet let her borow with suche 
baahfulnes, that it mai appear that, if either the mould of 
our own tung could serve us to fascion a woord of our 
own, or if the old iJenisoned wordes could content and 
ease this neede, we wold not boldly venture of unknowen 
wordes." ' 

Much to the same purpose writes Verstegan, 
■within half a century after : 

" Since tie tyme of Chaucur, more Latin & French 
hath bin mingled with our tomig then left out of it ; but, 
of late, wee have falne to such borowing of woorda from 

' Tliis is from a letter given at the end of TJw Covrtyer {ed. 
16C1), tranHlnU.'d by Bir Thomas Hoby, from tlie Kalian of Coa- 

Henri Estienne, writing in I5G6, slioira himself quite as muah 
a conservative as Clieke. " Tontesfois je ne veux pas nier . . . 
qoeje ne s^y oii desormais on se pourra foumir de langnage 
Fcftm'Oia qui *oit mettnble partout, veu que de jour en jour les 
bona mots soot descriez entre ceux [|nj, e'esooutuns pindarieer it 
la nouvelle mods. barbarJEent aux oreilles de ceui: qni snivent 
I'ancienne." Apolngie ponr Herndt'te (ed. 1735), Vol. 1, p. sxsix. 

It is uurioua to note what words were becoming Frencli, in the 
tiineof theBreat Greek lexicographer. 

Of avalDgie he says : " 81 Us oreilles Francises peuveat porter 
ce mot." J6irf., Vol. 1, p. xliv. 

Of itratagime : " Puis qua oe mot Greo depais qoelque temps a 
trouve lieu au language Francois." Hiid., Vol, 1. pp. 300, 301. 

Of <tM(»(in« .' " Car il a iaia trouver des termes Donvcaux pour 
la nouvelle niasclianeete." Ibii!„ Vol. 1. p. UiH, 

■» iiu'un appelle nujouriiUuv s'lj/erelienc." Ihid., Vol. i, 
p. 400. 


Latin,^ French, and other toungs, that it had bm beyond 
all stay and limit ; which albeit some of us do lyke wel, 
and think our toung thereby much bettred, yet do strangers 
therefore carry the farre lesse opinion thereof ; some say- 
ing that it is, of it self, no language at all, but the scum of 
many languages ; others, that it is most barren, and that 
wee are dayly faine to borrow woords for it (as though it 
yet lacked making), out of other languages, to patche it up 
withall, and that, yf wee were put to repay our borrowed 
speech back again to the languages that may lay claime 
unto it, wee should bee left litle better then dumb, or 
scarsly able to speak any thing that should bee sencible. 

" For myne own parte, I hold them deceaved that think 
our speech bettered by the aboundance of our dayly bor- 
rowed woords ; for they, beeing of an other nature, and 
not originally belonging to our language, do not, neither 
can they, in our toung, beare their natural and true 
deryvations ; and, therefore, as wel may we fetch woords 
from the Ethiopians, or East or West Indians, "and thrust 
them into our language, and baptise all by the name of 
English, as those which wee dayly take from the Latin, or 
languages thereon depending. And heerhence it cometh, 
(as, by often experience, is found,) that, some Englishmen 
discoursing together, others beeing present, and of our o^vn 
nation, and that naturally speak the English toung, are 
not able to understand what the others say, notwithstand- 
ing they call it English that they speak." ^ 

* Puttenham speaks of ** corruption " of English, " occasioned 
chiefly by the peevish affectation .... of clerks and scholars or 
secretaries, long since." Examples of this " corruption " he in- 
stances in innumerable J revocable, irrevocable, irradiation, de- 
population, ** which are not naturall Normans, nor yet French, 
bat altered Latines, and without any imitation at all." It seems 
that he regretted " innombrable," &c. Tlie Arte of English Poe^ie 
(1689), p. 89 (ed. 1811). 

• A Mestitution of Decayed Intelligence^ &c. (Antwerp ed., 
1605), pp. 2(M> 205. 


"But, doubtlesse, yf our selves pleased to use the 
treasurie of our own toung, wee should as litle need to 
borrow woords from any language extravagant from ours, 
as any such horroweth from us; our toung, in it self, 
beeing sufficient and copious enough, without this dayly 
borrowing from somany, as take scorne to borrow any 
from us." ^ 

Camden shall next be cited : 

" The alteration and admiration in our tongue, as in all 
others, hath been brought in by entrance of strangers, as 
Danes, Normans, and others which have swarmed hither; 
by traffick (for new words, as well as for new wares, 
have always come in by the tyranne Time, which altereth 
all under heaven) ; by use, which swayeth most, andj[hath 
an absolute command in words; and by pregnant wits. 
Specially since that learning, after long banishment, was 
recalled in the time of King Henry the Eight, it hath 
been beautified and enriched out of other good tongues, 
partly by enfranchising and endenizing strange words, 
partly by refining and mollifying old words, partly by im- 
planting new words with artificial composition, happily 
containing themselves within the bounds prescribed by 
Horace. So that our tongue is (and I doubt not but hath 
been) as copious, pithy, and significative as any other 
tongue in Europe ; and I hope we are not yet, and shall 
not hereafter, come to that which Seneca saw, in his time : 
* When men's minds begin once to inure themselves to dis- 
like, whatsoever is usual is disdained. They affect novelty 
in speech; they recal forworn and uncuth words; they 
forge new phrases ; and that which is newest is best liked : 

* A Rest'itntwn^ &c., p. 206. Among Yerstegan's quaintnesses 
wcQ country ship for * nationality,' /<f>r<?-«/<f^r for * ancestor,' /w/rfo 
for * retrieve,' offspring for * origin,' and outlander for * foreigner. 
Of these, and many more, quite likely not one was his own invention . 


there is presumptuous and farre fetching of words. And 
some there are that think it a grace, if their speech do 
hover, and thereby hold the hearer in suspense/ You 
know what followeth." ^ 

Bishop Sprat, having proposed the foundation of 
an Academy, like that of the French, goes on to say: 

" But, besides, if we observe well the English language, 
we shall find that it seems, at this time, more then others, 
to require some such aid to bring it to its last perfection. 
The truth is, it has been, hitherto, a little too carelessly 
handled, and, I think, has had less labor spent about its 
polishing then it deserves. Till the time of King Henry 
the Eighth, there was scarse any man regarded it, but 
Chaucer ; and nothing was written, in it, which one would 
be willing to read twice, but some of his poetry. But then 
it began to raise it self a little, and to sound tolerably 

welL And now, when men's minds are somewhat 

settled, their passions allai'd, and the peace of our country 
gives us the opportunity of such diversions, if some sober 
and judicious men would take the whole mass of our lan- 
guage into their hands, as they find it, and would set a 
mark on the ill words, correct those which are to be re- 
tained, admit and establish the good, and make some 
emendations in the accent and grammar, I dare pronounce, 

* CamderCs Memains, Sec. (ed. 1674), pp. 36, 37. No one but a 
countryman of Camden's could have added : " And not long since, 
for the honour of our native tongue, Henry Fitz-Allen, Earl of 
Arundel, in his travaile into Italy, and the Lord William Howard, 
of Effingham, in his government of Calice, albeit they were not 
ignorant of other forraine tongues, would answer no strangers, by 
word or writing, but onely in English ; as, in this consideration, 
also, before them, Cardinal Wolsey, in his ambassage into France, 
commanded all his servants to- use no French, but meer English, 
to the French, in all communication whatsoever." 

For what is here said of the Earl of Arundel, also see Putten- 
ham, Tlie Arte of English Poesie, p. 227. 

which its derivation from tho 

much plenty as 


■gh German will aUow it." ' 

No less rash than others is Dr. Eentley, writing in 

"As for our English tongue, the great alterations it has 
undergone in the two last centuries are principally owing 
to that vast stock of Latin words which we have trana- 
plauted into our own soil ; wlu::h heing, now, in a nian- 
exhanstod, one may easily presage that it will not 
have such changes in the two next centuries. Kay, it 
were no diihcult contrivance, if the public liod any reganl 
to it, to make the English tongue immutahle, unless here- 
after some foreign nation shall invade a: 

The Hittory oftlie Bmjal Saciety, &c. (eil. 16G7), pp. 11, 42. 

This is one at the few liooks which ealection of fit<ntimont and 

elegance of diction havo been able to preserve, though written 

npon a eubjcct flux and transitory. The HUtery iff the Sni/al 

Saci-i'ty IB now read, not with the wish to know what they wera 

then doing, but how their transactiotia are exhibited by t-prat." 

So Bay!> Dr. Johnson. The decorous debility of Sprat is much 

ore juHtly appreciated by Godwin. " Though Sprat was the tirst 

!taporter of neatness into his native tongue, yet he bits a singular 

air of feebleness. His composilion reminds the render of the »p- 

of au old man he may have seen, who, though dressed 

with care aodspruaeoeBS, yet has something strangely old^fssliiouT^d 

' his air, and irabecil in his motions." 3^* Eitgiitrvr, p. 4aB. 

Godwin's saying of Sprat, — "our English Cicero," in the 

timatlonof Bentley, — that he originated "neatness" of Engliah, 

as bad as what Sprat saya of our old literature. 

Tliough, quite via much as Cowley, a atndiouB conservative in his 

iraseology, Sprat, espeoially towatils the end of bis UittoTy of the 

ml Sneiety. veulurea on some vwy odd upellings. Many of hia 

ODtemporaries write, like him, ditenrage, hitrgit, hery, mnny, 

uij/Aber. pVile, lavior, t/u<ater, troKeled, Ice, ka. ; but he is rather 

leculiar in his averuon to the final a mute, whence his ap/>lavt, 

trm^ot, atpert, avert, bacaiit, cimrg, deiolat, dlicaiiyt, eicamin, 

tncreaii, mederat, bib, propagat, raU. trii. 

' The Worh itf RUhard B<:nnt<j, D.D. (ed. It«v. Alux 

lycc). Vol. 2, p. 13. 


Let US now listen to Dr. Johnson : 

" Of antiquated or obsolete words, none will be inserted 
but such as are to be found in authors who wrote [sic] 
since the accession of Elizabeth, from which we date the 
golden age of our language." ^ 

" I have fixed Sidney's work for the boundary beyond 
which I make few excursions. From the authors which 
rose in the time of Elizabeth a speech might be formed 
adequate to all the purposes of use and elegance." ^ 

" So far have I been from any care to grace my pages 
with modem decorations, that I have studiously endea- 
voured to collect examples and authorities from the writers 
before the Restoration,^ whose works I regard as the 
* wells of English undefiled ',^ as the pure sources of gen- 
uine diction." * 

Bentley strangely asserts, that " the orthography, or way of 
spelling," " is the principal variation of the modern English from 
the old." lbid.y Vol. 2, p. 7. 

The English here referred to as " old " must be that of very 
moderate antiquity indeed. 

* The Plan of an Englinh Dictionary, As, however, Johnson 
declares, in his Preface to Shakespeare^ that, in Shakespeare's time, 
" the English nation .... was yet struggling to emerge from bar- 
barity," it seems that he considered the excellence of a language as 
having very little dependence on civilization. 

' Dictionary^ Preface. 

' Without much trouble, I could show that Johnson should have 
referred to an earlier date than 1660 — in some cases, by a whole 
century, — a full thousand words and senses of words which he 
illustrates solely out of writings subsequent to that era. The truth 
18, that his acquaintance with pre-Restoration, and especially 
with Elizabethan, authors was of the most meagre. 

* We have seen what Johnson says of Sprat, whom he also calls 
'* an author whose pregnancy of imagination and elegance of lan- 
guage have deservedly set him high in the ranks of literature ". 
He pronounces, too, that " whoever wishes to attain an English 
style, familiar but not coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, 
must give his days and nights to the volumes of Addison." 

In the former, with his sterile wit and nerveless insipidity, there 
is nothing to remind one either of his predecessors or even of his 
contemporaries ; and the latter, while notably diftlm^xiY^^^ ^& ^ 
s [Note in next paffe. 7 

In the Coniiomeur, No. 71, by Colman aud Thorii- 
I ton, wo read ; 

"TheEngUali language is sufficiently copious and ex- 
' pressire, without any iartlier adoption of new terms ; and 

Btyliat, tor ease, a quality not to bo imitated, combinea mitli it the 
extreme of inexactness, and, more particulnrlf, is allogetbec anU- 
arobaio. As it oocuireil to Godwin, Jobnson, in awarding; the 
praise he gives these writers, enntradictB his position which limits 
the "wells of English undefiled" to the century preceding the re- 
call of tbe second Charles. 

By the may, the aulojo' bestowed on Chaucer by Spenser's well- 
worn metaphor has not been ignite uoaninioiisly reco^ized as con- 
dign. Thomas Jordan, for instaace, makes his Wildblood ejaoa- 

" By the wanton memory of Chaucer, I could tiitn poet. 
And write in as heatheu English, and as bawdy." 
The Waiht nf hUngten and Hogndon (1657), Act i, Sd. 1, 
' DieitBHary, Preface. A hundred and two years elapsed be- 
tween the accession of Elizabeth and the Restoration ; and " the 
pure sources of genuine diction" — as if "genuine diction" could 
have sources other than "pure," — are, thus, restricted to about 
Ihree generations. Could thomoodynnd narrow melancholiat ever 
liave asked himself what proportion of his own diution was, by his 
own canon, spurious? 

Swift, in Ilia Propatal, allows a shorter reign (o sterling English, 
by eighteen years, than Johnson. " The period wherein the Eng- 
' lisli tongue received most Improvement I take to commenee with 
the beginning of Queen Eliiabetli'ii reign, and to conclude with 
, the Great Itebeltion of forty-two." 

Further on, he says ; '* From the Civil War to this present time 
{ITI2], lam apt to doubt whether tbe corruptions in our language 
have not at least equalled the reSoements of it ; and these cormp- 
:tions very few of the best authors in ouragehave wholly escaped." 
" Some of the causes of the predilection of Swift and Johnson 
ft)r the age of Queen Elizaheth are obvious. It is well known in 
rwhat terms of acrimony and personal hatred Swift attacked Dry- 
den aud soma of tbe most eminent writers of Cbnrlvs's rei^n. 
'Johnson's partiality for old English manners and practices was 
unbounded i nor can there be produced, from the annals of our 
literature, a more fervent anti-whig and anU-gallican. But, even 
[ if we oould succeed in setting aside these (wo illustrious men, as 
inoompeteot witnesses, we sliould still meet with a boat of critics 
adhering to a similar opinion. 

" The practice, however, of Swift and Johnson wns better than 
Ibeir preoepta It may Iw affirmed, partiouhirly of the hitter, that 


the native words seem to me to have far more force than 
any foreign auxiliaries, however pompously ushered in : 
as British soldiers fight our battles better than the troops 
taken into our pay." 

Dr. Priestley, in 1761, was content with our lan- 
guage as he found it ; and he expected it to continue 
pretty much as it was then : 

" If the English language hath not already attained to 
its maturity, we may safely pronounce that it never will ; 
and, if it be not now in a condition to perpetuate itself, 
and stand the attacks of time, no method that we can at 
this day take will rescue it from oblivion. 

" More than a century is already elapsed since Dryden 
began to be admired as a writer ; and where is the pro- 
bability of the prophecy of Mr. Pope ever coming to pass, 

* And such as Chaucer is shall Dryden be ' ? 

" It is -svriting that fixes and gives stability to a lan- 
guage ; for hardly any of the causes that contribute to the 
revolutions of vocal language do at all affect that which is 
written. And, when a language is so much read, written, 
and diffused in books through the bulk of the nation that 

there is not, perhaps, a single modem writer, admired for his ele- 
gance of composition, who has less * made our ancient volumes the 
ground- work of his style ', than this author. " Godwin, The En- 
qnirer^ p. 379. 

Going to the opposite extreme, as compared with Swift and 
Johnson, Godwin depreciates our older writers most unjustly. " It 
is sufficiently evident," he writes, with advertence to the days of 
Queen Elizabeth, "that our language, at that time, comparatively 
lay in a sort of chaos, and that no just notions were yet formed of 
simplicity in diction, or precision of utterance, much less, of the 
arrangement of clauses, and construction of a period. The best 
authors wander at random, with no better compass to steer by than 
each man's private and particular hypothesis and conception. 
Nay, they are worse than this ; for nothing is more evident than 
each man*s uncertainty, and inconsistency with himself." Ihid.^ 
pp. 400, 401. 


s it, as the English in. its present state, it would be 
[absolutely miraculous, were it to receive any considerable 
f- alteration." ' 

Good English was, however, ahout a hundred 
I. years ago, in a rapid decline, on the authority of the 
[ learned Miss Carter : 

" You and I, my dear friend, have lived to see the 
rauslirooni growth of a new language, in our own country, 
filled with phrasea which nobody could have understood, 
when we were young," ^ 
An anonymoua Tory wrote, in 1827 : 
"We'are inclined to consider the Englieli language as 
Hiaving attained that fulness of maturity which leayes no 
f wish for increase, but only anxiety for preservation.' 

' Tlie Jtudimentt vf Eagli»h Gramviar, &o. (ed. 1836), pp. 
180, *90. 
» Letter! to Mri. Montagu (ed. 1817), Vol. 3, p. 95. The pasE- 
t»S6 quoted was written in ITT8. 

^ The escellent and learned Miss Carter I generally have much 
[jleBsure in quoting. Her language, for the most part, is very 
; but here is an exception. " Your deeuription of his si-p- 
imgetinKil [read >cptiuig(<itariatt\ gailautry would make one 
igh," &0. IbU., Vol. 3, p. 145. 

* In ttsiinilar spirit wrilfiB M. Fraocia Wey, regarding French ; 
"Xl'tge oil ta littfrotura frani^iee eat ai^ourd'bui parveoue, il 
'~^t £Cre possible a Tecrivain de pelndre toutes les nuanceH de sa 
]Be« sans Bortir du vocabulair« consacre. Lo langage qui con- 
nt Bu si^le present, i *t» institutions renouvelces, aui trana- 
formatioDS de bb littvratore, doit ftre form^. Le Douvenu regime 
it qnadragenaire. A cet fige, oq oe balbutie plus ; aa e^t 1u oom 
[^es oliOMB." Remarguet twr la Langv* Fran^aiu, &c, (184o), 
1, pp. 173, 17*. 

^in : " Un idiome aiisai tnilr que le n6tie eat il la bauteur de 
■M les idfes." Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 1+0. 
Thie last remorlt can never he true of a language, until thought 
It bet^ome incapable of further modification. 
And, long ago, Vaugelas wrote : " Qiiaod una longue a nnmbre 
it cadence en ses periodea, comiiic la langue fran^aiiie I'a maiole- 
t, etie est en aa perfection ; et, ctant venue i ce point, on en 
t donner dea rejjies oectainea qui dureroot toi^ours." Quoted 


'* Much has been already done to fix the English lan- 
guage ; and complete fixity is, now, all that it requires." ^ 

Even Lord Macaulay could cant ^ about " the old 
unpolluted English language ", and " how rich that 
language is in its own proper wealth, and how little 
it has been improved by all that it has borrowed/' 

The wailing of the fastidious and capricious Landor 
is of the most doleful : 

" Our own language had, under the translators of the 
Bible and of the Liturgy, reached the spne pitch as the 
Latin had In the time of Plautus ; and the sanctitude of 

by M. Laveaux, in his Dictionnaire Baisonniy &c. (ed. 1822), Vol. 
2, p. 601. 

» The Quarterly Review, Vol. 35 (1827), pp. 407 and 405. 

' In his Essay on The Pilgrim's Progress, However, in a man 
who, having lived beyond the middle of the nineteenth centurj^ 
could yet die a Whig, one should be prepared for adhesion to any 
mouldy superstition whatsoever. " Sir, he abandoned no policy, 
no principles ; His Lordship is a Whig ; these Whigs have neither: 
protestations serve instead.'' Landor, TIce Last Fruit off an Old 
Tree, p. 59. 

Lord Macaulay, with his " old unpolluted English language," is 
fantastic enough ; but Horace Walpole goes very much beyond 
him. After doing execution on " Danes, Saxons, and Popes ", for 
the harm which they wrought to our ancestors politicjilly, he con- 
tinues : " Our language suffered as much as our government, and, 
not having acquired much from our Roman masters, was miser- 
ably disfigured by the subsequent invaders. The unconquered 
parts of the island retained some purity and some precision. The 
Welsh and Erse tongues wanted not harmony ; but never did 
exist a more barbarous jargon than the dialect still venerated by 
antiquaries, and called Saxon. It was so uncouth, so inflexible to 
all composition, that the monks, retaining the idiom, were reduced 
to write in what they took or meant for Latin, llie Norman 
tyranny succeeded, and gave this Babel of savage sounds a wrench 
towards their own language," &c. &c. Historic Doubts, &c. (ed. 
1768), Preface, p. 10. 

Why did Walpole stop wh(?re he did, instead of receding a 
thousand or two years further, to find his dream of a pure language 
realized ? 


Milton's genius gave it support, until the worst of French 
invasions overthrew it." ^ 

" The Latin language, in the time of Catullus, was 
nearly in the same state as the English in the time of Mil- 
ton. Each had attained its full perfection ; and yet the 
vestiges of antiquity were preserved in each." ^ 

" Our language was first corrupted by the euphuists : it 
had reached perfection under the compilers of our Church- 
service. It fell prostrate in the slipperiness and filth 
about Charles II., when every gentleman wisht it to be 
thought that he had been an exile, for his adherence to 
royalty, so long as to have forgotten his mother- tongue. 
Cowley, and Dryden, and South himself, were rudely 
slovenly. The sublime sanctity of Milton was as pure in 
utterance as in thought : he never was seized by the 
private influenza ; he never went into places where it 
could be caught."^ 

> WWJis, Vol. 1, p. 153. 

2 T/ie Last Fruit off an Old Tree^ p. 251. In*econcilably with 
this, Landor elsewhere dates the decadence of our language from a 
period prior even to the birth of Milton. " We ought never to 
have deviated from those who delivered to us our Litany, of which 
the purity is unapproachable, and the harmony complete. Our 
tongue has been drooping ever since." Woi'lts, Vol. 2, p. 100. 

Swift, casting his eyes across the Channel, found things there 
as deplorable as Landor found them at home. " The French [lan- 
guage], for these last fifty years, has been polishing as much as it 
will bear, and appears to be declining by the natural inconstancy 
of that people," &c. A Proposal, &c. 

Part of this was, probably, borrowed, by Swift, from his patron. 
Sir William Temple, who had written : ** The French wits have, 
for this last age, been, in a manner, wholly turned to the refine- 
ment of their language, and, indeed, with such success, that it can 
hardly be excelled, and runs equally through their verse and their 
prose." Miscellanea (ed. 169G), Part 2, p. 355. 

^ Walter Savage Landor, a Bwgraphy, Vol. 2, p. 543. What 
can Landor have known of Cowley and South ? 

Ben Joiison recognized the ne plus ultra of English in an author 
who has very little in common with the Church-service, Bacon, 
to-wit, of whom he says, that he '' hath filled up all numbers, and 


"Our language is bruised, as it were, and swollen by 
the Latin; but it is contaminated, enervated, and dis- 
torted by the French. If we are to borrow, let us borrow 
from the principal, and not from the underlings; but, 
with a little good managemeht, I think we are quite rich 
enough." ^ 

performed that, in our tongue, which may be compared or pre- 
ferred either to insolent Greece or haughty Rome. In short, 
■within his view, and about his times, were all the wits born, that 
could honour a language or help study. Now things daily fall, 
wits grow downward, and eloquence grows backward ; so that he 
may be named, and stand as, the mark and aKntj of our language." 
Timber, Scriptonim Cataloffiis. 

This heavy conservative, though despondent as to the future, 
differed from the ruck of his fellow-pessimists, in not throwing 
back the golden age into remote antiquity. He was even con- 
temporary with its latter days. That he resisted innovation was 
only doing after his kind. His judgment of Spenser, for instance, 
is, that he, '* in affecting the ancients, writ no language ; yet I would 
have him read for his matter, but as Virgil read Ennius." Ibid.j 
PrcBc'qnendl Modi. 

Having in reference the times which produced our Bible and 
Prayer- Book, Swift says ; " I doubt whether the alterations since 
introduced have added much to the beauty or strength of the 
English tongue, though they have taken off a great deal from that 
simplicity which is one of the greatest perfections of any lan- 
guage." Proposalj &c. 

1 Walter Savage Landor, a Biography y Vol. 1, p. 162. This 
passage is from a letter to Dr. Parr, in 1801. 

Surely, Dr. Johnson, as both his precepts and his practice bear 
witness, would never have said what is feigned for him in the 
subjoined extract. 

*^ Johnson. If we begin to reinstate old words, we shall finish 
by admitting new ones. 

" Toflhe. There would be the less danger of that, as there would 
be the less need. Yet even new words may be introduced with 
good effect, and, particularl)^ when the subject is ludicrous." 
Landor, Works, Vol. 1, p. 205. 

And would Johnson, or any other first-rate writer of his age, 
have put " finish by," for " end with " ? 

Henri Estienne actually held, regarding the function of new 
words, such views as we find imputed to Home Tooke. 

*' II est bien vray que j'ay moymesme use d'aucuns mots nou- 
veaux en ce livre ; mais 9'a este ou les viells defailloyent ; et puis 


" We are sapt by an influx of putridity." ^ 
"Our language is running downhill without a drag- 
chain." 2 

Our received translatioii of the Bible, to allege 
one more eulogy on it, is, in the words of Dr. New- 
man : 

" a work which, by the purity of its diction, and the 
strength and harmony of its style, has deservedly become 
the very model of good English, and the standard of the 
language to all future times." ^ 

There could be no better illustration than is af- 
forded by some of the extracts here given, of the 
despotic prejudices of association of ideas, and of the 
ease with which veneration for what is substantive 
comes to be extended to what is adjective. With 
respect to loyalty, if we may believe Mr. Thackeray,* 
the process is precisely the reverse ; reverence there 
having, to begin with, magnificent coats and gorgeous 
brej/eches for its object, and, in the end, the august 
person of Majesty. To Dr. Newman, and to the 
myriads who think as he does about our English 
Bible, one would be allowed to whisper, that the poor 

lis sont tels qu'on voit bien que je les ay forgez a plaisir, pour 
parler ridiculement des choses ridicules, qui neantmoins par les 
povres abusez sont estiraees fort serieuses." Apologie pour Hc- 
rodote, Vol. 1, pp. xxxix., xl. 

' T/ie La»t Fruit off an Old Tree, p. 97. 

* Walter Savage Landor^ a Bxograjpliy^ Vol. 2, p. 526. 

' Lectures on the Present Position of Catholl^is ifi England^ p. 
66. But it would be unjust to judge Dr. Newman by a single sally 
of irreflection. In a coming chapter, I shall quote something on 
the English language, from the pen of this most admirable 
writer, very much more rational than the passage transcribed 

* See his Paris Sketch-book, Meditations at Versailles, 


" Turks " of the Prayer-Book talk exactly in their 
own fashion, and for reasons strictly analogous to 
theirs, about the purity of diction, and what not, of 
" the Blessed Koran." The prevailing speech of any 
age is the speech called forth by, and best suited to, 
its peculiar requirements ;^ and, in especial, ever since 
the Reformation, the ruling language of English re- 
ligion has been, with rare exceptious, an afiair either 
of studied antiquarianism or of nauseous pedantry. 
Simplicity, and little more, was aimed at, originally ; 
and it sufficed for times of real earnestness. But 
the very quaintness of phrase which King James 
countersigned has attained to be canonized, till a 
hath^ or a thou, delivered with conventional unction, 
now well nigh inspires a sensation of solemnity in 
its hearer, and a persuasion of the sanctanimity of 
its utterer. To return to Landor, Lord Macaulay, 
and Dr. Newman, who can doubt that an Imaginary 
Conversation, moulded, as to its English, on the " per- 
fection " reached in the Church-service, would have 
exhibited its author crippled to something like the 
inefficiency of Sir Edward Creasy or Sir Arthur 
Helps; that an Essay for the Edinburgh Heview, 
in "the old unpolluted English language," would 
have been consigned, by the editor, to his balaam- 
basket; or that an Apologia, of such "purity of 

* " I believe that whoever knows the English tongue in its pre- 
sent extent will be able to express his thoughts without farther 
help from other nations." Johnson, The Ramhler, No. 208. 

To Johnson this was not a platitude. As he viewed things, 
mankind, besides being in a state of retrogression, had nothing 
more to learn, and was best employed, provided it had grace left for 
such employment, in going over the lessons of the pa&t. 



diction and strength of stylo " as wc see in our Bible, 
would remind us of Dean Milman in his Latin 
Chrhiianitij, and would not remind us of Cobbett ? 
Sense and logic, in the laudator t^mporis acti, are 
fatally liable to get charmed into dire confusion. 
However, till chronology gets equally confounded, 
and we take to writing for antiquity, we need not 
distress ourselves because of knowing more words 
and phrases than our excellent forefathers. 

" Primus sapientije gradus eat falsa inteUigere ; 
secundus, vera cognoscere," says Lactantius ; and 
the reader must have been fiufficiently stifled by the 
choke-damp of folly, to long for emergence into a 
more wholesome atmosphere. 

The phrase 'living language,' used with reference 
to facts, must import perpetual excretion and accre- 
tion of substance, involving or producing assimila- 
tion, development, and renewal. No nearer, in the 
■nineteenth century, is English to being a finality 
than it has been in any previous century ; and not 
even the complete isolation of all the English-speak- 
ing peoples, and that seconded by a rigour of despotism 
nndreumt of by very positivists, could avail to give it 
a definitive form. Countless influences have hitherto 
contributed to its alteration from age to age, and v 
always contribute to the same result. As little rea^ 
liavo we to conceit ourselves that our progeny i« 
satisfied with our English, as the subjects of tlie 
Heptarchy would have had for conceiting thoin- 
BolvoB that their Saxon would supply the necessities 
of us their descendants. The prejudices of ( 
puristB would have been just as defensible in ( 


former age as they are now ; and, if tliey had been 
operatively entertained early enough, and widely 
enough^ we should now be talking in monosyllables, 
and ekino^ out our scantiness of vocalism by nods, 
shrugs, winks, and other resources of pantomime. 
A painful compromise, truly, should we have had 
between the gold of silence and the silver of proper 
speech. The gold being relinquished for the use of 
the gods' an^ the commendation of Mr. Carlyle,^ we 
may be thankful that we are no worse off than as 
possessing the silver. It may be that what we have, 
in the way of mother-tongue, is rather a chaos ; but 
then it is a chaos which comprehends the germs of 
an approximate cosmos. Already we are much better 
off than we once were. In bygone days, there was 
too much of a style of writing which would not have 
been materially different, if Englishmen had been 
under oath to make, each independently, tlieir own 
English ; and this style is not yet extinct, though it 
is something that it now has but few admirers. 
Neotcrisms ^ we must have, however, to the end of 

* It is not easy for me to write, without a strong sense of loath- 
ing, the name of this acrid fantast, and idolizcr of brute force, — 
at best, a bad copy of all that is most objectionable in Hobbos. 
The word international, introduced by the immortal Bentham, 
and Mr. Carlyle's glgmaniti/, — to coin which, by the way, it was 
necessary to invent facts, — are significantly characteristic of the 
utilitarian philanthropist and of the futilitarian misanthropist, 

* Siste, lector ! — to imitate the invitation on old tomb-stones. 
And let no one be minded, on the score of my neoterism, to hore- 
ticate me, as threatening to abet some new-fangled form of religi- 
ous heterodoxy. Jupiter forbid that I should think of setting up as 
a theologue. It is just because I would not be confounded with 
the patrons of neologhvi or neology, that I prefer to use neoterism 
and it8 conjugates. If human affairs were ra\ed \)y i^xwiivixvvi^, >iJsi<^ 


tirae ; and — susih are human imitativeness and ignor- 
ance, — the bad are likely to be pati'onized, by tlie 
ihou gilt leas, at least for a season, quile us r<?udily as 
the good. Let it, therefore, be remembered, if one 
would innovate on our oi'dinary speech, that every 
man who blackens paper may help or may hinder its 
improvement. Aright or amiss, we cannot bat move 
" No author ", justly observes Southey, " ever 
shackled himself by more absurd restrictions, — not 
even the lipogrammatists, or those who built altars 

« would be strictly neiitrdl ; hut, in oommoH nsage, 

OS BeDtham juatly reniHrkB, thereby " expi'ession is given to the 

Bentimenl of disple^are." JVeoiei'Um, ns being n voonble stilt 

I nnfamiliiir, pMaeases the wlvaata«a of indifference, in not BU(jgest- 

I inji eitiier praiae or dispraiae. That it preventB tho distraotion of 

I mind, and provooation of prgudice, induced by nmlvgiiiiH or 

\ ntolaj!/. with its theological association!!, and those associations 

L prfigiiunt with popular repugnance, should, however, alone In 

[ enough to recommend It far adoption. And yet, even if It were to 

f win aeosptanoe for a while, it would bfl a marvel, if it ultimately 

CMuppd the fate of inaovatwn, and were not diigrnded go as to 

) be ainislerly siiggestive. lo order to allow the like of such good 

I fortune the world must first make moat remarkable progress in 

I the direction of energy and consequent unselflshneea. 

mforta and conreniencex we are prone to consider as in- 

I oorapntible with any ealabliahments but tho^e under the prevalence 

I of whioh wa eryoy them ; and. as wo an) not sure that change, 

I however it might benefit others, would benefit oursclvei, wp ton- 

} tend for the contionance of things as they are. In other wordx, 

innovation, even in idea, as not being demonstrably tor our own 

' " "_ 3 be rejected. I speak, here, for 

almost all thoiie, their minions and upholders included, who have, 

in past ages, regulated the thraldom of our speoles, and who still 

regulate it. The miaerubla thing called conservatism, for all it« 

hypocritical appeals to the wisdom of oar anceslois, and it» other 

l- chicaneries and anbturfuges, is thtis eviooed ia havu sordid nnd 

L I»iartleaa selSsbness, the foul oflepring of sloth, for it£ sole fouud- 

I otiou. As to language, a prepossession for that to which wa are 

[ accustomed, and which we have somehow coalrived to make 

f needs, groundwl on impatience of thinking, will 

b amply nccount for the aversioo fi'lt, liy the majority of men, to 

IS deviatiou from its stereotyped forms. 


and hatched eggs in verse, — ^than Mr. Fox, when he 
resolved to use no other words, in his History , than 
were to be found in Dryden.^ The vocabulary of a 
living language never can be limited. New words 
will frequently be set afloat ; ^ and, if they are struck 

1 Sir James Mackintosh, also, esteemed Dryden as " the highest 
authority, in a case of diction, of any single English writer." 
Miscellaneous WorJis (one- vol. ed., 1851), p. 508, foot-note. 

' Southey, from the very first, was a prolific word-coiner ; and 
many of his coinages are most felicitous, notwithstanding Cole- 
ridge's savage equation : " Southey 's English, i. e., no English at 
all." Odds and Ends, No. 19, p. 16. 

Sir Walter Scott, in his critique on Southey's Chronicle of the 
Cid, thus touches, and not very wisely, on the translator's alleged 
passion for odd expressions : " We dare not proceed too far in 
these censures, because Mr. Southey has informed us, that review- 
ers, in censuring his introduction of new words, have only shown 
their own ignorance of the English language. Despite of this ' re- 
tort churlish ', however, we must say, that, if a word be so old that 
it has become new again, it is unfit, at least generally speaking, for 
modern use. We have a title to expect payment in the current 
coin of the day, and may except against that which bears the 
effigies *of King Cnut, as justly as if it had been struck by Mr. 
Southey himself." The Quarterly lieview, Vol. 1 (1809), p. 153. 

In TJte Doctor, Southey gives himself free scope, as a verbarian, 
much after the way of Rabelais, Thomas Nash, Taylor the Water- 
l)oet, or Feltham. These are a few of his ventures there : agatho- 
ItakoUtgical, alamodality^ aJiywhereness, hihllogony, cacodemonize, 
calvinisticate^ circujnamhagiovs, rormjication, crab-grade, v. n., 
crazyologlst, criticMn, detidr anthropology, disrecommendation, 
domestlcize, errabimd, etcceterarist, everywhereness, facsimileshlpy 
felisophy, ferricorons, gelastics, gignitioe, hearthstead, herbarlsm, 
hippogony, hoplarchy, humorology, iatrarchy, idolify, insomno' 
lence, kittenshlp, magnisonant, minify, rtwttocrat, nepotiotis, obit- 
uarist, omni-ertidite, omnisignlficance, oxnianship, parenthesize, 
pdulopostfuturatively, pentametrize, personijicator, philofelist, 
philotheist, qnasically, quinteUment, quizzify, quotatiompotent, 
resemblant, semiramize, shai'ee, shillisluillier, stelliscript, stock- 
inger, tlieologo -jurist, threnodial, tnmestral, typarchlcal, vgly* 
ographize, unegofy, unipsefy, uuparallelable, unprosperity, vto- 
pianizer, whiskerandoed, zoophilist. 

But, even in the pages of the Quarterly Review, he allowed 
himself in such terms, some of them very good ones, as abolish- 
ment, admonishment, anapaganize, anthro/wpJiagistic^ anticipants 

22 CHAPTER 1. 

in the mint of analogy, if the standard be lawful, 
and the die be good, they must become current coin." ^ 
Established usage in language is, then, a thing 
for which philosophy feels no very awful rever- 
ence. Far indeed is it from invariably repre- 
senting the fruit of investigation and reflection. 
Fashioned by their direction, it would be organic and 
symmetrical; whereas we see it to be, not unfre- 
quently, reckless and defiant, in fickle alternation, 
even of everything like method or analogy. Discord- 
ant and independent causes, inharmonious forces, act- 
ing simultaneously, and usually in competition, must 
needs have incongruities and compromises as their 

hatracophagouR^ hastillionj iattology, hrutallsm., carnificatUm, 
celestiallze^ comicocratic, conflagratory^ coamocratie, cosmograph- 
ist, criticaster, deharliation^ delegation, denndevient, destperating, 
dcvilet, devotement, diaholocracy, disaccomvwdate, doiiivorovSy 
eqvalitarian, evangel Izationer, exercitation, exvte^fizzgig, focci- 
naucipilification, jloccinavcity, fr actionize, grandiloqvovs, great- 
ening, hvmgig, ilUteratnre, incarnadine, inconimiscihle, insltiti- 
ous, mac radicalized, malignified, metapoUtician, meta politics^ mil- 
lianist^ novitial, orate, perfectionate^ perfectionment, possihilltate, 
proposant^ pnlpiteer, religioner, resolutUmer, saccage, seditio?iist^ 
sinistrons, apingfership, »uhalternity^ supersaturate, tarriance^ 
taverner, tJieomisanthropist, unexaggerahle, 'uniting, vnsn'eet, 

Southey, in his Colloquies, the best-written and the silliest of all 
his prose- works, has antometry, hahhlatlve, dispatliy,foliophagouSy 
hagi-heroical, intellectuallze, mismeter, nugacious, olfactor, pro- 
ditoriovs^ scrihhlative, speecliification, torpify. His letters con- 
tain oddities of expression to the amount of several hundred. 

Many of his strange wonls, however, are old. 

^ Essays, Moral and Political, Vol. 1, p. 296. The passage which 
I cite had previously appeared in the Quarterly Review, Vol. 15 
(1816), p. 561. 

Dr. Johnson is reported to have said : " New words are well- 
earned riches. When a nation enlarges its stock of knowledge, 
and acquires new ideas, it mnst necessarily have a suitable vesture 
for them." Tlie Manthly Magazine, Vol.' 9 (1800), p. 150. 


resultants ; and of such is language constituted. To 
take English, there was, first, a prolonged rivalry 
between its Latin and Anglo-Saxon elements, issuing 
in a temper between the two. The scholastic pre- 
dilections of the literate were mitigated by the per- 
sistent conservatism of the populace, who, in turn, 
became measurably habituated, by slow degrees, to 
the clerkly phraseology of their superiors. And then 
there were the influences of commerce, of travel, of 
fashion, and of euphuism, each of which has left its 
contingent of indelible foot-prints on our speech. 
Again, and more especially, dating its beginnings 
about a hundred years back, a consciousness of pos- 
sessing human rights has gradually come, under 
philanthropic inspiration, to be a fixed conviction 
of the commonalty, till then treated as slaves and 
helots, and taught and believing that they lived only 
to obey. From this consciousness there has grown, 
in them, an ever-increasing dissatisfaction with ignor- 
ance ; many of them have been schooled to think, 
and to express their thoughts ; and a language ex- 
pands in proportion to the number of those who use 
it like thoroughly rational beings. With the difi'u- 
sion of education, solid and superficial, the practice 
of composition has, of late, increased to limits unpre- 
cedented in the world^s history. By inevitable con- 
sequence, too many, by far, who are but barely 
qualified to read books to any genuine profit, mis- 
taking their vocation, undertake to write them. Yet 
the result, though repulsive enough, is not in the 
least serious. Penny-a-liners and suchlike parcel- 
learned adventurers have had their fellows in every 


age ; but no known language has ever suffered from 
their escapades perceptibly, Shakespeare alone has 
immortalized ten times more solecisms, — and yet 
without inducing imitation, to the harm of English, 
— ^than all the sciolists of the nineteenth century will 
contrive to bequeath to posterity. 



Tb KaXoJQ Ixov rrov KptXrrov itm Kal vofiov. 


In nothing are most people at once more heedless 
and more peremptory than in their, decisions as to 
what is English, or good English, and what is not.^ 

* A few illustrations, before I go further, may not be amiss. 
And they shall be taken from Mr. Charles Reade, whose satisfac- 
tion with his own English Is so well known to all his readers. 

" He don't hinder you to sell yours. Why hinder the poor man 
to sell his? " The Eighth Commandment^ p. 115. 

"One fine afternoon, everybody was on deck, amusing theni^ 
selves as tliey could." Hard Cash (ed. 1863), Vol. 1, p. 308. 

" To while away the time, he got his file of the Times, and 
amused himself noting down the fluctuations of Peruvian bonds." 
IHd., Vol. 2, p. 265. 

"That is no excuse for him beating you." IMd., Vol. 2, 
p. 332. 

"The writers aforesaid suppress small intermediate matters 
which, in real life, come, by the score, between each brilliant 
event, &c." Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 224. 

« Ah, it is her you love." Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 227. 

" Not hut what employment was often bobbed before his eyes ; 
but there was no grasping it." Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 22. 

"Who but lie , , , admired Aileen Aroon?" Ibid., Vol. 3, 
p. 112. 

And who will be so bold as to admit such a collocation as 
" with him giving ", for * since he gave ', to be vernacular ? 

" With him giving her his hand almost at the same moment, 
she pressed it," &c. Griffith Gaimt (ed. 1866), Vol. 1, p. 207. 

"I*d have slept, too, if I could ; but, with me going to chapel, 
I 'm not used to sleep at that time o' day." Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 56. 

" So, with me hearing * Mercy, Mercy,' called out after me so 
many years, I do think the quality hath somehow got under my 
Bkin." Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 254. 


The accepted criterion of the allowableness of an ex- 
pression is its currency in good usage ; and a man 
who thinks himself educated is seldom willing to 
admit that he has not read enough, and that with 
care and retention enough, to authorize his adjudi- 
cating on so very simple a question of fact, whenever 
it arises. Touching such a matter, not unlike Vol- 
taire's Grand Lama, " il a une plaisante manie ; il se 
croit toujours avoir raison.'' But, after all, omni- 
science is not a common endowment ; intuition is not 
always demonstration ; memory is a treacherous sup- 
port; and individual taste is sometimes mistaken, 
or substituted, for cultured consensus. I well know 
that the infallibilists, a very numerous body, prac- 
tically deem quite otherwise, each for himself; and 

Nor can one admire expressions like commotisenseadox, dis- 
clamatory ^ facticide, f unity , peachify^ picniciany "instead of he''\ 
to " lay in wait '*, " mutual friend ", " polished to the nine ", 
" somehow or another ", " this two years ". 

As being a mongrel, maniformy for ' multiform,' has no support 
in manifold; melancholiac is not justified by maniac; and 
senectvde equally does violence to all analog}\ 

Of one of his mintages Mr. Reade is, apparently, not a little 

"The ceplialomant is he who opposes a priori reasoning, or 
mere assumption, to direct evidence, present or accessible. 

"I coin the word, not out of pedantry, but with a respectable 
motive." TJie Eiyhth Commandment, p. 202. 

The Greeks might have made rf^aXo/jorvnc. if they had needed 
it. But -fiavTig becomes, regularly, in English, -mancer, and, in 
French, -mancien. As the substantives chiromantist and psevdo- 
mantisty used by the Rev. John Gaule, are abnormal, so is the 
French nicromant ; and yet it must be this word that suggested to 
Mr. Reade the utterly unanalogical cephalomant. 

And what is the only possible meaning that, according to rule, 
the word can bear? Why, not * intuitionalist,' but 'one who 
divines from inspection of the head ; ' and such, in one sense, a 
phrenologist is, at least in claim. Mr. Reade may prudently be 
counselled to leave the extending of our vocabulary to others. 


it is, therefore, only a lowlier class of mortals that I 
can count on as finding my views acceptable. 

In literature, to which even the least skilful of 
stylists and verbalists have usefully contributed, we 
meet with books of every degree of artistic merit. 
But the ill-written greatly exceed, in mass, the well- 
written ; and, again, some writers are, as to manner 
and diction, conservative, while others are inno- 
vative. Moreover, towards settling how we our- 
selves are to write, the aid is verv little that can be 
derived from such dictionaries as we have at present, 
and from treatises on grammar and rhetoric. How- 
ever, unless we choose to stand still, while the rest 
of the world moves onward, implicit imitation of old 
models, and conformity to precedents established 
under conditions no longer subsisting, are not to be 
universally recommended. What, then, is to be done ? 

The question, considered comprehensively, of what 
is proper in language, is not, thus, altogether so 
simple of decision as, at first sight, it may look. 
Therein, to take a large view of the subject, we have 
to deal with a problem the right solution of which 
depends on the solutions of one or two antecedent 

First of all, does man exist for language ? The 
purists constructively imply that he does, at least in 
their own time. , To them, the golden age is past ; 
the efibrts of human ingenuity, to any good purpose, 
are exhausted ; and we have nothing to do but walk 
in the footsteps of those who went before us.^ It is, 

' A typical conservative of our day distinctly discourages, by 

I liowever, the teaching of common-senae, tliat lan- 
I guage, which man createsj destroys, and renews, 

1 implication, an not promising anj' useful reBult, all further at- 
' tampta Iflwariia the inoreBse of human knowledge. 

" In iBtronomy, thii tields of tlie aky have not yet, indeed, been 

ransacked by the moat ooally inBtrumenta ; and it may be in bIotb 

for some of you to announce the existence, or even to aualysu the 

materials, of some luniiiiouB point which may be seen two or three 

times in the course of a century, by any one who will journey to 

. India for the purpose, and, when there, is favoured by the weather. 

I But, for all praetloal purposes, the stars already named and sum- 

I bered Bceaamany aswerequire to hearof : and, it yon thoroughly 

I know the visible moUons, and clearly onnoeive the known re- 

tlatiODS, even of those wbieh can lie seen by the naked eye, you 

I Vf'm have as much astronomy as is neoesaary eithBt for the oocu- 

I pntion of thought or tlw direction of navigaUptf^ Mr, John Kim- 

[ Idn, T/te Eagle't Neit (1872), p. flB, y^ 

The enrna writer is "certain, that, atthia orisis of our national 
Biiateuoo, the fixing the minds of youiig and old upon the custoraa 
Land couoeption of chivalry is th^'best of all moral education." 
I Ibid., p. '2'i\. Things must have come to a pretty pass with the 
I Bnglish people, if there be nothing better for them than poetio 
I floCiona, ohieSy from the work-shop of Sir Walter Scott. 

"K you were to aak ma who, of all powerful and popular 

■iters in the cause of error, had wrought most harm to their 

oe, I should hesitate, in reply, whether to name Voltaire, or 

I Byron, or the last most ingenious and moat venomous of the 

f degraded philosophers of Germany, or, rather, Oervantes." . ■ ■ 

I Cervantes "cast scorn upon the holiest principles of humanity." 

I .... " Since his time, the purest impulses and the noblest pur- 

I poses have, perhaps, been oftener stayed by the Devil, under the 

1 name of Quixotism, than under any other base name or false 

tullegalion." Leeturet en Architecture and Pwintiag, pp. 06, 67. 

And what, according to Mr. Ruskin, have we Americans reached I 

" Lust of wealtli, and trust in it; vulgar faith in magnitude and 

multitude, instead of nobleness; besides that faith natural to 

hHCkwoodsmen, hiram I'lgna, perpetual sulf-con temptation, issuing 

in passionate vanity ; total ignorance of the tinet and higher arts, 

and of all that they teach and bestow ; and the discontent of 

enei^etio minds unoccupied, frantic with hopo of uncomprehended 

change, and progress they know not whilher." Muatrii Piilverii 

(ad. 1872), pp. 130, 131. ' 

Of these despised creatures we are also there told : " They sent 

111 their best and honesteatyoutha. Harvard University men and the 

I like, to that accursed war ; got them nearly all shot ; wrote pretty 


exists for man. A never-ceasing flux is the very- 
law of its existence. Day by day it loses something ; 

biographies (to the ages of 17, 18, 19) and epithets for them, and 
so, having washed all the salt out of the nation in blood, left 
themselves to putrefaction, and the morality of New York." 

That, between his spleen and his somnambulism, the elegant 
Pharisee who can say this is not altogether as other men are, " ex- 
tortioners," and the like, "or even as this publican," namely, his 
ideal American, one is prepared to be told. But one is unexpect- 
edly gratified at being assured, as we are assured by no less an 
authority than himself, that he is " not an unjust person ; not an 
unkind one ; not a false one ; a lover of order, labour, and peace." 
Sesanie and Lilies (ed. 1871), Preface, p. xxvii. 

Another conservative, Southey, writes thus of political econom- 
ists: "What is rent? What is value? Upon these questions, 
and such as these, which no man of sincere understanding ever 
proposed to himself or others, they discuss and dilate," &c. The 
Quarterly Review, Vol. 44 (1831), p. 277. 

Still another, Wordsworth, once sang, and — see Landor's WorkSf 
Vol. 1, p. 75 — has been justly reproved for singing : 

" The mighty moon ! 
This way she looks, as if at them, 
And they regard her not I 
O I better wrong and strife ; 
Bather vain deeds or evil than such life 1 " 

A not dissimilar Wordsworthian utterance, also now altered, 
is this : 

— " God's most dreaded instrument. 
In working out a pure intent. 
Is man — arrayed for mutual slaughter : 
Yea, Carnage is His daughter." 

Mr. De Quincey's comment on^this is significant. " Most heartily, 
and with my profoundest sympathy, do I go along with Words- 
worth in his grand lyrical proclamation of a truth not less divine 
than it is mysterious, not less triumphant than it is sorrowful, 
viz., that, amongst God's holiest instruments for the elevation of 
human nature, is ' mutual slaughter ' amongst men, — yes, that 
'Carnage is God's daughter.'" WorU (ed. 1862), Vol. 4, Ex- 
planatory Notices, p. viii. 

It seems strange that those who entertain such views should 
not reflect how they, or how those whose conclusions they accept 
ready-made, come by their notion of God. In an oestrum of vin- 
dictive passion, which they regard as a sort ol cde%U^\v(i%v^x^\iv^\i^ 


day by day it gains something. To restrain its 
losses, or to discount its gains, is impossible. In- 
capable of fixity, if not progressive, it must, of 
necessity, retrograde and dwindle ; and, provided 
they had their will, those who absolutely resist the 
introduction of new words would reduce us, sooner 
or later, to sheer inarticulateness. A return to the 
condition of Lord Monboddo's protoplastic baboon 
even the Carly lists, with their theoretic admiration 
of silence, — and practical incontinence of chatter, — 
might find it irksome to realize with equanimity. 

It is, in a most preponderant proportion, the 
language we have inherited that we ourselves use, 
and that we shall transmit to our successors. At 
our hands it will undergo defalcations ; but it will 
also take on accessions at our hands. As new-born 
words are constantly offering themselves for recogni- 
tion, so not onlv are scattered obsolete words await- 
ing resurrection, but words the most current are 
every day on their trial ; and, to discover the grounds 

they simply project themselves, magnified into non-natural dimen- 
sions ; tlie ideal monster they, of course, find to be very good ; 
and thenceforward they do worship to it as the adorable Supreme. 
But they have lordly prelates and suchlike on their side ; and so 
all must be right. " Oh how acceptable a sacrifice to God, above 
the bloud of bulls and of goates, is the death of a malefactor 
slaughtered by the hand of justice 1 " Thus Bishop Sanderson. 
Tfvdre Sermons, &c. (1637), p. 229. 

Fortunately for humanity, no people is half so bad as its 
theistic idea. 

And what is the inference from all this ? It is, that there is no 
conceivable absurdity, frivolity, or cruelty which should surprise 
us in the thorough-paced conservative, or one who takes his stand 
on tradition or imitation, as against reason. If the fires of 
Smithfield were to be rekindled to-morrow by legally constituted 
authoVity, there is not, I suppose, one English conservative in a 
hundred that would raise a dissenting voice. 


on which, in extending favour to the first, in re- 
newing it on behalf of the second, and, especially, in 
withdrawing it from the third, usage bases its arbi- 
traments, baffles, not seldom, our utmost ingenuity of 
speculation. A little reflection on these facts should 
suffice to evince the egregious folly of purism, the 
term by which extreme lingual conservatism is usu- 
ally, and much too complimentarily, denominated. 
A modern in toga and sandals would be absurd 
enough; but a rigid purist is incomparably more 
absurd. The former would, at the worst, trespass 
against convenience and conventionality only ; but 
the other, while so trespassing, also consciously puts 
himself out of fully intelligent relations to those 
about him, to say nothing of his repellant conceit of 

Purism, I repeat, is a phasis of the principle which 
assumes that the wisdom of man has spent itself, and 
which seems to maintain that the world, now in its 
second childhood, will best employ its senility in 
sitting with folded hands, and magnifying the 
sagacity of its vigorous but irrevocable prime. Yet, 
as we all know, it is we ourselves, not our predeces- 
sors, that are really ancient ; ^ and the conservative 
himself seems to acknowledge that we are so ; only 
he allows to us no attribute of old age but its infirm- 
ity. Rather, on his theory, until lately, things in 
general were controlled by a theocracy, — and that 
not a government by law, but by Almighty Caprice, 
— now withdrawn ; and the living, just so far as they 

* This truism has, again and again, been pointedly expressed 
and dilated on, as by Hobbes,- Glanvill, Bentham, &o. &c. 


signify any proneness to tliink or to act oiherwiae 
lliiin in train, give eridence of their being given 
over, by tho divino diMplcoBure, to themselves, which 
raeaiia, to Satan. As the yiast was inspired by 
Heaven, so the present ia inspired by the Pit. To 
the consorvativG, error, for its very hoariness, is 
better than truth disfigured by the impress of novelty. 
"Why, then, think of altering our translation of the 
Bible P Or why revise the Thirty-nine Articles? 
Tho bare thought of ovorbauling the Canon of Scrip- 
ture is, to the true conservative, heresy, sacrilege, blas- 
phemy, or the sin thut shall not he forgiven. Science, 
except in the shape of pure mathematics, is, in hia 
belief, a subterfuge for escaping from Greek and 
Latin ; and then it makes one un com for fable about 
the credit of Adam, and tlic Old Serpent, and Moses, 
and Bahel, and all that. The rights of man he has 
gradually grown used, after long years of disquietude, 
to hear talked of, without apprehension of catalepsy; 
but you must wait for bis son, or for his son's son; if 
you would get a candid hearing for the rights of 
woman. New words, too, as thoy seem to confirm liia 
conviction of our decayed and decaying condition, 
he frowns at askance, and leaves to the radicals. 
His port is not presentable, unless bees'-winged ; the 
chief value of his medals lies in their patina ; and 
words, as be juilges of them, 

" Like statues, wouldar into worth." ' 

' Qui Id or a piece witli the silliness of ultrai-pumU is that petti- 
nOB or inind which seon legitimate ground for personal disparoge- 
nii'nt in (he ventiarcs of foreigners to write our Inngunge. 

" Ilfiw many hours of hard lulmur, during how many jears' ra- 
■■, tlilg coantrj, did H oot cost tho lenmcd Westphalian, 


Primarily, provided they are recommended by age, 
all is well and good ; but, failing this recommenda- 

Ludolph Kuster, a person of great intellectual abilitj'', to acquire 
the knowledge which he possessed of the English tongue ? Yet no 
one can pass from his Latin letter, in p. 238, to its English post- 
script, in p. 239, without feeling that the writer has suddenly sunk 
greatly in his estimation." Bishop Christopher Wordsworth, 
The Correspondence of Richard Bentley, D.D.^ Preface, p. 14. 

Under favour, I trust that very few persons indeed, not of the 
class of hopeless parvanimities of the true insular stamp, would be 
otherwise than heartily ashamed of so feeling. Conceding that 
Kuster*8 Latinity is of the purest, let us look at the specimen of 
bis English above referred to. 

" P.S. I shal gow, within few days, to Amsterdam, where I 
shall stay for the other gentlemen deputies from your University 
for the Francfort jubilee. We went together from Berlin to 
Hannover ; but from thence they went to Hamburg, Bremen, 
Groningen, etc., for to go Holland, which places I having seen 
before, I went directly to Holland. Mr. Crownlield shal tel you 
more by mouth of that which hath passed at Berlin? What glori- 
ous newes have we had lately 1 To-day we hear here that Ostend 
hath submitted to King Charles ; and, two days ago, there came 
an express to the Hage, to the Emperor's envoye, who brougth a 
particular relation of the relief of Barcelona ; that the siege was 
raised the same day when the son was eclipsed ; that the french 
armee was totaly routed, with the loss of 8000 man, which died at 
the spot ; that they left behind tham al their cannons, mortars, 
bagage, etc. ; and that King Philippus escaped narrowly ; who, 
as I hear to-day, is alreadi passed through Montpelier. But of 
this you must have the news in a short time in Engeiand. If you 
please to answer me, you may direct the letter to Amsterdam, and 
recommend it to Mr. Halma, who will take care that I may re- 
ceive it. Vale iterum." 

It should be remembered that Kuster was writing to a friend, 
perhaps in great haste, and, most probably, with no forecast that 
bis English,. any more than his Latin, was ever to be printed. 
Further, at the time when he wrote, little heed was paid, by Eng- 
lishmen, to the matter of English orthography. His mistakes are, 
then, not a whit worse than analogous ones would be, if committed 
in conversation. All things considered, the English of Bentley, 
everywhere but in his formal compositions, is incomparably more 
censurable than that of his Prussian correspondent. 

Englishmen who professedly and passionately despise their 
fellow-creatures for the slightest sin against what they themselves 
esteem to be good usage, or for not having bo iiQ,^\i ^ T£i!^\si!c>T^ ^^ 



tion, they will, still, be sterling to Iiim, if originated 
or authenticated by some leader in fashion, politics, 
or letters. To hira, however, all other bases of justi- 
fication, as regards language, are revolutionary. If 
you urge, either here or anywhere else, expedience, 
the motive of reason, he calls you a utiKtarian. 
The greater excommunication being thua denounced 
against you, there ia, of course, an end. 

Again, since we cannot choose but have new words, 
the argument of authority is to be considered. " Tan- 
quam scopulum sic fugias inauditum atque insolens 
verbura ", was the admonition of Julius CRisar to the 
orator ; ' and one might suppose, from the precepts 
and the practice of many of our would-be literary 
legislators, that the advice applied indifferently to all 
mankind, and could admit of no abatement or quali- 
fication from time or circumstances. Occasions are, 
assuredly, easily conceivable, to which this advice 
would be pertinent, and on which it would be whole- 
some. At the Bume time, if takeiL abstractedly, and 
for universal application, nothing could be more un- 

miautics as (liemsclvea, ctobb one's pftth constantly ; and It is this 
tbeir peculiarity of tbinlciiig and expressing foul suorn of hII but 
their own apes, wliich so oRen makea Ihelr sootety unwelcome to a 
foreignef, Mr. RuBkin tells us that " a f«isu acuent, or n mistaken 
syllable, ia enough, in the pnrtiatiient of uny civilized natioa. to 
uaign to a man a certain def^e of inferior standing Cor ever." 
Seiiime and Lilie) (ed. 1871), pp. 18, 19. 

No locus penitenCiffi, be it obaerved, is provided for the unfortun- 
ate barbarian who, perhaps from having been long exuluslvety 
absorbed in the wisest thoughts of the wisest men, or from haring 
b«en etigaiced, as a traveller, in studying distant nations, happens 
to lie unacquainted with the fashion of the hour in, fur instance, 
laying the Blreaa on the antepenult of ft word, and not on it! penult. 

' See Aulus Qelliu^ Book 1, Ch. 10 ; and compare Mucroblus, 
Salum., Book 1, Ch. G. 


wise, not to say futile. The simple reasons are, that 
no expression was ever yet used which some one had 
not to handsel, and that we not only may, but 
must, continue to do what the world has always been 
doing. Does, then, the warrant of a single person 
validate a neoterism,' or, what is scarcely distinguish- 
able therefrom, a resuscitated obsoletism ? In reply, 
it may be asked. How can we ever know that, before 
any given new expression meets our own eyes, it may 
not already have been accepted by hundreds who 
know how to discriminate what is acceptable ? Fur- 
thermore, though not yet so accepted, why may there 
not be a something about it which will secure its 
eventual acceptance ? Justly viewed, and by those 
that can discern, the first of these questions is of very 
little importance. Everything now established was 
once unestablished, and the very latest of novelties. 
It is not the ponderation of personal evidence for or 

* Dr. Parr, having, in 1789, written remarker^ subjoins this note 
on it : "I am not quite satisfied with this word, though Johnson, 
in his Dictionary, afl&xes to it the authority of Watts. I use it 
from necessity, or, at least for the sake of avoiding the tiresome 
periphrasis of saying * the writer of the remarks.' " Works, Vol. 
3, p. 377. Colman had used the word in 1765. See Prose on 
Several Occasions, Vol. 2, p. 69. 

A little before, at p. 361, Dr. Parr thus annotates his own in- 
veterate : ** The authorities of Fletcher and Bacon protect the word 
inveterate from the charge of Latinism." 

It appears, accordingly, that, in Dr. Parr's opinion, a single 
known authority for a word leaves its propriety doubtful, but that 
two known authorities for a word attest it competently. This is a 
fair specimen of the imbecile ratiocination of purists. 

As to inveterate, besides having long been, when Parr hesitated 
at it, most familiar in its classical sense, it had already come to 
signify, in popular speech, as it still signifies, * virulent.' Henry 
Brooke wrote, in 1760 : " He was informed, in terms the most 
fMfgravating and inveterate, of the whole course and history of 
Ked'g misbehaviour." The Fool of Quality (ed. n\J*2^,No\. 1, \). ^V 



against a word that should accredit or discredit it. 
If it stands firmly on its own hasis, it is vouched for, 
as eligible, in its own right. Let it, however, be 
examined with all rigour, before being favourably 
pronounced upon and patronized. And let its ex- 
aminer first examine himself as to bis quahfications 
for sitting in judgment on it. Quite possibly, it la 
much the safcat plan for him to do his thinking, on 
such u matter, as on most others, by prosj'. Nay, it 
may even be, that, while he plumes himself on his 
philology, he is no better than a duplicate of Mr. 
Ri(-hard Grant AVhite. 

To enumerate and criticize all the verbal and ex- 
pressional solecieras which disfigure our literature 
would be an undertaking of enormous labour, and 
yet of only verj' partial utility. Even suppose that 
these solecisms were collected, and were character- 
ized, one after another, as militating against analogj',' 
or as superfluous, ambiguous, vulgar, affected, and so 
on, and the reasons given for thus characterizing 
them ; still, a lai^e majority of speakers and writers, 
from defect of memory, from insufficient learning, or 
from incapacity to grasp and to apply principles, 
would, either of their own motion, or in imitation of 
others, go on solecizing pretty much as before. A 
diligent and scrupulous adherence to approved models 
is, therefore, for most persons, not only the best 
lesson to learn, but the only lesson they are able to 
learn ; and, after all, it will be prudent, in them, not 

' Aoa]ogy. tnhen iu Ita greatest latitude, ii a term which, iia 
^plied to languBgB, Bmbroeea, willi oilier tiling eiijihony ; iiriil 
our notions of Eni^tinh euphony largely preclude not oiilj' long 
•rart/g liaC barah ones. 


to think they have learnt it otherwise than yery im- 
perfectly, until they shall have taken counsel with 
their better-informed associates. As they would 
avoid sailing the good ship Language without rudder 
or compass, they would do well to forswear every- 
thing like independence altogether. Humility and 
self-distrust, though often hypocritically overdone, 
embrace, for most people, the germs of virtue. Be- 
sides, how bountifully have Providence and the 
wisdom of our ancestors^ provided us with popes, 

' The sapience of our forefathers and the defectiveness of our 
dictionaries are simultaneously illustrated by the bead-roll of 
mataeology embodied in the extract here following. 

" What difference betwixt astrornancy, magoniancy^ or m^xgaS' 
tromancy, — as touching a sorcerous both superstition and opera- 
tion, — and all these after-named? viz., stareomancy [read stoe- 
cheioniancy'\y or divining by the elements ; aeromancy, or divin- 
ing by the ayr ; pyromancy , by fire ; hydromancy, by water ; 
geamancy, by earth ; theomancy, pretending to divine by the reve- 
lation of the Spirit, and by the Scriptures or Word of God ; de- 
monomancyj by the suggestions of evill demons or devills ; idolo- 
fimruyyy by idoUs, images, figures ; psyclwrnancy, by men's souls, 
afifections, wills, religious or morall dispositions ; antinopomancy 
[read enteropomancy~\^ by the entrails of men, women, and child- 
ren ; theriomancy, by beasts ; omithomaney, by birds ; iehthyO' 
mancy, by fishes ; hotanomancy, by herbs : litJiomancy, by stones : 
cleromancy, by lotts ; oneiromancy, by dreams ; onomatomancy^ 
by names ; arithmancy, by numbers ; logarithmancy^ by logar- 
itiimes ; sternomancy, from the breast to tbe belly ; gastrortiancy, 
by the sound of, or signes upon, the belly ; omphalomancyj by the 
navell ; cheiromancy^ by the hands ; podomancy, by the feet ; 
onychomancyy by the nayles ; cephalonomancyy by brayling of an 
asse's head ; tephram>ancy, by ashes ; capnomancy, by smoak ; 
Ubanomancy, by burning of frankincence ; ceromancy, by melting 
of wax ; lecanomancy, by a basin of water ; catoptromancy ^ by 
looking-glasses ; clutrtomancy, by writing in papers ; machero- 
maney, by knives or swords ; crystallomancy, by glasses ; dacty- 
lioTnancy, by rings ; coscinomancy, by selves ; axinom^ncy, by 
sawes [axes] ; cottabomancyf by vessells of brasse or other metall ; 
roadomancy [read rliabdom^noy'], by starres [staves] ; ftpatih- 
mancy, by skins^ bones, excrements ; sciomancy^ b^ %\i<ajiv^^^<& *^ 

priests, philologists, and other 'procurators, special- 
ists, and experts ! And how melancholy would be 
their outlook, if, as a rule, we preferred Ihe flicker- 
ing glimmer of our own profane rusUigLta to the 
noonday effulgence of their consecrated illumination ! 
To whatever is most current in language, to phrase- 
ology as yet purely tentative, and to all that inter- 
venes between the two, the argument of these tritest 
of reflections applies with equal cogency. 

If the doctor ia to be believed, my neighbour is 
aufiering from idiopathic bajmatemesis ; a callow 
student of theology confesses that he is fairly gravel- 
led by the hypostatic circumincession ; and a mathe- 
matician, with Lis emotions under imperfect control, 
risea into raptures about the properties of equian- 

eitmstilonianpy, by dine; teaitmaney, by wine; tyeontanoy, by 
figga i tyromaacy, by the ooRKuIation of oheeae ; alphltomaneg, 
by ineitl, flower, or bmnne : erithopiancy. by grain or corn ; alct- 
teramanc;/, by oocka or pnllen ; gyromancy, by rounda or oircluB ; 
lampainmaney, by candlea and tanips ; and, in one word for all, 
nagtimaaey [resd nRi'yinnanry] or necTDmanci/, by inspectiDg-, con- 
Bulling, and divining by, wlCb, or from, tha dead." Jobn Gaule, 
nSc-fiavria, Tkf Mayaitrinnanoer, or the Magieall-aitmlegleall 
Divjmr, Pated atid Pnixled (1659), pp. 165, 16S. 

Gaule, whose curious and amusini; liook. appan!ntly dashed off 
in wbite-hot rage, lias aa table of errata, perhaps wrote an indistinct 
Land, and certainly did not read bis prooE-sheels. SJeveral minor 
misprints in the preceding extract I bave corrected silently ; as, 
fbr instance, typojna.iU'y, for tymmaney. Considered philologiooily, 
arithmimpy and loyaritkmimity are as lawless as the pntatlces 
which the words denote ore fatuous. 

Dr. Roget, in his Tli^mtiriu, givea, under ju^io/al itttrelogy, tha 
names of numerous false sciences. His list, t1iouj-h not so full as 
Gaule'fl, BupplemenlB it by niileen abwirditiea, among whioh are 
chaniiuinry, halaiuanry, and ptephmaanBy. From other sources I 
have gleaned antkropoaumcy, euboniaHcy, pahniaitoy, and rliap«i- 

Of tliB terms here specified, no fewprthaii have eacapoj 
Dr. Webster's editors. 

i 11^' 


harmonic liexasti&:mata. Are not these masters of 
hyperpolysyllabic sesquipedalianism using proper 
language? Heaven forfend that any one should 
suppose they were not, or that they should be de- 
prived of so much as a single short vowel. To 
Roger Stubbs they will be as unintelligible as O'Con- 
nell, with his rectangular parallelopipedon, was to 
the fishwife. If they use such language, they might 
as well address Roger in Hottentotese or Kamscha- 
dalian. Yet they are in the right, for all that. 
Whether this way of delivering their meaning would 
be everywhere and always appropriate is quite an- 
other thing. But, fortunately, there are occasions 
and occasions ; and it would bring us to a beggarly 
sort of talk indeed, if we had always to conform our 
expressions to a canon imitated, even in its ** ubique " 
and "ab omnibus", from that of St. Vincent of 
Lerins. Language may be at once perfectly correct 
and ludicrously inappropriate. Experience and tact 
instruct us when it is appropriate ; but scholarship 
alone can enable us to estimate its correctness. On 
the one hand, we study nothing beyond adapting 
ourselves to circumstances ; on the other hand, 
whenever we deviate — though we should never deviate 
save expedientially — from accepted usage, a strict 
observance of analogy, and of analogy taken in its 
most comprehensive acceptation,^ is invariably indis- 

* See the note in p. 36, supra, 

• This is the creed inculcated, for general guidance, by all 
philologists but those of the transcendental school, gentlemen 
that hold convei'se with some one beyond the clouds, who 
getties how men and women should speak, much better than they 

By accepted usage in speech we underetand that 
which is practised, or approved, consentiently and 

onn settle the ijuestion themsnlvps. Tliis mysterioiiB arliiler, 
stripped of hia diHguiae, turtia out, liuwevcr, ti> be uuly n dexterouB 
metamorphnsiE of pereonal conceit or caprice. Our iexiuogiapbers 
are, to a man, tronscendentaliHtij, od occasion. 

Tnke Dr. JohnBon, for inatance. Ercepti'ag, hb a preposition, 
he calls " improper" ; naA tmoothen is, to him, "bad". On the 
other hand, 7Coma»ize, be JegielnteB, though "not tl^ed", is 

Now, judged anBlogicaU;, ewceptiiig and i^inothen are as good as 
fating and runjAun,- but, as to wamanise, if it be "proper", why 
should not manisie, boyite, and girlbe be no 7 Referring to usage, 
wa find we bare excelleoi authority for rareej/tixg ; for funeethcH, 
— used, I tlnd, \ij Howell, in his Tmelre Sercriil Treatitei, &o. 
(1G61), p. 375, — only the authority of " mechanics ", to Dr. John- 
bod's knowledge ; and the sole writer whom he <AVf» for trumanixe 
is Hit Philip tjiduef. Thus we see, that words, as he viewed them, 
though ever so well supporled b; good usage, may be " im- 
proper"; again, that their atrioMst conformity to rule is not 
enough, unless the7 are countennDced by the polite world, f^ keep 
them from being " bad " ; and, further, that, though their forma- 
tion is warranted by nn annlogy hut little better than non-exigient, 
a single favourite author stamps them, by admission into his pages, 
a£ " proper ". 

In Tlw Plan nf an Englhh DiBtiim/iTH, Johnson propounds, as 
one of his maxims : '■ Burbarous, or impure, word* and e-ipressions 
may be branded with some note of infamy ; as thej' are carefullj 
to be eradicated, wherever thej are found ; and they occur, too 
frequently, even in tliB beat writers", And immediately after 
this follow epecimeus, one of whiah is the line from Fnpe : 

" 'Tit these that early taint the female soul ". 

Here, once more, we have him setting up his own private whim as 
law. 'T ia theie, or it m tliejK, and like expressions, had been in 
DBB, In Ills time, some two centuries, at least, and had become 
ineradicably established. "It i» theg". Bluhop Bale, Xgnge 
JoKan (before lli63), p. 30 (ed, 1B3S). "'TU ire." Samuel 
Rowlands (lUOO— in?), ^'e livr Knai^ft.p. 43 (ed. 18«). What 
Johnson took to he the mure grammatieal expression than Pope's 
— as the "they are thiy" in St. John, 6, 89, — was quite given 
up, and hopeless of resuBCilation ; but 't ii tlifiif, ax not suiting 
his s)>eculafive notions of symax. was not to be allowed ; and, 
contiequeally, nothing but an aukwnrd and iuadecjuufe peripbrasia 


advertently/ by the best writers and speakers of any 
given time.* And what is to be said of such usage, 
as a precedent for guidance? The advice to the 
world at large is, after being at all pains to find out 
what it is, to take up with it. But the learned never 
will be, as they never have been, so easily satisfied. 
Points of grammar left out of question, they know 
that accepted usage in speech, contemplated as a 
whole, with its large basis of ignorance, and its fre- 
quent violence of analogy, deserves no better epithet 
than that of tolerable. Hence their proposals of 
improvement on what, to their discontent, they find 
established: and, in demonstration that they do 
wisely to innovate, many an expedient of theirs, now 
in the way of addition, and now in the way of sub- 
stitution, is seen to become, eventually, a fixture.^ 

remained as available. With it is these he must, necessarily, pro- 
scribe it is those, it is they, it is we, it is you, it was men, &c. &c. 
In these phrases he has to do, as he puts it, with what is* " bar- 
barous ", or else with what is " impure " ; for they were not, in his 
day, obsolete. His professed preference for pre- Restoration English 
ought to have reconciled him to them, if he had not been utterly 
iiiconsistent and unscientific. 

* These qualificatives are necessary ; for Landor well observes : 
" Good writers are authorities for only what is good, and by no 
means, and in no degree, for what is bad, which may be Jound 
even in them." Works, Vol. 1, p. 207. 

It is because of these facts, and not from inconsistency, that I 
do not hesitate to challenge, on some occasions, in my support, an 
author whom, on other occasions, I arraign for going, in his less 
wise moods, more or less completely astray. 

' " Consuetudinem sermonis vocabo consensum eruditorum, sicut 
Vivendi consensum bonorum." Quintilian, I., 4. 

' In the fourth chapter I give a noteworthy list of expressions 
used by Hamon L'Estrange, which, if his critic, Heylin, may be 
trusted, though deemed amenable to censure, as pedantic novelties, 
about the middle of the seventeenth century, are now, for the most 
part, of everyday occurrence. 



JJia dia es siempre maestro del otro ; y contra lo que ai acribs oj, 
esCar^ nianans quien Babe maa. — Mendaza. 

Addison confidently alleges that Milton Tainted 
the word miscreated.'' Yet it occurs in Spenser, witli 
the shorter form mucreaie ; and the latter is employed 
by Shakeapenre, also. 

" Elate is a participle ; but there is no such word 
as ' to eiale', I imagine." So wrote Gray, in 1760 ;' 
and his imagination ill supplied the placo of re- 

' TAe Speclalar. No. 28S. " Authors are often praised for improre- 
ment, or blamed fur innoTation, with verj lUde justice, by tbose wbo 
read fen other books of the same age, Addison himself bos been so 
niwaoceasful in eunraerBtiag the words with which MiKon has eu- 
riehed oar language, as, porhaps, not to hare named one of vhich 
Milton wa«tha author." Dr. Jabaina,I^iipatal/orPriiili«fftht Workt 
tf Shaketpiare. 

' Workt (ed. Mitford, 1858), Vol. 5, p. 209. Gray's Tsrbal criti- 

ms, almost without eioeption, betray very limited reading, or else 
I H miMrable memory. 1 return to this point in the next chapter. 

' The references vhicb folloiT are only a few to what [ might giie. 
William Wataoii, A DmaairdaH of Ttn Quodiibitieall Qiuiliotu (1602), 
pp. 105, 139. Ddohh, fteBrfo-wflrtyr (1610),p. 210. Thomas Gniiis- 
ford (1618), in Tht SarUia» Mi»eellany (ed. Oldys and Park), Vol, 
6, p. S64, Feltham, BenilcH, DM«e, Xaral, Foliliciil (ed. 1628), First 
Centorie, p. SS ; Second Ceiit., p. 12. firathnait, The Zivtn of 
All tie Soman Emperort (1636), p. 854. Howell, Doilaiia'i Gim't 
(1640), pp. 193, 206. Flecknn, A Malion b/ Jkn Fen™ 2Vflo^/ft 
(1665), p. 131. Fuller, Tbt Apptnl of lajarid ImioteHHf, ka. (1359), 
Tart 3, p. 61. Henrj tHoie. Mifttei-^ o/ Im'quHi/ (vd. 1661). pp. 147. 
118, 119. (Jknviil, Strji>ij Seknlijlett (eJ. 1665), p. 153. Trans, of 


Having used the word auccedaneous, William Tay- 
lor thus comments on it : " We are writing on coins. 
May we not coin a word ? ''^ On certain conditions, 
most assuredly; only the vocable in question had 
been used by Sir Thomas Browne, Robert Boyle, 
Henry More,* and Dr. Johnson.^ 

Taylor further states, that Burke first employed 
the word entirety,^ In the form entierty, it occurs in 
Bacon. And he strangely censures to count on, as a 
foreign idiom.^ 

Sir James Mackintosh* speaks of "Parr's new- 
coined word syllogize.'* It has been used, every now 
and then, since the fifteenth century.' 

According to Mr. Isaac D'Israeli, " we still want 
incuriosity'*^. He meant, that it was not noticed by 

// Nipotiamo, &c. (1673), Part 2, p. 163. Barrow, JForks (ed. 1683— 
92), Vol. 3, p. 193. Bishop Warburton (1724), Tracts by Warburton, 
&c., p. 36. Henry Brooke (1735), Universal, Beauty, Book 2, 1. 17. 
Miss Westcomb (1760), The Correspondence of Samuel Michardso^, 
&c., Vol. 3, p. 2Y4. Dr. Johnson (1750—52), The Bamblery Nos. 26, 
66,91, 133, 142, 148, 164, 180, 182, 193 ; &c. &c. Tilson, The 
World (1766), No. 167. 

1 The Mofithly Review, Vol. 79 (1816), p. 606. 

a Mystery of Godliness {ed,- 1660), p. 113; Mystery of Iniquity, 
p. 488 : Annotations upon Lux Orientalis, &c. (1682-3), p. 206. 

' A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, Castle of Col. 

* The Monthly Review, Vol. 27 (1798), p. 642. 

» Ibid,, Vol. 17 (1795), p. 311. • life, &c., Vol. 1, p. 141. 

'' See Bp. Pecock's Repressor (1456), pp. 76, 78. Other vouchers 
are here indicated. Cowley, Cutter of Coleman-street, Act 4, Sc. 4. 
Barrow, Works (ed. 1683—92), Vol. 3, p. 124. Sir Thomas Ur- 
qiihart, Translation of Rabelais (ed. 1694), Vol. 1, p. 176. Sterne, 
Tristram Shandy, Vol. 1, Ch. 16 ; Vol. 4, Ch. 40. Dr. Johnson 
quotes Baker and Watts for it. 

® Curiosities of Zitei'ature, Chapter entitled History of New Words. 
Mr. D' Israeli there calls the French demoralisation a ^* barbarous 
terra*'. By this we are only to understand that he disrelished the 
political principles of its reputed author. 

Dr. Jolinson. It is used I)y Jeremy Taylor, and by 
many writers of subseq^uent date.' 

"Let me claim the honour of one pure neologism", 
again writes Mr. D'lsraeli.' " I ventured to intro- 
duce the term of father-land, to describe our natalo 
solum. I have lived to see it adopted by Lord Byron 
and by Mr. Southey ; and the word is now common." 
The HttBCB^expression faiher-lnnd was spoken of 
by Sir William Temple,' as long ago as 1672. 

"Notwithstanding a repugnauce to neologisms in 
common speech", writes Mr. Samuel Bailey,* "there 
is one which, as I am in a commercial district, I 

Atcllbiehop Trench, in like manner, Hpeuks of " the nlDiiBtroua 
birth, dcnBminatia)iala)ri" . SnglUh Fail and Preient, Lecture 2. 
There ia no neoeasity, eioept for the ante of the aninilmted, to supplj 
the aacerdotitl anbauJitinn ; " Monstrous birth, of course : seeing that 
I eatertBiin for diasonters the aitme description of apostolic love that 
9t. Paul oatertaiaed for Alexander the Eopporsmith." Eatablahmsnta' 
rianisiii, all the more grateful for ita "linked eweetnesa long tiravrn 
out", waa, honever, wont, no doubt, to roll oier the prelatial tongne, 
as the most savoury of polysyllables. In the good old days o( un- 
ledreaaed Irish wrongs, it must have been, to His Graiio, a source of 
qnite as mucli rufreahtn; and comfort as the crone of the old story 
derived (rom her favourite XeiapBlenia. 

' See Dr. Bichardson's Dictionai-y. and Archdeacon Todd'e additions 
tn Or. Johnaon's. To the authorities named by them I may add 
Samon L'Gstrange, Thi Hsijia of Sinn Charlei {ed. 105fl), p. 9 : TAd 
Allianct of l)im»t Officii (ISSS], p. 18. 

The synonymous iiuurioittiuii I have one additional old authorJlj 
for,— Gaule, ITDc-fiavria (1652), p. 192. 

Heytin's animadversion on inewf I'nw, as being a novelty, I refer to 
in the next chapter. See, for the nord, Doaae, Sialhanatot (Ut ed.}. p. 
205 : Gauls, nvg-^ai-Tla, p. 52; Trans, of It Cardiualumo, &a. (1670), 
p. 11 : Hamon L'Bstrange, The Siipt, &c., pp. £, 92. L'Eatrauge, 
in the same work, nses iiicHriemly at pp. 53, B2. 

' CuTioiilin of Literalurt, uU lUpra. 

' " The Dutch, by eiproaaiona of doamesa, instead of ■ our country ', 
say ' auf falAfr-lami '."' itUotllanfa (ad. 1097), Part I, p. 66. 

' LiKourm on Variaai SulgtetM (1862), p. 77. 


would venture to propose, and to which T think good 
taste might soon be reconciled. At present, it is 
common to use the participle manufacturing as an 
adjective, in such phrases as * the agricultural and 
manufacturing interests ', which is awkward enough. 
From this awkwardness the introduction of the legi- 
timately formed word manufactural would relieve 
U8.^' William Taylor had printed the expression 
" manufactural demand ", nearly half a century 

Mr. G. P. Marsh writes of " semeiology, if I may 
coin a word for the occasion".^ But, in 1694, Peter 
Motteux, in a very popular book, printed : " These 
ways of signifying pur thoughts by gestures, called, 
by the learned Bishop Wilkins, semceology *'.^ 

A writer in the Saturday Revieic says*, in a critique 
on Lander's Hellenics : *' We have words used in 
senses altogether unprecedented ; as sepulture, for 
* sepulchre ', " &c. Now, sepulture has been used, in 
this sense, by Gower^ Capgrave*, Sir Thomas Elyot", 

1 The Annual Beview, Vol. 4 (1806), p. 38. 

* Lectures on the English Language, foot-note to p. 34. 
3 Urquhart's Itabelais, Vol. 1, Preface, p. 98. 

* Vol. 9 (1860), p. 250. Unless appearances are fallacious, this 
notorious exponent of the conceit, insolence, and pruriency of cultured 
Young England is nearing the end of its career. And the end of its 
career, if realized, will be significant for good. 

It is a curious phenomenon which the rising generation of English- 
men so largely exhibit, in oscillating between High Church and the 
Cities of the Plain. 

* For this reference, and that to Holinshed, see Dr. Richardson's 
Dietionaryy where, however, the quotations are misunderstood. 

* Chronicle of England, p. 6. Capgrave died in 1464. 

■y <* Marius .... also caused Caius Ceesar .... to be vyolently 
drawen to the sepulture of one Varius, a Bimple and %^^\\\qm% '^^x^'cax^ 


IToUnsbed, Stow', Mabbe*, Lithgow^ Eruthwait', 
and Sir Thomas Browne ' ; and even Charles Lamb ° 
and Cardinal Wiseman ' have ventured it. 

" Alone, in the sense of ' only '," has recently been 
clasaed ' among the trespasses of " pretentious blun- 
derers, for whom the legitimate resources of our 
incomparable English language would seem to be 
insufficient." The subjoined references demonstrate 
that this sense of alone is no novelty". Aa to its 

and there to bee dishoneBlIj-e sluyne ", &e. The Gocemnur (1531), ful. 
100 (ed. IS80). > Armi/ia [ei. I61d), p. 45. 

' " Mj money woa the prica of blouii ; it was sptnt upon tepldtnrH 
for dend hiidias, on dead workes, and worldly Tii:e6". 77ie Sogue (ed. 
1023). Piirt 2, p. 213. ___ 

* " We saw . . . also the mpullnrei of David nnd of hia sonne 
Salomon ". Tie Tolali jyiaeoiirse, &c. (ed. 1632), p. 248. 

* "Hee [Uaientiu^] wna . . throwne and drowned in the river 

Tiber, having no other efpHll.un then the rivBr". The 

Zivti of All ihi SaiHan Emperori, p. H6. 

* Pmudadaxia Epidemiea (ed. 1668), p. 24. The poasaje referred 
tn is i]uated by Dr. Johnson, in iUu<itration of the only menning which 
he, like other lesieoeropherB, pvea of Mfpullure, " interment, burial ". 
Eiidentlj, he hiu muitakcn the sense of the word in thia piloe ; and 
ho hiiB, fiirther, corrupted "their sepultures" intn "her aepnltura" ; 
and Archdeacon Todd and Dr. Latham reprint thia false reading. 

Mr. Simon Wilkin, in hia elegant edition of Browne, has i/pii/chret, 
which reading appears, for thu flnt lime, in the pdition of 1686, the 
eurliest published after the nuthor's dmth. 

The Latin lepulluiii, the Italian trpollara, and tbe French tiputture 
have, all, ' grave ', for one of their meanings. 

' Tht Lift EssHgi of Mfa, Amieua Bcdieivia. 

' FaUola. p. \m. Mr. G. P. Mniih, lOO. Uses MptiUmi, for ' burLd- 
phLce', inhia J/n»iinrf.Vulum(iasi), p. 70. 'oot-note. 

« Bj Mr. John Fiako, in Tlie North Auieriean S/miew, VoL lOfl 
(1869), p. 316, foot-note, 

* "JeBiuChristc,our aloiii Savionr and Rodemer". Phillip Stuh- 
lies, T&i Amtomii of Aiuasa (1586), p. 229 {ed. 133G). 

Want of apiice ferbi<la mr uivin;; at length the paaaoges about to be 
indicated. Samuel Hioron, Warii (ed. 162*), VoL 1, pp. 108, 133, 
169, 089, 696, 708, &e. Joliu Ealon, Thi mntyinimln of Free Jmli- 


currency, I doubt whether, since it first of all came 
into vogue, it has ever been wholly in abeyance ^. 

JUation^ &c. (1642), p. 212. Edward Terry, A Voyage to East-India 
(ed. 1665), p. 293. Timothy Puller, The Moderation of the Church 
of England^ &c. (1679), p. 20 (ed. 1843). Bp. Sanderson, Sermons 
(ed. 1681), Vol. 1, pp. 12, 60, 173, 215, 314. 

" A poeme is not alone any worke or composition of the poet's, in 
many or few verses ; but even one alone verse sometimes makes a per- 
fect poeme ". Ben Jonson, Timber ^ What meane you by a Poeme ? 

The prepositive alone objected to by Mr. Fiske should, as is seen, 
have been defined by * sole ', * single *, as well as by * only '. 

*' I can assure you it was sport alone^ and was able to make as many 
as beheld it to breake their hearts with laughing, to see '*, &c. Mabbe, 
The Rogue, &c. (ed. 1623), Part 2, p. 315. 

In this passage, as in several in Shakespeare, alone, postpositive, has 
the peculiar sense of ' above all things ', ' unique ', * without compa- 
rison *. 

With the uses of alone, noted above, compare the uses of only in the 
following extracts. 

" But, as for the five laste, love, labor, gladnes to leame of others, 
boldues to aske doutes, and will to wynne praise, be [t. e., they are] 
wonne and maintened by the onelie wisedome and discretion of the 
scholemaster '*. Ascham, The Scholemaster (1570), p. 42 (ed. 1870). 

** Speach is not naturall to man, saving for his onely habilitie to 
speake", &c. Puttenham, p. 119. 

'* This only uoale is enough to kindle the fire ". Mabbe, The Rogue, 
Part 2, p. 261. 

" Infants . . are onely charged with onely original sin '*. Ilamon 
L'Estrange, The Alliance, &c., p. 239. 

In these extracts, only means ^ mere * ; in those to come, ' sole ', a 
sense we still give it, — but with strange restriction, — as in * an only 
son*, &c. 

" "WonderfuU cost was bestowed by Aramanthus, who had the onely 
orderyng of the matter". Bamabe Riche, Farewell to Militarie 
Profession (1581), p. 183 (ed. 1846). 

" Choice and select fashions are there in onely request ". Brathwait, 
The English Gentleman, &c. (ed. 1641), p. 309. 

Latimer wrote, in 1549 : '* Then lette us truste upon hys onelye death, 
and looke for none other sacrifice propiciatorye ", &c. Fourth Sermon 
(ed. 1868), pp. 33, 34. *' Onelye death" is here equivalent to * death 

* At the beginning of this century, a shallow English critic, the 
Bcv. Mr. Boucher, having quoted from a pamp\i\et l\i.Q d^w&^ ^^ TCksAi^ 

Rash and erroneous utterances of the same Bort 
as these bestrew our modern literature in great 
plenty. Nay, even among our professed critics of 
language, those who have not compromised their 
character for caution and accuratiy, by adding to tha 
already existent mass of them, are signally excep- 
tional. Nothing can he more hazardous than to pro- 
nounce that a given word has never before been 
used, or that it has never before borne a certain sig- 
nifieation. Nor ia it, by any means, always safe to 
assert that a word or phrase came, originally, from 
the American side of the Atlantic. As we are not 
now specially concerned with Americanisms, two or 
three illustrations of this position may suffice. 

As recently aa 1856, a contributor to Notes and 
Qiierien,* in the course of an excursion through a 
Kentucky newspaper, encountered the expression in 
our midal, seized upon the, to him, new-born monster. 

Dr. Franklin the alaae minister", condemned it as blemiabeLl bj aa 
Americanisra. Dr. WorcBater rapliad to tbia, baetilj, that "it would, 
pmbably, be aa diflioult to find, in an American, as in an English, 
writer, anntbirr instance in which aloiu is uaeil in the samo munner aa 
in the pamphlet cited". Ilicthnnrg (ed. 1800), p. li. The Doctor 
forgot, that, in his edition oF Johnson's Dklienary abrid^^d (IStfi), 
p. 1030. ha hiid roforrad to the IIbv. J. Newton, and to Dr. Chalmers, 
(or loouLiona like " the alone method of salvation". To these modern 
anthoritira I may add John Woslcy. who writes of " the nlinie merits 
of our Lord Jihui Christ". Southey'a Lift ef Waliy (ed. 1861), 
Tol. 2, p. 17*. 

Pbrasuolo^ of thia kind may often be beard from aO'Called eran- 
gelical English pnlpits, and met with in the printed literatnre of the 
occupanla of those pulpits. The self-accommmlatiHg.Bp. Wilberforoe, 
when, a few years ago, be wrote of "the aloiit Saviour", was ridiculed, 
in that, when hu deanseil his skirts of Low-uburohiam. he did not fully 
unlearn its ciiarocteristio jargon. 

' Second Sarioa, Vol. 1, p. 9. 


and tliat an Araerican monster, and bcnevoletitly 
volunteered himself as its showman. Dr. AVorcester, 
under the date of 1860, informs na that "our midd, 
t/mr midst, &c. are of recent introduction" ; Mr. G. 
P. Marsh ' etigroatizes these phrases aa " vidf^arisms ", 
" now unhappily very common ", and as " gross 
eoleciems", "unsupported by the authority of pure 
idiomatic English writers " ; and Dr. Webster's 
editors declare that they " seem contrary to the 
genius of our language ", and follow suit to Mr. 
Marsh in his patlios over them. The fact is, how- 
ever, that in their midst existod in the fourteenth 
century ; and it is no wonder that, on heing intro- 
duced to the nineteenth century, it has met with 
rebufls. If, though certified aa our veritable ance-s- 
tors, even the good old men and wives of five hun- 
dred years ago were suddenly to drop in on us, with 
their quaint stylo of talk, their uncouth way of feed- 
ing, and the phenomenal cut of their garments, it is 
more than likely that we should look askance at the 
ancient worthies, and wish that some one would take 
them out of sight and hearing, and see them quietly 
hushed up. The phrase in her middis, that is to sav, 
in their midst, occurs in the Apoloiji/ for Lollard Doc- 
IrtMS ', a work written by one of Wicliffe's contempo- 
raries, if not by Wicliffe himself^ That in their 

' Leelurei on tie EnffHih Langwige, p. 396, foot-note. At p. 645, 
he writes nf " the Tulfruriira nt auch plirnses as in diif ntidtt," See. 

* P. 12. This work IB eilited by Dc. J. H. ToiR 

' Mr. Mnrah tius Mua the trouble to aHerlain thxt tbc WidtlRts 
tranelnlnrs nowhere me i;i tlicir midst, &c. ; nnd soma taaj ha dis- 
po»d lo HMept this taut ns wuU Din;h availing, of itseir, tn aVijiLiiicitR 
the ApoioffV far Lultard Daftri«e» from Wicliffe. At p. 74 nf Ibe 
Apaiagj/, wo find "by (PW occiKion ",— nwauvng 'li'j wicwMiii of 


mills/, ill our miihf, &c. are at odds with the " genius " 
of our language is an assertion somewhat adventurous. 
As concerns a substantire, its subjective genitive, uni- 
versally, and its objective genitive, very often, may 
be expressed prepositive] y. Love of God, intending 
' love emanating from God,' may be exchanged for 
God's love,- but we also say Plato's commentators and 
t/ie icorld's end. To come to possessive pronouns, we 
have no scruples about the objective do hk plcamire, 
Bing thy praise, in my absence, on your necount, fn their 
diwredit, in our despite, fits equal, &c. &c. ; '■ and with 
these phrases in our midst is rigidly comparable. 
" The possessive pronoun cannot be properly applied, 

whom', — wliioli is Wicliffite ; but ean we belitire that "Wicliffo himself 
could derivo pn'ril from pntrete ? For Dr. Todd preily olearly ahows, 
at p. 119, that it is so di:riTad by the Apoln^st. 

And thie reniiods ma of an etymology if pretbyter, given, by Kenri 
Bstirnnp, f^m Ibe Stflla Clfricorum, " I'reshyter dicltar quasi pne- 
bens iter ", an amendment to which was waggiably proposed, by lome 
one, in " I'reshytar, qoaai pna aliis biheiia ter." Of the same stamp, 
at least suivntiSodly uoiiaideri<d, is the analysis of diaialm, adopted by 
OliTier Maillard, and doubtfully crmlited to Hugo Cairensia : " Dia- 
boliia, ei dia, quod est duo, et bolus, id ait, moreellas ; quasi faeiens 
duos boloe de oorpore el anima." Apnlogie pour Serodoli (ISSS), Vol. 
2, pp. 12-44 (ed. 1735). 

' " There was notbyng mijlit content her but his pregeaai and twmtt 
light'' Bamabe Riebe, Fareicelt, &e,, p. 6fl. 

" After so many dayus spent iu hfe tontinwiU mnMriafrnij, he re- 
mained in the same atsts ns hu did tho vary first day, neither batter 
nnr worse," Mabbe. The Ra^iie, Part 1, p. 76. 

This we should not say now ; and yet in her eomp/niy would itriite 
no one as being odd. 

" We intermeddle not vith hfr d/ieriptioH. as she was a sovereign 
prince too high", Ac. Fuller, The Holy Stale, See. (ad. 18*1), p. 2B3. 

" Go, my anuel, said Mr, Clinton, and take yonder seat, that I may 
Tiew and delight my snul with i/aur tight, at leisure." Henry Brooke, 
Thi Foul 0/ Q-mlili, [Bd. 1792). Vol. 6, p. 246. 

" Forgotten he was not ; fat his proKciiCion ■was noi ordered.'' Dr, 
JohnaoB, Ziji ef Mi/tim. 


except as indicative of possession or appurtenance," 
is the rule laid down by Mr. Marsh, seemingly in 
forgetfulness of the familiar modes of speech just 
specified. With reference to analogical principles, 
in our midst is altogether irreproachable ; and, in 
future, if any one dislikes it, he will do prudently, if 
he does no more than pass by on the other side, and 
leave it to itself. 

"Did you see The Examiner on Mrs. Stowe's Sunny 
Memories ? Quite a severe article ; and quite unnecessarily 
80, 1 should say. The use of quite is a peculiarity which 
I quite remarked, myself ;. but I think you have quite a 
right to use it, as a substitute, if you please, for our less 
exact * very * ; and, in colloquial writing, no one ought to 
object. I don't see that the old-country English are to 
have the exclusive right of introducing new expressions." 

Thus wrote Mr. Arthur Hugh Clough,^ though 
the uses of quite which he exemplifies, — save, perhaps, 
in the -phvaae' 'Iquite remarked,^^ ^ — ^have been English 
for considerably upwards of a hundred years.^ Nor 

* Poems and Prose Remains (1869), Vol. 1, p. 219. 

* "Who would say "I quite remarked", whether to intend *I par- 
tieularly remarked', or anything else } Possibly, some of the writers, 
all of them English, quoted in the next note. According to Mr. 
Clough, " I quite remarked " is for * I very remarked *, which is no- 
thing. And is " quite a right " for *■ very a right' ? 

3 " 'T is become quite reputable." Gay, The Distressed Wife, Act 
3, Scene 8. 

" And you say they are quite loving ? " Carey, The Sanest York- 
shireman (1736), Act 2, Scene 7. 

" Quite a rake.'* Richardson, Pamela (ed. 1811), Vol. 1, p. 86. 

" But he is quite displeased, it seems." /<?., Clarissa Sarlowe (ed. 
1811), Vol. 4, p. 206, 

** They want for nothing, and are grown quite religious." Id.^ 
Sir Charles Grandison (ed. 1811), Vol. 6, p. 7.10. 


is quile, in any of his instances, exactly equivalent, 
as he intimates it ia, to ' very '. As to " quite a severe 

" With rBgiird to his ituoeo-worlt within doora, he is guiii eitrava- 
' gunt." " Quits impatient to ooaTersB with jou." Bhenstone, Lettsrt, 
" 14 and 107. 

B make mo guilt angry." Johnson, 

" ThESB 

The Seiailer, Ni 

The font ncit eitraeta were written in 1746, 1754, 1766, and 1774- 

"I nm quUe iateraated tn the fate of yonr favourita trues," &c. 
Miaa Talbot, Misi fjartei's LelUra la Mini Talbvl, &o.. Vol. 1, p. 109, 

"To wish anjbodj a merry Chrbtmas, in the old phtau, would be 
iuite nn ahaurdity." Id., ibid.. Vol. 2, p. 189. 

" Mare throws guila a Instre on 'the waves." Miss Darter, 

ibid.. Vol. 3, p. SHI). 

quite an age that I have defsiTed it." Id., ibid.. 

f Vol. 4 

p. 107. 

"I jHiVe longed for you to share my adniiration of it." " Th*re 
I will bd gwile h knot of nobiliCj' in the noighboiirliDod tbis autumn." 
] Id., Liltert lo Mrs. MinUa^u, Vol. 2, p. 67 ; Vol. 3, p. 168. Also 
le Vol. 1, pp. 74, 106, 314 ; Vol. 2, pp. 34, 203 ; Vol. 3, pp. 219, 
£21, 22S. 
"It WHS 7Wi?B early." Edward Mooro, Ths Wm-ld, No. 97. 
Lady Echlin wrote, in 1737; "The Utile wonder was guilt anew 
wene to him." Contipondrnci o/ SaMiiel HiehardMii, Vol. 6, p. 79. 
■iHerB, ns in several of my eitracts, gaile is for ' oltogetber '. Its col- 
^locatioo is, however, neoteric. 

" He left me guile pleased with the interest he seemed to take in my 
ooenis." Goldamith, Tht Vicar of WukeS'ld, Cb. 21, 
" I am qiiitt impatient," &.a. " I am guHt proud that," jbe. " I 
emed quite lightaomo In myself." "Quite an adept." Henry 
LBMoke,ia<--fW8/Qi(nH<y(cd- 1792), Vol. 2, pp. 65, 244; Vol. 4, 
}. 2S, 122, 

" Here, agsin, yon are gaitt scandalized at the Bishop's parndoiicat 
sertiona coneeraing the naturu and end of eloquence." Bishop 
nrd, in Trafti by IFariurlan, Sec, p. 263. 

" Dr. Wharton wonld be quite happy to see you at Old Park." 
lOray, Corretpin'denee of Ornji and Jfafin (ed. 1855), p, 341. 

ni gHite pliaaed with Your Lordship's pliui." Edmund Borte, 
WCnrTeipondetiee, &C., Vol. I, p. 160. 

" If you bring your neighbour, the Thames, with yon, it will be 
HiV« agreeable." Id,, The Private OorretpaniUiKe of IJatid Garrici, 
. Vol. J, p. J 88. 



article ", it is not very long ago that such a colloca- 
tion of words, to mean what it means above, was 

"I lived near a fortnight in the house, quite agreeably." Graves, 
The Spiritual Quixote (ed. 1820), Vol. 1, p. 124. 

" He was quite melancholy till he received Mrs. Sarsanet's letter." 
Jd,, ibid., Vol. 1, p. 136. 

'* His spleen against the Chevalier is quite entertaining." Colman, 
The Private Correspondence of David Garriek, &c., Vol. 1, p. 233. 

** My mother's dislike to going out makes her quite ingenious to 
find reasons to avoid rides." ** She seems quite melancholy." Miss 
Wilkes, Correspondence of the late John Wilkes, &c. (1805), Vol. 4, pp. 
289, 290. 

'* I gave such a monstrous scream, that it quite made Mr. Meadows 
start." Miss Bumey, Cecilia, Book 2, Ch. 4. 

*^ Besides, you are so good and so gentle, that it quite composes me 
to talk with you." Id,, ibid., Book 3, Ch. 8. 

" She's well enough, .... but shy, quite too shy." Id., ibid.. Book 
4, Ch. 2. 

" I assure you you would quite have fallen in love with him." Id., 
ibid,. Book 6, Ch. 2. 

" Really, going to Mr. Harrel's again would have been quite too 
dismal." Id., ibid.. Book 6, Ch. 10. 

" I am quite angry with Pitt." Gibbon, Miscellaneous Works (ed. 
1814), Vol. 1, p. 321. 

"I am quite surprised at Johnson's diligence." "He \s quite ^ 
gentleman, and a very sensible one." " The chamber is better, and 
quite smart." • " I am quite oppressed by it " [this hot weather]. 
Cowper, Works (ed. Southey, 1835—1837), Vol. 4, p. 102 ; Vol. 5, pp. 
193, 295 ; Vol. 6, p. 163. 

"The gallery immediately before its entrance appeared quite gay." 
Beckford, Italy, &c. (ed. 1834), Vol. 1, p. 326. 

" He was quite uneasy at the pleasure I felt," &c. Uvedale Price, 
An Essay on the Picturesque, &c., p. 167, foot-note. 

** There was a mill in this vale, quite a comfortable dwelling." 
Selections from the Letters of Robert Southey, Vol. 1, p. 84. 

" It was quite a comfort to me." Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 490. 

" We are quite astonished," &c. Sydney Smith, Works (one-vol. 
ed., London, 1850), p. 174. 

** The thought . . . makes me quite dread the return of the Sunday." 
" It quite disturbs me to think of it." " The vale of Florence looks 
quite poor and dull," &c. Dr. Arnold, Life and Correspondence (ed. 
1856), pp. 46, 54, 61. 




:nown. There, as in some other poaitioiiB, quite 
n holdsj ia signification, a place intermediate be- 
tween ' altogether ' and ' somewhat '.' The French 
assez and the Italian assai have a similar acceptation. 
In the third edition of Professor Maximilian 
MnUer'a Lectures on the Science of Laiiguage? we aro 
nformed that, " in fact, ' very pleased ' and ' very 
delighted' are American isms which may be heard 
even in this country ". A lamentable state of things, 
this, no doubt ; only the implied disdain of America, 
■which ^^ould be sufficiently censurable, if hereditary, 
!ng only imitative and conciliatory, still more 
censnrable, not to say unphilosophic. The phrases 
Just named become, however, in Professor Miiller's 
fourth edition,' simply " expressions which may be 

'• He really looks quite concerned." Landor, Worhi, Vol. 3. p. *17- 

N" Eonestj, in France, puts on a demi-Baison guile farly, but Boon 
ds it tflo cold for wear." "A wolf . who wua jii rts olinnning," 
., The Last Fruit of an Old Trei, pp. 15, 230. 
" Quill a demoorat." " Quilt amusing." I,ord Maoanlay, Critical 
and HiUerical Eisayi (Sth Engliab lidilian, 1848), Vol. 2, p. 88 ; Vol. 

^yheII it cnine to be bed-time, nhe .... vaa, reallj, i/iiilt aorr; to 
go to bed, and aqueeied Arthur's hnud guilt fondly." Mr. Ttiackei'ay, 
FtndmHis, ObnpierSi. 
It ia, I tuipect, to the Indies timl ire are indebted, originully, for 
iB uses of quitt here exemplified. 

' Take the third quotation givun in tbe preceding note : and quite, 
x it obssrted; hM not there a negative before it. In9te]id of ■' qaile a 
Uke", the old English expression waa ' a great ruke', which do<n not 
u- us ' altogether a rake ', or ' a porfcct ruke '. Such n quite a 
waj, generally, he eichanged for a great, much of a, or for wmBthing 
leu iatcnuve ttisn a compklt, a full, a thorough, or tho like, Quilt, 
SB, for instance, in Bichardson's " quitt displeued '', also imports less 
than 'entirely', 'thoroughly', 'fully'. Very mueh may, in some 
eases, represeut iia force ; in other easel, very. 

of tha English ciilcmies, tao is ttrungely used for ' very ", 
i', 'quiti;". ' Vol, 1, p. 39. ' Vol. 1, p. 40. 


heard in many drawing-rooms.'* That they should 
be felt to deserve promotion from, it might be, 
Whitechapel or tho Seven Dials, to decent society, 
as aoon as they were discovered not to bear the brand 
of Americanism, was, all things considered, only to 
be expected. They are heard, we are told, "in many 
drawing-rooms." And there they were heard, with- 
out question, four or five generations ago. Sir Wil- 
liam Jones' wrote "vtnj eoncerned," in 1760; and 
Gibbon,* " eery unqualiiied," in 1762. 

Leaving imaginary Americanisms', I return, for 

' Mimoiri, Ac. (cd. 1806), p. 22. 

» Maeillatmia Worts [ed. 1814), Vol. 4, p. 113. 

Miu Cartor wrota. in 1778: •■ 1 thank Hull mj mind is leiy Cora- 
poacd." Zellcri to Misa Tfilbot, &a.. Vol. *, p. 197. 

Thomus Tnylor wormed out eomething " very concealed," in 1701. 
See bis tranalutiutL of Favmnias, Vol. 3, p. SOO. 

" r«y altered." Sydney Smitli, Wnrki, p. 639. 

"A Teiy eeneeaUd niannor." Mr. De Quintey, Works, Vol. 6, 
Preface, p. ivi. 

" They were very frightened." Dr. G. W. Doaent, 2'optilar Taloa 
from th» Noru (ed. 1859), p. 409. I will udd, llint 1 bavo heard I'ro- 
fenor Uiillei dedare tbu En^liah of Dr. Busent to be tho purest ever 

No len di>QonIant than vtry hefure any participle not thoroughly 
adjeotivieed, like animeted ox pleaaitig, is much halma tJie poEitive de- 
gree of an ftdjectivB which has not grown ont of a past participle. 
"JTwAhencflciul" is used by Fuller. The Iliitoris of tha Mtly Watre 
(ed. 16*7), p. 171- Jeremy Coliier lius "very much impertiufnt." 
A Sherl Vitm, &a. (ed. 169S), p. 167. Addisun wtiteB " rery niuth 
eonreruint," The SpMialor, So. 600. "AtWestmiiiBter Schuull waa 
much intimate with Walter Bagot." Cowpcr, Warie, Vol. 6, p. 186. 
Id Tie Tails, IV., 433, and V., 816, Cowpar has " much solicitouB" 
and " nmeh conversant " ; and, in bis Hiiiil, I., IIO, " muoh uumeet." 
Wbere, in soch phrases, ' nut ' is pruhxed, theic unidiormitii:alne« ii, 
here and there, aomewhat mitigated. 

li'or, for obvious reasima, thuugb wo say 'aecrg flowing style ', do we 
«y ■ f wry flawing stream ', or, with Addison, '■ a miiit crying dul- 
nesB," "a tern ehining light." See Tht Spcctalor, Xos. 61 ajid 63. 

1 We have had to do witli Angiidams precipitately adjudged to he 

illustration of the topic under treatment, to false 
criticisms on words and phrases of a more general 

"In certain new Tjooka we find wended. There is, pro- 

Americanisma. A fla^sat example of miEcarriage, intryiopitoiliift the 
burthen of a neotcrism from America to England maj bere fitl^ be 

Dr. Webeter's editors, after quoting, in illnstration of lengthy, a 
passage credited to "Gibhoa, 1TG3", epealc of it as Affording "the 
earliest knovn instance" of the vord'e occurrence. The passage is 
(roia one of the jonraals iept by the hisloriaji ; these, in 1763, he 
kept in French ; and they are printed in their original form. It it 
from the English translation of these joarnala tliat Dr. Webster's 
editors Dnnittingly take their quotation; and this translation, anon- 
ymous, and probably the work of a bookseller's hack, was llrst pub- 
lished in the monatome edition □{ Gibbon's MiiccUaneeui Weria, in 
1937. the passage in question will bo found there at p. TS. 

Mr. Samuel Bailey, in his JJismwrMj on Varioui Suifao's, p. 76, 
after nelcuming lengthy, an a recent American import worth the hav- 
ing, goes on to remark, that " It could bare sprung up nowhere but 
in a coantry addicted to pratractcd oratory, and is a modem instance 
of what forms a fui^cinating feature in the study of etymology, namely, 
the power of words to indicate the habits and customs of those who 

If Dr. Webster's editors had been in the right, ground would 
hme been offered for the comment on Mr. Bailey, that, unhappily 
fur his pretty little argument, lengthy bad already been used in 
Englund in the time of the American colonists, who are not known to 
hare been specially addicted to oratory, protracted or olherwiae. 
And, after all, as the word originated, so far as is known, in the 
days of Washington, who uses it, one may still justly object to Mr. 
Bailey's asseuinting it with American loogiloqnenee in oratory, ■ 
feature of the present century. Moreover, can It he proved that the 
epithet was ever applied to spoken discourses any more freely thsn to 
written ? Aud, since /oagroine was ones employed in the sense nhicb 
it bcBts,— for Bp. Hal! tella of a " langtome treatise ",— why suppose 
that the modem Americans are more tedious in expeeition than their 
English anecstorB weref Finally, that Englishmen found as much 
Hope for the word at home as Americana found for it amnn^ them- 
lelves ii evinced by the facts, that they were not slow to adopt it, and 
that it now meets with disfavour from none but the most finical 
purists. It must be admitted, howerer, thiit to give the t 
-^ a BsparagiBg import lutlta [ho support of analogy. 


', no Bucli word : Spenser has coined it unlawfully. 

t is the preterite of tBend, as lent of lend, spent ' of 
tpend, bent of bend ". 

Such ia the opinion which Landor ^ puts into the 
mouth of Home Tooke ; and lie feigns lip. Parker 
to have said to Andrew Marvel : 

"I liave seen fantastical folks . . , who write ipewl, 
insteail of 170, and are so ignorant of grammar as even to 
put icended for ment ".* 

The Eev. Mr. Blackley writes, to the same effect ; 

" ' To wend one's way' ia a perl'ectly correct expression ; 

but the stilted style of novel-writing, now happily upon 

the wane, exhibits many instances of the inaccurate form 

'he wended his way ', caused by the writer's ignorance of 

J the fact that went, which we use as the irregular preterite 

I of the verb ' to go ', ia, in fact, the regular preterite of 

the verb ' to wend '." * 

All thia is very loose and uncritical, and even 
vorse. It 18 by such lessons as these that the un- 
reflecting and uninquiring are misled into eschew- 

' Apparently, not even in Chaucet'e tiron did people yet aaj tpenft 

or ipml, but upeiide; and yet tbey said rente, the older form being 

rtBd0. Accepting tjmil, and ignoring the fact that we got maid, 

througll tfac French, from the Lutin, landor wril«s, in hia usual arbi- 

torj fashion : "1 ha»B obserredifni, bs preterite of roirf.- improper; 

«»iwk( wouldbeofinmrf." Tin Laat Fruit of an Old Tret, p. 109. 

Since hoth ipaid snd mtiid are traceable ta the Latin, ha should, in 

I coluiMencj, haco contended fui mml, on the model o( tpent; and 

n the analogj of vient, ought to have been unobjectionable 

I tu him. Did be demnnd reiided > Of this X have lighted on one in. 

" With thia, the grate fenerahle bishop, giving me his bene- 

I dictiun, fvtiJht such a si)"h that would have rended a rock asunder ", io, 

\ Jamen IIoMfell. T<eeli-i Serrral Trcatix,, &c. {1001), p. 331. 

• fF-rlti. Vol. 1, p. 194. a Ji,rf,_ Vol. 2, p. 100. 

• Woi-d Gituipjp. 111. 


ing, as if they were wrong, words and phrases which 
are perfectly right. "VVTio will venture to say that 
iceiti is, to ua, the preterite of trend t And, now that 
icend has become an independent verb, why may we 
not inflect it ? If to irend one's way ' and ' He tcends 
his way ' are good English, equally so ia " he wended 
Lis way ".' 

But let us dwell a Httle longer on the word so 
peremptorily dismissed as unbearable. In old Eng- 
lish therewastbepresentwe«(ffiorjce«(, 'go', 'turn', 
the preterite of which came to be — as spende became 
spent, — icende, ' went ' ; and the past participle, vent, 
wend, 'gone', 'turned'. The present, modernized 
into uend, dropped out of ordinary and untechnical 
prose ; but the preterite, irent, has come down to us. 
That wend and jce»<'were ever contemporaneously 

' Wend, aa a rtfleiiTe verti, oecara io James Hnyward, The Ban- 
itli'd Virgin (1633), p. 163. 

* Of went, 08 the purtitipBa of wend, ' go ', I have met with una 
old inBtance. "And yt wyll be somewhat the mora hnrda, bycansa 
that, vhere as men wolde have Kent goneste to have founde them ", &c. 
8ir Thomas Mora, Apologue {1533), tol. 2S6. 

But it seems almost incredible thrtt a iting^ate of the Church of 
England could write, in the kat century ; " Whother Mr. Wesley has 
not Kent to bed since that Idnie, othecB may know ss well aa timeelf". 
Bp. LsTingbm, Enthuiiaam of MelhodiiU and FapMt Compared (ed. 
163S], p. 22. 

At p. 119 ol the game wort oceurB"qnite o/len/y ", which is full 
ss odd. Like ojlenlij are Imlflg, used by John HaUs (1666), in An 
Hiitiiriall KcpoMu/iirion, &c., p. 39 (ed. 1B44), and nexlly, foond in 
Queilieiii of Fmjilabli and Fleasaal Doncemingi (1594). foL 17 V. 

A fflat« for Bp. Latinglon's tceiit is sfTorded by Imibo Burrow. 

'.' What men ever upon earth haie been mora aoraly alBicled, have 
underwent Rreater luBses, disgraoeB, lahonra, trouble*, distressrs in any 
kind, than did tho H. Apostlee P" IVorkt (ed, 1683- 1892), Vol. 1. p. 19. 

"It rccommendeth to ni the niamples of thnsc who haie uiideiKtnt 
unspeakable pains ", Ac. Ibid., Vol. 3, p. 2Ud. 


used as equivalent to our ' go ' and ' went ', is more 
easily intimated than proved. Went being settled 
in its present signification, it was necessary, to bring 
out, unambiguously, the sense intended by a pre- 
terite of tcend, to coin wended,^ For the rest, Landor 
would, assuredly, have been nonplussed, if asked 
what he meant by saying that " there is, properly, 
no such word " as wended. Of the proper existence 
of a word his ideas must have been most peculiar. 
And why might not Spenser try his hand at coining 
a word ? ^ Landor himself has ventured new coin- 

* "We have, similarly, grafted^ from graffed, grafts formerly the 
preterite of graff; hoisted^ from hoised, hoist^ formerly the preterite of 
Jioiae ; and wafted, from waffedy waft, formerly the preterite of waff 
(i. «., wave) ; and we once had mifted, from sniffed, snifty the pre- 
terite of sniff. Possibly, snort and the old swound sprang from snored 
and swooned. With these compare the vulgar drownded. The old 
verbs elad — used by Puttenham, Philemon Holland, and Ed. iDacres, — 
and fraught are not from clothe and freight. The origin of the verb 
girt, from gird, is doubtful, as to its mode. The d of an infinitive 
may have been changed io t ; a preterite may have become an infini- 
tive ; or a substantive may have been converted into a verb. The 
verb rifty like the verb weight, came from a substantive. In very 
modem writings I have repeatedly seen the participle saddened, which 
assumes the existence of a verb sodden. It should not much surprise 
us, if this sodden were to take the place, in time, of the obsolete 
seethe. Fuller has unshakened, in The Appeal, &c., Part 1, p. 49. 

* Wended, we are told by Landor, as if endowed with omniscience, 
" Spenser has coined ", &c. Let us see whether Spenser had not 
predecessors in the use of it. 

" Thenne fhe squier weyndut upon his way, 
And to the marchand conne he say ; 
His emde told he thenne ". 

Sir Amadace, st. 20. 
" These three men wended at their will, 
This felon sow qwhyl they came tyll, 
Liggand under a tree ". 
The Felon Sowe and the Freeres of Hichmonde, st. 6. 

For these two passages, see Three Early English Metrical Romances^ 
&c. (1842), pp. 35, 106. 

agea enough. And vrhat would he hare had Bishop 
Parker onderatand by icend, if not ' go ' ? 

" It disturbs me to find, in Soulhey, . . the word fe- 
wrile, I had (Jionght it, and reread, the spawn infect- 
ing a mnddier and shallower water. Properly, re should 
precede none but worda of Latiu origin,' though there 
are a few exceptions of some date and authority ". 

Landor is here again quoted ; * and it is manifest 
that the great Latinist and patron of regicide was 
easily robbed of his equanimity. The "few excep- 
tions " which he alludes to we are to discover as beat 
we can. By an unsparing application of his tyranni- 
cal canon, we should be deprived of many a good word 
which we could ill dispense with, aa rebind, rebuff, re- 
build, rebuke, recaul, recoin, refill, rejit, refresh, regard, 
reland, relight, remake, remotild,resell, retail, review, and 
reicard, to name no more. It is curious how common 
it is for writers to prescribe strait-jackets to them- 
selves and others. Landor, as we have seen, had a hor- 
ror of hybridism; aa if our language was not crowded 
wilh hybrids. And such a horror had William 
Taylor, too, — a succulent quarry for any one minded 
to hawk at verbal eccentricities, — as witness his 
eoecalit;/, continualit>/, graduaUly, habitunlily, purent- 
(iliii/, soliliiriii/, sonoronitij, vir/uosili/, toluntarity. Had 
he been more thorough- going than he was, he ought 
to have insisted, — taking a handle from deerepitude, 

■ Landor, us I need not t«ll tbose who kaov hia wrilings well, 
would not BO designate it word duriced to lu from the Ladn, but 
Ihioagh Ihs French. 

* Waller Saragi Liindor, a Biopnphij, Vol. 2, pp. 525, 526, 


desuetude, exadUude, infinUiide, and promptitude, — on 
abjectitude, ahruptitude, directitude, distinctitude, select- 
itude, strictitude, and succinctitude} If English were 
to be beggared and deformed throughout on prin- 
ciples like those by which Landor and Taylor would 
have controlled it, the result would be a thing at 
which they themselves would have sickened as 
heartily as their neighbours. 

In the rough language of Landor,^ " to talk about 

* He should have preferred largeityj too, Thomas Nash's tardity, 
and, with Puttenham and Camden, grandity. 

* Walter Savage Landor, a Biography, Vol. 2, p. 528. Landor also 
makes Dr. Johnson say to Home Tooke : ** Within the last year or two, 
I have heard the expression *■ a man of talent \ instead of ' a man of 
talents*." Works, Vol. 1, p. 165. 

A similarly hasty criticism hy Landor is here subjoined. 

** Tooke, "What an outcry would be raised against you or me, if we 
applied a verb in the singular to several nouns ! 

** Johnson, And justly. 

" Tooke. Yet eloquence sometimes requires it, even in our own lan- 
guage. The Italian has not repudiated it." Id., Vol. 1, p. 210. 

Johnson would never have assented to Tooke' s remark, as he is fabled 
to have done. 

" The qtierulousness and indignation which is observed so often to 
disfigure the last scene of life, naturally leads us to inquiries like these.'* 
The Rambler, No. 50. 

" Nor has the roughness and brutality of more savage countries ever 
provoked," &c. The Idler, No. 87. 

" What has disease, deformity, and filth, upon which the thoughts 
can be allowed to dwell ? " Life of Swift. 

" Such order and connexion . was not perceived by Addison." Life 
of Fope. 

" The oak and the thorn is equally a stranger," &c. A Journey, 
&c., Aberbrothick. 

And Johnson's predecessors and successors often write in the same 

" Abstinence and mortification has formerly been thought necessary 
for the security of virtue. J eremy Collier, A Short View, &c. (ed. 
1730), p. 423. 


a ' man of talent ' \s to talk like a fool " ; and, in the 
judgment of Archbishop Trench, this phrase 13 
"nonsense."' These hasty verdicts are grounded, 

" Hiti iars ani regard for our Constitutioii t'l so reiimikable," ita. 
Aiidiaon, The Fraholdtr, No. 46. 

"^I'/iflwi ojoiw i'» bis darling liqnor." Cowper, The Ciinnoiaeur, 
No, 111. 

" COnvti'KilioH OMif fireside soriety i> llmoat quite lost among us." 
Colmiin, Frost on Several Oecan'om, &c., Vol. 2, p. 81. 

" The Atrmoiiy and trae miH/vlalim 0! rerae depeade apon a perfect 
prmmnciniion," &fi. Bishop Lowth, laaiah (ed. 1778), I'loliminury 
MswrtBtioii, p. riii. 

" ICo rcgnnuig enn, no consuming torrtmi, no dazzling fear iuhabite 
tliero.'" Id., Smmtie end Other £einaitu, p. 271. 

" Wbivt i. iirtk atid dialh ? " Shi'lley, Etna!/!, &c., Vol. I, p, 225. 
" In histoTj, the here mid the politician duitidlce into a vain and 
fteWe tyrant.'' Lord Macoulny, MiiaUaneota Writings (ed. 1860), 
Vol. 2. p. 89. 

"Theypi'int to tba flying duet, llie falling brieltB, the oumfortlcra 
rnoma, tlie frigbttiil irrcgularit]' of llie wliole appearance, and tlion ault, 
in iDom, nbere tbo promised qi^'ni/oi'inniJ comJ'Brt it to lie found.'' 
Id., £iae</ BU Miltnii. 

Sitniliti' pneangos miglit be quotvd from our older inilerB, by tbo 
myriad. Nuy, Khere the verb came first, it was tbe rule to put it in 
tbs liiiKalar. "Heere in met couragi and conelaiiei/." Feltbam, 
KcKlvte, &c. (ed. \B2i), FirBt Centorie, p. 13. So wrote hundreds, 
hefiira and after Feltbam. And who, even now, would not write, with 
Lord Maoaulny, " ETarynbere else tran tAe thunder, and thi JSre run- 
ning along tbo ground," &c. P Speechn (ed. 18S4), p. 607.' 

Laudor, 1 am coDTinced, was neither sn extensile nor a carelnl 
reader of our literature. Sometimes, indeed, his verbal criticisms are 
worth weighing ; bnt, in large part, they are Founded on mere whim. 
Fur instance, he eonld not bear the verb impugn. Sonthey — Seleeiietit 
fnm the Lttlir*, &c., Tel, 4, p. ZS3, — aft^r showing, from Johnson'a 
J)i"e(iniinry, bow thoroughly respectable it is, adds: "We have tlis 
word, not from the French, but from the Normans, who, hj the cbauge 
which they produced in our langnage, nverpaid this country for all tbo 
eiila whiflb tbey brought upon it by the Conijueat. A word of Norman 
extraction must not be ejpelled under the Ali™ Ael." 

The absnrdust, perhaps, of all Lander's pbiTolngieal specalaliotu is 
the following, fie dtiously assigned to Home Tooke; " While is ' the 
ftWwben'; irAiVei, 'the (.mM when '." Worhe, Vol. 1, p. 150. 
' Oi /.** Siudg ef JTordi (eJ. 1859), ^. 6fl. In another work I 


evidently, on the assumption, — contestable, at best, 
— that our familiar employment of talent is historic- 
have cited Archbishop Trench's estimate of Mr. De Quincey, as " the 
greatest living master of our English tongue." Mr. De Quincey, in 
his WorkSy Vol. 6, p. 168, and elsewhere, uses, however, the expression 
** man of talent." The Archbishop, therefore, if he knows what he is 
saying, allows that a man may be a supereminent authority for Eng- 
lish, and yet may write " nonsense ". 

If the Archbishop's denunciation be just, taUnty whatever its context, 
must, when put for * mental endowments *, be "nonsense ". As to its 
age and good repute, in this sense, he is entirely in the dark. 

" So silly a fellow, of no talent nor praiseworthie part in him in the 
world." " Silly bodies and sorie fellowes of no talent, gift, or ability." 
William "Watson, A Decacordon of Ten Quodlibeticall Questions (1602), 
pp. 14, 336. 

** Other poore rogues of lesse talent " Mabbe, The Rogm (1623), 
Part 1, p. 193. 

" And I cannot wonder enough, that none, all this while, .... have 
not employed their talent to this taske," &c. Howell, Dodond'a Grove 
(1640), p. 167. 

" He got the reputation of a person of no ordinary talent*' Trans- 
lation of J/ Cardinalismo di Santa Chiesa (1670), p. 188. 

Here talent is to render talento ; but, at pp. 163, 184, 310, where 
the English has the singular, — " his talent,* &c., — the original has 
talenti, the plural. 

" If I had your talent or power to make my actions speak for me," 
&c. Steele, The Conscious LoverSy Act 3. 

** Your talent may be universal : I believe it is." Lady Bradshaigh 
(1749), in the Correspondence of Samuel Richardson^ Vol. 4, p. 259. 

" There are those who will never suffer such talent as yours to be 
long hid under a bushel." Mrs. Susannah Maria Gibber (1765), in the 
Private Correspondence of David Garrick, &c., Vol. 1, p. 201. 

** Nay, a good author possesses a versatility of talent,** &c. Colman 
(1775), The Gentleman, No. 6. 

Coleridge, in 1809, speaks of talent as being " a gift so unequally 
dispensed by nature ", &c., and uses the expression ** the aristocracy of 
talent** Essays on His Own Times, p. 655. 

He also writes : " Shakespearfi is the height, breadth, and depth of 
genius ; Beaumont and Fletcher, the excellent mechanism, in juxta- 
position and succession, of talent.** Notes and Lectures upon Shake- 
speare, &c.. Vol. 1, p. 317. Also see Vol. 1, p. 192 ; Vol. 2, p. 306. 

See, further, on genius and talent, Coleridge's Biographia Literaria, 
Ch. 2. 


ally connected with the iaknls of the parable.' 
Though we fully acceded to that asHumption, still, as 

" So many youths of distinguished talent," &c. Southey, Caieper'i 
B^oi-i., Vol. 2. p. 71. 

" All the real taltnl and resalution in England." Mr. Rualiin, T/ie 
Snen Lampi of Archilatmi, p. 1S9, 

In 17T3| Horace Wslpole used the phrase "this mine of talent", 
which waa deolared to be "obsolete''. See Oray't Worhi («d. 
Mitford. 1868), Vul. 4, p. 218. 

Other qnotations, old aitd new, foi talent are giren in notes follow- 

' For some cnnsidGrahle time, laltiito, S:c.^lhough "a buo lalnilo " 
still means -at hiip/eiwurB', — hava been need, by lie Italians, French, 
and others, just bb we now use talent. Onco these words ware ahBiirdly 
derived, as by Manage and etymologists of his school, from BiXuv, 
" it quoi repugne la fonne du mot", to quote the obvious critjeiein nf 
M. Li[tr6. HiUoire de la Lanyue Frantaue (ed. 1863), Vol. 1, p. 7- 
Eyen BO late a lesicographer as M. Raynouani derives Calenl after 
this exploded fashion. Lexi^ue Jiotnan (1836—41), VuL 6, p. 296. 
Id the same work. Vol. 3, p. 41, the Bomance dia, ' day ', {9, atsa, 
wildly deduced from the Greek. Quoting frnni Macrobins the words 
" Cretonsea Aia rr))' tuiipav Tocant", M. Raynouard takes A/a to 
be a feminine nominative, not an accusative masculine. Though 
grammar tolerated a nomlualiie Ha in the clause just quoted, ruid 
though the word were a feminine, still it would be more prudent to 
suppose dia to be corrupted from dia, than, in qnest of its source, to 
leap over the I^tin to the Greek. M, HaynounrJ would have done 
wiaety, if, as regarded accounting far tnlenl and dia, he had adhered to 
his own very sensible principle, Inid down in Vol. 1, p. ixvii. : " Je 
n'si eu reoours au grec, pour eipliqurr I'origine d'un mot, qu'i de- 
fiiut de toutc autre langue moins ancieiine d'oi) je ne pnuvais le faire 
deriver. par In rai^on qu'cn fait d'ctymolo^e, e'est geo^ralement la 
[ilua proche qui aide Ic micui ft foire connallre le sens primitif dcs 

Duoange quotes, from the will of Stephania, Queen of NaTarre, 
the following passage, written in 1098 : " Igilur si venerit ad aliquant 
de mens filias in taUntiim Deo servire", &c. Here lnlrnlma moans 
'desire'. I do not find that the patriitic writers used either ToKavrov 
or talmtam metaphorically. 

Tatenl signifies, in Chaucer's tmnslaCion of Soethius, ftc, and in 
Gower, Udall, Chapman, fie. &c,, 'will', ' inciinatiou ', 'affeotiou', 
'appetite', 'earnest humour', 'passion'. 
Some twenty or tiirty medieial deiivuti^ei of taUulum might here 


soon as talents came to import ^ mental faculties, en- 
dowments, or qualifications', there was no violence 

be specified. To keep to English, talentif^ for ' desirous *, occurs in 
Sir Oawayne and the Green Knight (ed. 1864), L 350. And Chaucer 
uses the verh entalenten, for * excite *. Even in Sir Walter Scott's 
novels, we find maltalenf, — once, * displeasure ', * anger*, — for *evil 
inclination ', with talent, for * inclination ', 'purpose *. 

M. Roquefort, after stating the value of the Attic talent, says : 
" Le mot talent fut ensuite applique aux tresors du genie, aux con- 
noissances, aux heureuses dispositions pour une science ou un art." 
Dietionnaire ^tymologiqtte^ &c. (1829), Vol. 2, p. 428. 

The old metaphorical meanings assigned, hy M. Haynouard, to 
talent are "envie, desir, volonte, gout, penchant, disposition**. 
Lexique Romany Vol. 5, p. 296. 

Still later, M. Burguy has : '* Talent, talant, telant . . . talent 
(monnaie) — desir, envie, volonte, gout, inclination de I'esprit, pro- 
pension, disposition, resolution ; de talentuniy TaXavroVy halance, d'oCi 

poids, trait, traction, attraction La signification aptitude, 

habilite, qu*on attribua plus tard k talent^ se rapporte k la signification 
primitive, somme, tresor, qu'on a sur soi." Grammaire de la Langtie 
d'Oil, VoL 3, pp. 358, 359. 

" Talent . . . proprement tre^r, richesse, puis, don de la nature, 
g^nie.** M. Brachet, Dietionnaire ^tpfnologique, &c., p. 519. 

As to several of the links in most of these evolutional chains, how- 
ever, no attempt is made to show that they ever existed ; and, until 
their existence shall be proved historically, the etymologists who de- 
rised them are to be commended as ingenious, rather than as scientific. 

The third signification which Dr. Johnson gives of talent is * quality, 
disposition', which he calls "an improper and mistaken use ". Lord 
Clarendon and Swift are quoted for it. But why were these uses — I 
put the plural ; for they are not to be identified,—" improper and mis- 
taken ** ? They were once very common ; and talent had, sometimes, 
the meanings 'characteristic*, 'specialty*, 'habit*, &c., also. For 
these several senses I subjoin extracts. 

"To prove how they would use their talent of natural light'*, &c. 
Barrow, JForks, Vol. 2, p. 195. 

" To every one some talent is committed, which, in subordination to 
God's service, he may improve ", &c. Id., ibid., Vol. 3, p. 214. 

" Aye, but that sort of knowledge is not a wife's talent.** Vanbrugh, 
The Provoked Wife, Act I, Scene 1. 

"Besides, 'tis my particular talent to ridicule folks." Id,, ibid,, 
Act 2, Scene 2. 


in speaking of a single such facultyj endowment, or 
qualification, as a talent, or in the subsequent step, 

" Lord "Rtike and Lord Fopliogton give you tlieir lalenl in their 
tiHo." Jaremy Collier, A Short Ti'sw, Ac. (ed. 1730). p. 113. 

" Hailing a a meiin and unchristian tatfnl." Id., ibid., p. 197, 

I omit Eome twenty more like instances in CoUier. 

" It 'i true, J. T. calls this an uapurdoaiible simDe ; but when, then, 
vould he revive it ? It must certainly be (or no other reason hul Ifaat 
he has a mind, as far as his iaktit will reach, to make clergymen of all 
orders and denominations ridiculous." Remarks on the ' Zift iif Mr. 
Mittoa', Sec. (ie99), p. 11. 

"The most nec«esary talent, theroFore, in a man cf vonvereation, 
ubicb is what ne ordinarily intend by a line gentlemnn, is a good 
judgment." Steele, The Gnardinn, Ko. 21, 

" It wit is to be measared by the circumstanoPB of lime and place, 
there is no man has, gpUDrally, bo litUe of that lalenl as he who ia a 
Tit by profession." Id., {bid., No. 29. 

" I shall here add, that I know nothing so oiFeolual to raise a man's 
fortune as complaisance, which recommends more to the faionr of the 
great than wit, knowledge, or ajiy other talent whataoever." Addison, 
The Guardian, No. 162. 

"Ho enjoyed, ia the highest perfeotion, two talei'li which do not 
often meet in the same person, — the neatest strength of good sense, 
and (he most eicjuiaite taste oF politeniss." Id., The Frethalder, 
No. 89. 

" Mr, Wesley owns his talent of ejecting Satan." Bishop Lavingloii, 
The Enthiaiama of Xethadiiti and Fapiiti Compared (ed. 1833), 

'■ Pride i 

i, Pamela (ed. 18U), Vol. 1, 

laleut bnt iU-natilre." Id.. ih!d., Vol. 3, p. 343. 

" The raan-s talent is not taciturnity," Id., Hid., Vol. 4, p. 261. 

"Mr. Pope's bodil^r disadvantages must incline Lim to a more 
laborious oultiration of his talent, without wbieh ho foresaw that be 
must have languished in obscurity." Sbcnstone, IFoiks (ed. 1764), 
Vol. 2, p. 177. 

*> Tet what shall we say for those churlish malecontents who pro- 
tend to write satire, with no other earthly talent for it than rank ma- 
levolencB ? " Anon., The World, No. IBl. 

Sterne says, regarding "the malignity and the festivity of wit": 
" The one is a mere quickness nf apprehension, void of Immauity, and 
ia 1 laieM of the Devil; the other", &c. Sermon 18. 


transforming the concrete into the abstract, and 
giving us talent. This was, however, only part of 

" Why, you can't, sir, be a stranger to his prodigious skill in the 
traveller's talent ? " Foote, The liar, Act 2, Scene 1. 

" I am the more solicitous about it, because it relates to the only 
taste we can call our own ; the only proof of our original talent 
in matter of pleasure, — I mean, our skill in gardening." Gray, 
JTorks, Vol. 4, p. 21. 

" You are a lawyer, sir, and know better than I do, upon what par- 
ticular occasions a talent for misrepresentation may be fairly exerted.'* 
Letters of Junius^ No. 18. 

" The talent of haranguing in private company is insupportable." 
Bishop Home, Olla Podrida, No. 7. 

" The Latin translation is so confused, that I should have wondered 
if Martin, whose talent for the languages was none of the happiest, 
had understood it.'* Porson, Letters to Mr. Archdeacon Travis^ p. 220. 

** In his att£teks on Salmasius, and others more obscure, ne appears 
to have mistaken his talent^ in supposing he was witty." Landor, 
Works, Vol. 2, p. 173. 

Some old exemplifications of the use of talent shall now be brought 

" And, all thoughe I do neither dyspute nor expounde holy scrip- 
ture, yet, in suche workes as I have and intende to sette forth, my 
pore talent shall be, God willing, in suche wyse bestowed, that no 
mannes conscience shalbe therwith offended." Sir Thomas Elyot, 
The Image of Governance (ed. 1544), Preface, sig. a iii r. 

" The poore talent of learnyng whiche god hath lent me." Ascham, 
Toxophilus (1545), p. 140 (ed. 1868). 

** That poore talente whyche god hath endued them wyth." Raphe 
Robynson, Translation of Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1551), p. 15 
(ed. 1869). 

" Set your talents a worke." Gosson, The Schoole of Abuse (1579), 
p. 52 (ed. 1868). 

" I hartily thanke the author himselfe for using his pleasaunte and 
witty talente yfith. so much discretion, and with so little harme," &c. 
Anon. (1580), in Ancient Critical Essays^ &c.. Vol. 2 (1815), p. 258. 

" If, in the knowledge of nature, thou hast learned, by songs, to 
praise God, his justice, and heavenly providence, or, in moral know- 
ledge, to commende the law, humane societe, the government of the 
common-wealth, and therein to respect honor, not profit, hide not this 
talent f but teach it others, and give thy selfe an example, unto them, 
of well doing, and of profiting every one." The French Academie, 
Part 1 (ed. 1589), pp. 352, 353. 

the process to which we owe talent, aa now employ 
Formerly, the word denoted ' apecitic or dietinctiT 

'alertl, and na tfac pooreim 
MabbR, The Rogwi (1621 

" But 1 shall tp|| thoe, aceordiag to 
of my underBlaading ehall give me lea' 
Psrt'l. p. 123, 

e having beatowed on yon a talent lat^r than that of ai 
other Tomao," fie. James Hayward, TAe MnM'd f'irjin (168i 
p. 16. 

" On her, therefore, apent he all the laltiil of his hatred." Id 

" Their tcarning, ; db any, consisU onlj in Bomv Buperndal lalmt a 
preaching," &e. Chilli ngwoith, Wmks {eil 1742), p. 17. 

A few reterenccB are subjoined for tliosB nho wish to 
thoFDUghly tnM the anhject here conaidered. Biahop 8andersMl|! 
Tweli-i Sn-mmi, &c. (1637}, p. lOB. Oataker, in Abil Sederin 
(1651), p 625. Lord Preston, Translation of Bosthiwi (169£), p. 23< 
MandeTilU, no Fabli of the Beri (ed. 1724), p. (S. Colcridg 
JjMjn on Eii Own Timee. pp. IBl, 1S7, 1S9, 238, 240, 4S8, 401 
736: Chureh and Stale, &o. (eJ, 1839), p. 402. Charles Laiol 
Ftbm Warkt (ed. 1838), Vol. 3, p. 162. Wordawurth, Peeticat WVJ 
(eiL 18*8), Vol. 3, p. 324. 

It will have heen observed, from the eitracta given near the b 
nlng of this note, that the French el^niologiste do not suppose tl 
talent, a» now used, to he deduced from the parable of the lalmtt, 
nor have I diacotared that the sense of 'ability' pven to taleulti 
considered, by the Italians, to have such a history. That our conati 
) of the parHhIe have helped brgely to popularize our tale 
for ' ability ', is, 1 tbink, all that can be aisercod cuDfldeotly. T 
raodieval modiflcations of (nim/uin— and even talenlum itself — mel 
'desire', 'inclination', &c., between whieh and the aenae of th 
classical original there ia no perceptible conneiion. The link hctwc 
these senncB, assuming that there was one, is lost. My contention 
that, in like manner, there prcbitbly was a nexus of denotation, — a 
very likely it was not an elliptical metaphor,— intermediate to 'dcain 
and 'ability', aa senses of talmto, &e. Our present sense of lali\ 
doM not appear, I believe, in our literature, before the days when w 
laninia^e was undergoing copious e ri hm b as of translalioi 
made into it from the Itulinn, and h re h milinritv of oi 

ancestors with French, In these (tuag respectl ly, falrnto so 
talent alroudj signiRed 'ability' ; ese gea. whence IT 

I to have derivud this siimiflo develnprnpna 

investigations, touching the point are to any fruith 

reiult, l0 be pnwscuted. 

[ nieiital endowmentB,' and waa intensified, as it now 

is, by being made plural ; and then, from being de- 

I finite, it became indefinite, and acquired the accepta- 

I tion of ' general mental ondowmenta.' ' A man of 

' talents ' would satisfy both Landor and Archbishop 

Trench ; and 'a man of talent' would, likewise, satisfy 

almost anybody else, as Burke,' Godwin,' "William 

Taylor,* Ilazlitt,* Charlea Lamb,' Mr. De Quiuecy," 

I Lord Macaulay,' and Dr. Kewraan,' for instance. 

The objection felt to the phrase ' man of talent ' seems 

est on the notion, that the metaphor implied in 

I it amounts to an intolerable catachreais. A person 

influenced by this notion must, indeed, draw nice 

distinctions, not to find ' man of talentu ', also, figura- 

) live beyond endurance. At any rate, though ho 

I might put up with 'a man of genuine talents', or 

I with ' a Tasm of sterling talents', he ought, consistently, 

L to reject such locutions as ' a man of versatile, or of 

transcendent, talents ', and ' talents of a high order ' ; 

since nummulary talents, however qualifiable, are not 

"Men of talrni" 


n A Letter 

I inUiam Elliot, Eiq., 

a of (afc«(", see The Bngiiirer {1797), pp. 10, 31; tot 
"men of taleai ", pp. 307. 364 ; for "penong o( talent", p. fil. 

> "A genllemun of taUnt". Th« Annual Hn'itu'.Yol. 6 (B08)i 
p. 268. ' CharaclfrUtui (ed. 1837), p. 134. 

' The Letlert of Charb» lamb (ad. 1B37), Vol. 2, p. 34. 

• Ww*., Vol. 7, p. 18 1 Vol. 15, p. IfiO; Set. &c. But ace, par- 
ticularly, Mr. Da Qmnoey'a cluborata coulrsst between jeni'iM and 
taUI. in Vul. o, pp. 27fi, 278. 

' MifMaaeaw. tTritiiuf (London ad. of 18(10), Vol. 2, p. I"" 

ElMwhtre ha hiu "iniliwtrjr and lalinl", "rising talent ", "sufficient 
ultKl ", " a greater displny at talmt ", " more taUi't ", &c. 

* ApBtogia pro Vita Stui, p. 277: Lecluret and Et*ayt on Vm- 
TrriilD SaiJ«el», pp. 22, IDS, 192, 341 : Estsyt Critical and Sistoriml 
Vol 1, pp. 133, 153, 270; Vol. 2, p. 379. 

to be qualified as either versatile, or franseetidrnf, or of 
any order, high or low,' Here, once more, we have 
profeBsed critics of English marking with reproba- 
tion a mode of speech which, while legitimated by 
the most obvious analogy, contfimporary usage uni- 
versally sanctions. 

Coleridge, borrowing, consciously or unconsciously, 
from Dr. Johnson," is reported to have said : 

" I regret to see that vi!e nnd barbarous vocable talented 
stealing out of the newspapers into the leading reviews 
and most respectable publications of the day. Why not 
ehilUnged, farthivged, tenpenced, &c. 1 The formation of a 
participle passive from a noun is a licence that nothing 
hut a very peculiar felicity can excuse. If mere conveni- 
ence is to justify such attempts upon the idiom, you can- 
not stop till the language becomes, in the proper sense of 
the word, oim-upt. Most of these pieces of slang come 
from America." * 

' "ThtMB whisperers who, not having sufflcient porta to pniliiA 
tilde own taltnli", &e, Henry Earl ot MoonioutK Advcrtiieinmti 
fmn Fm-nmiiti (ed. ie£6), p. 199. 

"Xabli lelmli in wvetttl Boioncea." Id., iba., p. 244. 

" I msan to be vaall; civil to female lalenl of all lorli." H. S. 
Bhwidan, The J^itata Comspondenee of Iiatid Garriei, fto., Vol. 2, 
p. 34S. 

On the priaoiplos spolcen ot ia the text, theio looutioni are inad- 

Also aee the foot of p. 67, mpra, vhere, in the paaasge from Tit 
Friath Aeadtmit, ona ia exhorted to (meh a talent. 

* " There hat, of lata, iLrisea a practice of giving to adjectiTes de- 
rived from eubstantiTCa the terminatioa of parliciplei ; such no * the 
tnltured plain', 'the daiaiid bank': but I am eocry to see, in. the 
lines of a iFholar like Gray, 'the honeyed spring'." Life nf Oray. 

Mr. Mitford, in the preface to his edition of Gray'ii Wnrlit, qUDto» 
(in admirable reply to thia, from Lord Grenrille's unpubliahed Suyai 
Miirka. We are there Teminded that honiyed hna the sanction of 
both Rlmkeapenre end Milloii. and that the anabgnua mellilut ia found 
In CataUua, Ciaera, and Horace. ' Table-talk (cd. 133d), p. ITl. 


Commenting, at an earlier date, on Southey's ex- 
pression, "the mother's anguished shriek'', he re- 
marks, to the same effect, as regards grammatical 
principle : 

'* Not English. A participle presupposes a verb. ^N'ow, 
there is no such verb as * to anguish ' ; ergo, there can be 
no such participle as anguished. To guard with jealous 
care the purity of his native tongue, the sublime Dante 
declares to be the first duty of a poet. It is this convic- 
tion, more than any other, which actuates my severity to- 

Towards America and Americans Coleridge's dispositions were not 
of the most amicable. 

In the second 'of Satyrane^a LetterSj which form part of the Bio- 
graphia Literaria, he informs his readers, that " the proper antipode of 
a gentleman is to be sought among the Anglo-American democrats." 

Elsewhere he says : ** Speaking of America, it is, I believe, a fact, 
yerified beyond doubt, that, some years ago, it was impossible to obtain 
a copy of Ttie Newgate Calendar^ as they had all been bought up by 
the Americans, — whether to suppress this blazon of their forefathers, 
or to assist in their genealogical researches, I could never learn satis- 
factorily." Letters J Conversations^ and Becollections of S . T. Coleridge 
(1836), Vol. 2, p. 139. 

Landor's estimate of Coleridge is : ** Never was love more imaginary 
than his love of truth. Not only did he never embrace her, never bow 
down to her and worship her, but he never looked her earnestly in the 
face." The Last Fruit off an Old Tree, p. 336. 

Day by day, the opinion is gaining ground, not only that Coleridge, 
with all his ability, was the essence of conceit, but that he had few real 
convictions on any jsubject. I know of no person, in the annals of 
literature, that seems to have juggled more egregiously with his con- 
science, and that has thrown more dust into the eyes of right reasun. 
Talk and write he must ; and, not to break outright with Christian 
society, there was nothing left for him but to spend his ingenuity in 
elaborating equivocal quirks and mysterious subtilties. Church-of 
Englandmen who think at all, whether high or broad, are alike pro- 
foundly indebted to him. Anglican platitudinarians agree, as to him, 
with most of the remainder of the world, fiut just so Sir Isaac New- 
ton's cook and Sir Isaac himself were at unity concerning Ptolemy's 
eccentrics and epicycles. 

ir.!e Southey, W. Scott, etc. - 

First, Coleridge condemned, absolutely, a certain 
category of words in -ed ; and, afterwards, he dis- 
criminated such words ajsthetically, into the tolerable 

1 Wai and EHdi, No. IB (1867), p. IS. 

Mr, SuDiiel Bdlej prc^ipitBtel; asserts, with reference to laltnted : 
'• For thii anomalona and ohjectioaable epithet there is no precedent, 
except, perhaps, gifltd; bat the latter ia, tt all Bvonts, ullied to the 
TL'tb j/itt, vbile the former hai nntbing to nppeol to but a noun," 
Diitaurui en Farioui Sub/Kli, p. TS, foot-note. 

Tbb defeneo, boEides not being needed, ii not to the point. We 
luTB had a verb gifl; and, — for nil Dr. RichardBon'a nnhistoric nsser- 
ition to the contrnrj,— »« it did not grow out of the past participle of 
fi'vt, it miut bare grovm out of u BUbBtantire. Vidt tupra, p. fiS, 

a which the dietionBiies hiTB for the verb gift, I 

a 1. 

i*dd the following : 

"No: men that arc p/M for it . . . eeek either to keep thcmaelTes 
snt of the Couniiesion, or to get theniBelves off again, being on," 
Bishop Sanderson, Sirmmii (ad. 16S1), Vol. 2, pp. 291, 262, A aimi- 
lac instance nccnn in the Bishop's Ttcehu Sn-moni (ed, 1637], p, 9fi. 

Ateo Bee Matthew Lawrence, The Une and Pmetiei of Faith (1857), 
p. 91fl; Milton, Prom Works (Bohn's ed.), Vol, B, p. 272. 

Tonching talmled, m it was formerlf objected to, go eome object to 
jt even in our own daj. 

" Mr. Bnlwer ia not jet iafanffrf,— a psendo-participlo which no one 
will nee who ia not ripe for any atrocity ; — hut he prognma 
tnl ral*\" Thi Edinburgh RfvifV!, VoL 65 (1837), p. 77. 

Dr. Rirburdsan, in his Dietiimitry, makea the inept obaerratioB fl 
tBlmled. that " it has been too hastily naed in common speech." 
what condiridns, pray, would it not have been used-" too hastily " 

'■ Hr. Thombury, to use a vile word of bis own, is. no doubt, a 
InltHttd writer ; but he is, frequently, careless." Tht Pall JUatl Bud- 
gii, Jnly 8, IS70, p, 28, 

Talml has not, to my knowledge, been produced as a verb ; but ml- 
E, which Is just as hold a ventare, has been used as such. 

'■ Bnt n< 

Dutorgaed, o 

lalenied, and poshed so vehemently ii 

ID of whom I had no pretenoe lo hold, if ahe would go," kc. Rich- 

daon, Clariaia Harhner (ed. 1811), Vol, 3, p, 84, 

In Sir t'AarItt Grenditmi (ed. 1811], Vol, 7, p, 6, BiL'hardEon nsea 

I and the intolerable. Anguished,- at one time, was 

[ past his bearing; yet, by and by, he used it, bav- 

I iiig discovered therein "a very peculiar ielicity." 

I To himself he thus allowed a change of taste, and a 

thange in the direction of liberality, 01' this, however, 

he sometimes claimed a monopoly ; and, though with 

I hia alteration of view regarding anguished to appeal 

3 a precedent, any one that came to think favour- 

I ably of talented was, nevertheless, guilty of " slang." 

I have said that he uses anguished. In his poem 

\ called The Sigh, we read of " au anguished sigh " ; and, 

I In his Monody vn the Death of Ohatterton,^i&i'ha\svs&: 

" On thy cold forehead starts the angaished dew." 

While talenting and similar words have no exist- 

nce, there is a very obvious reason why words of 

I the class of talented are numerous ; namely, that we 

I oftener have occasion to express, through a verb, the 

I ideas of ' possessed of a quality or atti-ibute ', ' en- 

I dowedness ', &c., than we have to^ express, through 

I the same part of speech, the ideas of 'communicating 

quality or attribute', 'endowing', &c., among 

I which ideas are those denoted by the theoretic foun- 

I dations of the actual talented and the potential tatcnt- 

I ing, and their congeners/ If it were a common 

' Coleridge deotareB lixaX " there is no each verb as ' to B>ignifh '." 

I Arcliikiiiion Todd hua pointed out tliut this verb ii used hy WiclifTe ; 

d he nnd Dr. fiichurdsati shuw that it occurs aguiD and sg>aa in our 

^Oldur literature. If I were minded to spend au houi or two in taming 

IT m; notes, I mi^^ht supplomauC their quutatiuni for it by half a 

: but n< 

* There, too, he bos " the aittaged dell " ; in Dommlic Ptace, " a 
^tetlttgai Tale " ; in Lina in the Matinisr of Spttimr, " a liliid bank " ; 

n Odi to the Eiparlin^ Yair, " ramparted with rooka " ; &c. &c. 

* fiot, howcrer, Ihut the verb neutei talent \a bjr any means unEug- 

operation to eorond a nobleman, or to laurel a poet, 
we should, probiibly, have, to match our coroneted 
and laurdled, the verbs coronet and linirel,^ with the 
participles coronciing and laurelling. The verb 
talent, in like manner, we might mint legitimately, 
if we wanted it. The way in which talented and 
many of its fellows were once frequently used shows 
that these words, to the consciouaness of our ances- 
tors, began with being strictly participles.' At pre- 
sent, they have the fujiction of participial adjectives ; 
and, what between their distinctive termination and 
their history, tbey arc, therefore, to be considered, 
on scientific piinciples, as developments from ideal 
verbs.' The analogy on which they are formed is, 

posabls. Such lorbs, from Bubatantivce, we have in great ubundance ; 
•a elmul, _firf, gardtn, knot, league, leeliire, &c, &a. &c. 

' SiCBroniit no3 ielaurei, and not necFGsarilj implying intenaivonHB, 
wnnld be juet m analogioaL We bavB dealt diiTerently with height 
and ilrcHgih, in farming htighten uid ttrmgthm. Bat tboaaimde of 
(ubstantivea we convert into verbs, without the aid of preflt or raffii. 

* The fullowin^ pasauge froni Abp, Abbot, of the time of James 
I., is quoted b;; Arclideacon Todd : " VTbat a miseiabte and restleea 
thing smbitinn ie, when one talented but )u n common pcreon," &«. 

Arobdencon Todd ako quotes from Bishop Hall : " th;' hand lerplred 
with a reed.'' 

"I marvall yonr noblemen of England doe not desire lo be better 
laiigtuged in the forraino lungunges." Pnttenbani, p. 227. 

" Those that are tbronghly arted in navigation." Feltbam, Simlvei, 
&Q. (ed. 1628), Second Centnrie, p. 33. 

Compitro Oovrpar's "maned with wavy gold." Iliad, S> 47- 

' Coleridge himself considers taletUid to bo " a purticiplu paaaiva " ; 
but, on lUB premises, he is very nbsurd in bo Considering it. " A par- 
ticiple presupposes a vorb ", he tells us ; bnt be does not admit the na- 
lumplion of u verb lolent. IIow cim " a participle patisire " originsta 
from B suhBtautive, unless the auktantive b transfonned into a verb, 
\n lerie as intermedium ? 

Dean Alfotd is n» inconsistent as Coleridge. 

" Tultiitei is about ts bad aa passible. What is it? It \uoVi like 

further, so well establislied, that, whatever Coleridge 
: dogmatized, in hia haate, "mere convenience *" is 

a pnrticiplB. From what ?erb } Fancy such a verb ui ' la tutenl^ ■'" 
f ^PUaforlht Qaetn' » Englith (ed. 1864), p. 109. 

"As we know in the cose of talcnled and monej/ed, Ihc participle maj . 
be tolerated long before tbe verh is invented." I6id., p. 116. 

Ou the first inspection, lalentrd, to the Sean, only " looka like a 
participle " i but, bj the time he has written seran pnges, its niece re- 
■dmblance becomes a nalitj. Moreo'vcr, the Terb lalunt, just befoia 
eiclaimed at, is now contemplated as among pOBaibililies. Wafl this 
&om a Budiien fecundity of " fancy " ? 

' What ulhec plea did our old writers consult, when they devised 

' priHcipUd, which, with the verb pHnoipla, they were bo fond of ? See, 

y btsides tha quotationa of the Isxicographers, Fuller and others, in 

^igfAaf«Fi't'Ua, pp. 130, 144,364, 437; Burlhogge, (7Biwa JJei' (1679), 

[ p. 244 : Puller, Tlw ModtmUBii, 4o. (ed. 1B43), p, 279. 

We have, nJno, the verba active advaatoge, epprmliee, evidmee, 
frouHil, inilaiiK, jyrimUge, tetncdg, ra/traice, &c. 4:0. &c. 
Or. Priestley, diffenrig widely, in opinion, liom Dr. Johnson and 
I Coleridge, wcites: " Some nouns are elegantly converted into verbs, 
I without any changij at all. Ciinfiiotied, diadeiard, rihkaiisd." TAi 
Rudimtnti a/ Engliih Grammar, &o. (ed. 1826}, p. 30. 
Some conception of the freedom with which words like (sirn/erf used 
I to be ettemporized may he funned from the ensuing extracts and re. 
[ ferences. 

" The idolatour, the tyraunt, and the whoremonger are no met« 

I nynistflrs for bym, though they be never so gorgyonely iHytertd, eopcd, 

Itad typpetid, or never so fyoely foresd, pylgimcd, and •carlttted." 

Bishop Bale, The Vofafyon. &c. (1653}, in T/it Sarkian Hisullang 

(ed. Oldys and Park), \'ol. B, p. 443. 

"Money is a generall man, and, without doabt, excellently parted." 

Feltbam, SubIvu, &q, Beoond Centurie, p, 106, "A Mud band." 

~i„ fiW., p. 20. 

"Whether there be any kind of magick simply so naturall, or laud- 

J ably so arltil, as may serve to abstract it from the maleliciill and dio- 

I bolicuU?" Gnule. nsc-fm»"-(a,p. 166. Also see pp. 3, 6fl, 177, 192. 

He most indifferent and intelligane'd men." Uovrell, Twehe 

I Stvtrat Treaiiia, Ac. (1661), p. 266. 

Bihmiiiwtd. Pnltenham, p. 120. Scienad. Henry Earl of Mon- 
mnnth, AdiKrtiKmmtt, ke., p. £3. 

n there are btvted and npitrred, kilted and lartttnrd, bearded, 
rd, canlvrrd, mrhimelcd, ekitterrd, dvddeird, homed, ivied, 
', himred, liUtnd, livtried, orphatwi, proyn-tied, shttYd«4,»U«ii4, 

lite ground enough to justify us in coining terms on 
.e same model, whenever they may really he required. 
"Oh for an Act of Parliament," ejaculates Cole- 
[ ridge/ "for the trunsportation to America, or Van 
I Dtemon'e Land, of the vile, infelicissimous felicit- 
I ously!" On the part of Coleridge, of all men, it 
I could, certainly, have demanded very little reflection 
P to bethink himself of cases in which felicUomlif con- 
I veys one's meaning better than happily; the two 
worda not being, by any means, synonymous, in the 
I strict sense of the term. Furthermore, if the red 
rag of America had not presented itself to the poet's 
lagination, in company with the unctuous adverb 
which he spurns so contemptuously, it is scarcely to 
I be doubted that he would have dismissed it with 
punishment less severe than outright pro- 
scription, and banishment beyond sea. Every reader 
must remember that, in Ohrkinbel, an owlet, weirdly 
prescient of a providential mastiff-6iVcA hard by, 
I instead of comporting itself like ordinary owlets, de- 
I livers itself of a hideous seriteh} If this novel pro- 
cedure of Minerva's favourite were at all better cal- 
culated than an ordinary regulation screech to pierce 
or infrigidate one's marrow, it might be connived at. 
, But, to moat tastes, it may be suspected, a lazily in- 

I tlipperid, ijmtanltil, veHomed, wea/nmed, vtheelsd, fehakcrfd, viilou:eH, 
t winged, &c. &c. Bigoted, crabbtd, and a. few other anomnlieB, need 
not detain me. 

Add oountlcsa worda liVe impauiened and unaxampUd, with nom- 
poundi lilce high-limagtd luid law-ranilied, almost beyond count. 
' Compoande, however, have their own apecisi laws, 

' .\'o(ei. Tkeoloffieal, &e. (ed, 1853), p. 226, foot-note. 
> I am wtU nwaio that teriieh and lerilch-uiel are found in old 
I aathors. 


ritch must give deeper offence than even an 
infelicitously' hesiovi%AfeUeitoiisbj ; and so, in all like- 
lihood, must the demeanour of Coleridge's aim, which, 
as represented in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, 
uprist, under the despoiio spell of a coming mid. 

According to Mr. G. P. Marsh,' ' difl'ei'ent to ' is to 
be reckoned among " gross departures from idiomatic 
propriety "■ It is " common ia E 

1 This -Rord CoUridt'e uses in hia Cliurch and Slalt, &c. (ed. IS39), 
p. 192. 

' Leetum tm the Enr/liih Language, p. SS9. 

' Dean Alfotd takea 'different ie'in hnnd; and hia information 
and argumentation abiiut it are at Ma usiiilL level. lie "voi nut 
awflte," till BOmB one pointed ont to liim, that it "has betomo vtrj 
cammoQ, of late". And then: "Of caursc, aiich a combination iii 
enliiel; against all reason and anali^." 

A no Icat apeaking eiidenee of ibe Dean 'a inconipetenc}' to diacoiu-att 
on the English languid ia seen where he aap : " A com-sspondent com- 
plains of the use. by Boma of our beat writers, of the aubjunctivii 
'thou werf', aa equivalent to the indicative 'thoa uiaal'. I own ( 
had not obeerved it. Of course, there can be no doubt that it is 
wrong, wherever it may oocut." 

Thirtj' years ago, I began to make a list of writers who have used 
' thou UKri ' for ' Ibon kiikI ', It grew to inolnde a hundred and forty 
namea, the earliest of which aro Eli/ehothan ; and then I gave over. 
Dr, Johnaon, ia hia Gratitnuir, simply sap that iiw< "ought not to 
be nsed in the indicative ", — a rule which he himself violates in hia 
Prajer dated March 28, 1754. Bishop Lowth points nut the aubati- 
tution of vwl for tuail ; but he had, apparently, little idea how many 
auffragea for it could bs muatered. It was actuated, we may safely 
conjecture, by an instinct against cacophony i and ao well ia it ealflb- 
lished, that, at least in poetry, it is free from alt reproach. 

Of iBcrl, for icBii, the Eev. Mr. Blaokley says ; " We find it every- 
where, in novels and in newspapers, in poetry and in proae; audit cer- 
tainly betrays one of the results of modern neglect of grammar. The 
greaUst writers are not free from the error, who would, yet, fee! indig- 
nant enough, if anpposed not to know the difference between the indi- 
cative and subjunodve moods. 

" Men are apt — at least, those vho have not studied the subject, — tn 
take for granted, that our earlier literature is nncoulh and clumsy, and 
: ita fortDS are a mere forluitoua medley, mtWa.\. ro^e ti:t AinE^\&- 

and he might have added 'exceedingly common'. 
In truth, one Beldom hears there, except iu sermons 

flexion ; but yet our eirlier literature shows no confusion betwei^n tlie 
wunis mast and (csr(, euch aa the present sge displays : the ISibtc has 
the word te/rt oalj twice, both times in a subjunctiye sense, alwars 
using tcail lathe mdicative. And jet modern writers, who nould flosli 
into a peiBplmtion, many a time, at the thonght of having mnde such 
nn error in a Lstin quotation, do not hesitate to publish its i-qulvalent 
in English, time after time. It ia useless to excuse this, as sanctioned 
by nnage, nnleas we should say that those who know best the gnunmar 
of their natire tongue are bound to adopt and follow the errors which 
originate in tlie ignoraniie of those who truly know nothing on the suh- 
ject. A man may be a good poet and a bad grammarian ; and, to say 
that ' Ihon Kcrl there,' instead of ' thon wail there,' is to be right, be- 
cause Tennyson, or any one else, has written it, would compel us 
henceforth to adopt such a monstrous Terb as ' to uiiii ' into our lan- 
guid, because it has been used in a very beantiful poem which lately 
appeared in one of our Magazines," Word Sonip, pp. 102, 103. 

Here we hava not only the full measure of Dean Alfnrd's darkness 
in history, but a distinct enonncement of the futile notion of grammar 
which 1 hare combated so earnestly in my Secenl Eximplificatima of 
Itilse Phihlegy. 

But, first, how does Mr. £lackley know that the substitution which he 
arraigns originated in " ignorance " ? Suielj, oicept when a people 
is ntunislakablj in a state of decay, the speech of (he literate is little 
likely to be really corrupted, however it may ha altered, by the influ- 
ence of t}ie illiterate. Much rather, I should say, the grammar of the 
illiterate is likely to be improved bv the iofluBuce of the literate. It 
is not, howevc'r, a depravation that is now before us ; and to father the 
indicative uwri on " ignocanoo " is wholly grntuibins. "Was it from 
" ignorance " that icatt displaced the old unre, of which I shall soon 

As to true grammar, what is false, (onching its genesis and cha- 
racter ? If Mr, Bleckley's criticism be correct, true grammar can be 
nothing else than a sort of final revelation. To as, it is an inheritanoe 
from happier times ; and we have no more right to alter it, than we 
have to write a never than the New Testament. Any alteration of it, 
though ever so alight, must be a sophistication. 

Among "thosewlio know beat the grammar of their native tongiie". 

Mr. Blackley is scarcely to be reckoned ; seeing that he aoeounta the use of 

n indicative, to ho unknown in "our earlier literature", and 

to " betray one of the result* of modem neglect uf grammar," The 

iadieatirB tetrt, — not toadduce, needlessly for any scholar, the authority 

lectures, ' different from ' ; and, in literature, 
'different to' has, for nearly three centunes, and 

of Shakeapeore for it, — I And to b« of frequent opciirreiiKC iu Shslie- 

spflare's onnlemporariBB. I name a few o( those wto ompliiy it, The 

Earl of OiLford, quoted itl The ArU ef Ettgliih Fotaie, p. 173. John 

\ Lylj', Euphua (1579-80), pp. 182, 386 [ed. 18G8). Bilinabe Kicbl, 

[ Fameill, &c. (ifiBl), p. 188 (ed. 1846). Hobett Greene, Ji™d(o 

(1687), p. 40 (in jlrehaiea, VoL i) : Fhilemtla, p. 12 (in AnUif, 

' VoL I). Putt«ahnin, Tht Arte of Engluh Fottu (1S89), p. 1d8 (ed. 

' 1811), Gabriell HarTejr, Fbur Ltlttr; &e. (1S9Z), p. 26 (iu ArcUica, 

I Vol. 2). Tbomaa Nmh, Pifrce Rmleue, &c. (1SB2], pp. 10, 43. &e. 

(ed, 1842) i Chnit'i Ttan over Jertaaltnt (169*). pp. 23, 25 (in Arch- 

twa. Vol. 1). Qmiticni ef l^-ojilabie md FUaaant CmetrmHgn (1694), 

fol. 2a r. Kobert Southwell (before lS96),i^MfiR>/fri)rtt(ed.IS66), p. 

IS. Henrj Conatable, in the first of liiur sonnets prefixed to Sir 

Philip Sidney's^H Apuhgit for PoeMt (1696). Henry Porter, The 

PUatanl EUtorie, &c. (169B),p. 80 (ed. 1841). Bichard Johnxon, 

m Fliaiutnt Cnnceila of OldSobaan, &il, (1007), p, 32 (ed. 1844). 

Thomaa Dekker, A KnigAi'a Cottjuriiis, &c. (1907), p. 26 (ed. 1842) j 

T/u Dead Tmrme (1608), tag. E 2 r. 

It will surprise Mr. BlscUey, and snperBcialista of hia stamp, to be 

I t«ld, that, before llie fourteendi eeutnry, tbwe waa no wmf, hut in ita 

I ilcad, vien. Dr. Morris shows this ; yet, on coming to tcert, be re- 

nurka, entirely In the old-fasbionedl spirit of pbilologizinj;, that it " is 

Knnelimea, but wrongly, used for the subjnnctiYe Kere (second person 

singular)." SUlsrieal OiUtiiiei of EagtUk Aeeidtnee, pp. 181, 182. 

Br. Johnson, Dishop Lowth, £e. &b.. l^ow nothing vlintever of such 

syntax as ' if tbon leere '. And how often bos it appeared in literature, 

within the two last centuries P 

Mr. Marsh has prudnoed passages which proTB that <eau and wrt, 
u indinalives, were used contemporaneoiuly, but with a distinction ; the 
Utter signifying 'became', tccturei a» the English Language, f^. 
316, 317, 

Ben Jonsnn, in treating of maa and iBfre, plainly does not intend 
what he a^ys ; for he implies, that Ibey maj, in all cdbcb, be employed 

Jt, strange substitute for tuiut, namely u)eTiil, is used by Eakewilt, 
An Apotogie, tc. (1630), p. S3. TVarl occurs in tbe original drauglit 
of ona of Shakespeare's plays. Si-e The Firel Sketches, &c (1B43), 
pp. 16, 21, £c. The indicative ' tbon wen ' lingered on during moat 
f the aiitsentb century. See Sir Thomas Elyot, Tht Immje ef 
OiKM-MHK (1644), fol. 102 i: Udall, Sniph Soinlir Diiiilcr (1563), 
p. 33 (ed. 18Q9) : Puttenbant, The Arte, &c., p. IBS. 


perhaps for a longer period, been competing with it 
for the mastery.^ Though first-class writers have, 

It is curious how many who venture criticism of our mother-tongue 
show themselves unequal to what they undertake. The Rev. Jame« 
Gurnhill, in English Retraced (1862), — a book which, with all its im- 
perfections, I am glad to possess, — has an article on incontinently, for 
* forthwith', regarding which he writes: "In this sense I do not 
recollect ever to have heard it used, although it still finds a place in 
our dictionaries *'. Of jakes he also tells us : " I do not know that it 
occurs in any other passages than the two already quoted [from the 
Geneva Bible ] ; nor have I met with it elsewhere ". 

What can be this gentleman's acquaintance with the living English 
of conversation, let alone modern books ? And what his acquaintance 
with our older literature ? 

1 Dekker, Chettle, and Haughton, Patient OHshU (1603), p. 72 (ed. 
1841). Sir Arthur Gorges, Translation of Bacon's Be Sapientia Vete- 
mm (ed. 1619), Preface. Mabbe, The Rogue (ed. 1623), Part 1, p. 
101. James Hay ward, The Banished Virgin (1635), pp. 35, 78. Brath- 
wait. The Tioo Lancashire lovers (1640), p. 231 : The English Gentle- 
man^ &c. (ed. 1641), p. 178. Howell, Twelve Several Treatises, &c. 
(1661), p. 194. Glanvill, Plus Ultra (1668), p. 146. Trans, of // 
Nipotismodi Roma (1673), Part l,p. 109. Addison, The Spectator, No. 
239. Sir Richard Steele, The Guardian, No. 144. Theophilus Gibber, 
The Lover, Act 3. Samuel Richardson, Perme/a (ed. 1811), Vol. 2, pp. 
46, 335: Clarissa Harlowe (ed. 1811), Vol. 2, p. 347: Sir Charles 
Grandison (ed. 1811), Vol. 3, p. 123; Vol. 6,p. 344. Shenstone, Letters, 
No. 23. Cambridge, The World, No. 102. Coleman and Thornton, The 
Connoisseur, Nos. 71, 106. Jones, of Nayland, Theological and Mis- 
cellaneous Works, Vol. 2, p. 203. Foote, The Devil upon Ttvo Sticks, 
Act 1, Scene 3. Miss Bumey, Evelina (ed. 1779), Vol. 1, Letters 
10, 25 ; Vol. 3, Letter 2 : Cecilia (1782), Book 1, Ch. 9 ; Book 7» 
Ch. 6 ; Book 8, Ch. 7 ; Book 10, Ch. 8. Lady Hesketh, Poems and 
Early Productions of William Cowper, &c. (1825), p. 60. Southey, 
Colloquies, &c. (ed. 1831), Vol. 2, p. 273 : Essays, Moral and Political 
(1832), Vol. 1, p. 10. 

Mr. J. R. Bartlett, in his Dictionary of Americanisms (second ed.), 
p. 119, writes: "In England, the expression is * different to* ; and so 
the old English writers quoted in Richardson's Dictionary.^' Neither 
there, nor in any other dictionary that I know of, is a single writer, 
old or new, quoted for * different to.* 

* Different to ' is criticized in Robert Baker's Remarks on the Eng- 
lish Language (ed. 1779), p. 4. Baker calls it "an expression often 
used by good writers." • 


B and there, let ' different to ' escape their pens,' 
it can hardly be sIiowti, however, that any of them 
have given into it advertently.' In all probability, 
it has seemed to them too colloquial. Just at pre- 
■ sent, tho critics are strong in their opposition to it ; 
md no one comes forward in its defence. 

Kow that, like party, for ' person ', it has de- 
fended to tho vulgar,' it may, quite possibly, be 
raidiculed wholly out of respectable vogue. But the 
it objection to it, after all, is, that it contributes to 
livided usage, a thing always to be resisted, where 
resistance is practicable. "We have, in it, most 
iely, one of those numerous locutions which, ori- 
ginaling in that spontaneous aversion to dissonance 
which marks the easy flow of nnpedantic conversa- 
tion, careful writers, in observance of analogy, have 
mot deemed worthy of dignifying by admission into 
ihe language of books. To speak of it, therefore, as 
Klonging to the class of " gross departures from idi- 
matic propriety ", is to pass off a verdict of personal 
mder the guise of an adjudication of science ; 

' There are casus in wliicli ' dilFecent (o ', but nut ioi ' different/roiH ', 
■ rigbt. " Seeing all thi^ee maj bee quite atherwiee altered by tbe con- 
IKlutiun of tbe psreots, b; nature's work, diSerent tu botb their oon- 
' 'tutioni," &o. John Ghiiile, nfie-*""'riii, p. 87. 

• Mr. Thaukeraj, in. Tka Ntmaimea, after having invariably used 
'diffenint (o", prefcrB ' difFerent/r'oni,' at p. 112 of Vol. 4, nnd ibenfle- 
forward. I refer to the Taucbaib! edition. 

Modern writsra, as Charles Lloyd, Dr. H, Stubbing, Miss Charlotta 
Bruiitf, Mr, J. Fyerott, Mr. Tbomas Hughes, ka. &c., might b<i quoted, 
for'diffatBntJo', by the score. 

' " Ue talked kinder difierent ta what I can. talk." OOiis Trip t» 
L/rndsn (Nurwiob, 1871), p. Id. 

Any one who has oourersed with tlie common people of England 
ntul know that ' different to ' is in everyday use among thsm. Lt tiu& 
[ deKonded to them from their auperion. 

and rational science, in matters of language, has no 
dependence on a priori ridea. " Idiomatic propriety " 
18 not a thing that comes down to us, ready-made, 
and fixed for all eternity, from the skies ; and, 
besides, it is the tongue and ear, quite us much aa 
the hand, hy which it is determined. The English 
neither write nor say ' differ to' ;^ and, hence, 
from a sense of symmetry, most of them, in deliber- 
ately recording their thoughts, eschew ' diiferent to '? 
If we had had a verb neuter avert, it may be that 

' Differ may talie ici'l/i, when in opi»ion, or tbe lilie, ia eipresGcd 
Of UD^eretuod. 

" If [D di^tr, eier hereafter, with on Dpatart minister is tu be i»n- 
■trned ", &c. John Wilkoe, The North Sritm, No. 37. Also sen God- 
win, nS« Enqmrer, pp. Bi, 278. 

In other vases, tuo, differ has mnietimea taken u-i'M. 

" Idolatry . . . diffirs hut n letter tnitA idiolBtry." Bishop Andtewes, 
Simty-fix Sermom {eil. 1841—1844), Vol.-2, p. 393. 

' Not do they write or any 'diffarlng to'. But just as hiu^h ia 
'disagreejngtd'. Edward Dntxt*, Machiavftt Diteeiiria {\m),'p. ISA. 
And the flipression is found in Glanrill, Stepnk Sdenlijiea (ed. l66o), 
p. 91. BBntleydoeBeTenworso than this. "They would, , . trsduie, 
punish, and peraeoate, to the utmoat, all that diHigroa to thera." 
Workt, Vol. 3. p. 312. Baphe Eobynaon has "disa^einff /rmn". 
Translntion of Sir Thotnas More's Ulopiii (1551), p, 99 (ed. 1869). 
Gianvill has " disagree /roin ". Ussa;); &c. (1676), II., p. 41. 

' Difference to' is not entirely nnfcnown. Riehardsnn, J'nmeh, Vol. 
2, p. 347- Miss Bumey, Eveliiia, Vol. 2, Letter 21. Doubtless it was 
bused on ' different to \ 

' Difference tliaii' oiwurs in Pntt«nham, The Arte, &e., p. 116, 

We Bnd, BB the result of wero heedlwsneas, 'different t/mii' in 
Addison, Steele, De Foe, Ricbaidson, Coleman and Thorutoo, Miaa 
Bnraoy, Coleridge, Mr. De Quineey, Mi. Thackeriiy, and Dr, New- 
man. Similar are the following. ' Another /rum '. GlanTJll, Utb- 
dale Prieo. Lord Teignmonth, landor, Mr. De Qnincey, Mr. Dietens, 
Mr. Churles Eeade, Mr. Matthew Arnold. ' Another la '. John Gaule. 
Addison, Miss Barney, Mr, DJekeuB, ' Cnntrarj Hum '. Hilton, Henry 
More, Steele. ' Contrary /™«'. Bp. Wnrhnrlon, Graves. 'Peculiar 
_/5ow '. Dean Swift. ' Opposite y™m', Steele, Landot, "Inseparable 
fs'. Steele. •AnptberB than'. Dr. Newman, 'Morefof'. Cowper, 


\ the influence of the preposition it would regu- 

I larly have takeu would have kept us from altering 

the ' averae from ' of our forefathers into ' averse /o ', 

now generally prevalent.' To sum up this argument, 

the conclusion is, that ' diS'orent to ' is, essentially, an 

EngHah colloquialism; and, like many colloquialisms, 

evinces how much stronger the instinct of 

, euphony is than the instinct of scientific analogy,^ 

In a tale of contemporary English life, to make its 

I actors, unless they were very formal personages in- 

I deed, say anything else than 'difi'erent to' would 

simply misrepresent facts, Mr. Marsh tells us, that, 

I though 'different to' is "common in England," in 

I America, " none but very ignorant persons would be 

guilty of" employing the expression. Herein are 

I two palpable sophisms. Englishmen, for using this 


' Preoiaely lika digereut and arirm, vs. to the nature o£ its prefii, ia 
iimimiiar, aFtHr wldub. It ia naiml to put to. Sn it is cunstrucUid by 
Miss Bnmey, Pnlaj, Hallam, Sonthey, Mr, Ue Qaincej, Mr. J. 8. 
Mill, anil Dr. Nowman; with M or from, bj William Godwin and 
Landor; with fmm nnly, by Gibbon and Charles Lloyd. 'Foreign. 
Jmin ' and ' fon^gn (o ' nare long used promisCuoOBly. 

The old verb duaird almost always took, 1 believe, viilh. ' Dia- 
CDrdant to ', whiuli cIomIjt matclies ' different (o ', has the sanction n[ 
■Warbiirlon. A SetcetioH fram UHpublishid Paptrt, &e. (1841), 
p, 404. Barrow haa ■ discordant from '. Works, Vol. 3, p, 372, 

' Formerly I inclined to anotber view, seeing in the (s uf ' dilTer- 
nt ta', the implication of cuntrasC. But this notion has no anund 
oaiB, hiahiiii»! or. other. It would ha a nice rBSnemcnt, and also 
lotirelcu, that ahuuld abate the distinetness marked by the from of 
differenl/rom ', into the oomparnlive vagnenesa of relation eipresaed 
by the vicarioua lo, Beaidca ,this, 'different to ', clearly enough, waa 
nvvi<r auggealed by coriuuB reflection. 

I have touni] in Italian, whore it ia anomaloaa, what corresponds to 
dilTeceiit (".' " E, in vcro, una Ggnra di pictra sarebbe stata poca 
I lei dijertnte." Bosini, La Mamaa di Monsa (ed. Pisa, 1829^, Vul. 


phrase, are implied to be ignorant ; as if their choos- 
ing to speak like the vagt majority of their educated 
countrymen, in preference to obeying the behests of 
transcendental grammarians, made them so. On the 
other hand, in America, it is local usage, not Buperior 
enlightenment, that accounts for the all but universal 
adherence to ' different //■owi ' ; and, however it might 
be with followers of English precedents, the "very 
ignorant ", least of all, would there deviate into 
such an exotic peculiarity as ' different to ' . 

' In respect of ' and ' in regard of ' are expressions 
which, in modern English, Mr. Marsh heartily dis- 
likes ; and moat of ns, I dare say, concur ivith him 
in hia dislike of them. As substitutes for ' with 
respect io ', ' with regard to ', they are not seen to 
realize that superior precision which, on their face, 
they seem to promise, and which alone could make 
amends for their quaintness. An air of affectation and 
vagueness infects them, such that they may expect 
favour from none but persons of rather peculiar 
tastes ; ^ and there is very little danger of their be- 

' Dean Alford roundly asBertB that ' in respect o/'' "is, eertiiinly, as 
miicli used bj good modBrn writerB, a«" 'with, respect to '. A Pita, 
&C., p. 100. The Dean, if he had a serviceRhle memory, could have 
giteii DO more aariafaotorj' proof tban he thus gives, of the atrailen- 
ed limits of his litvraty assocbtious. It is uoti<!i?Bblp, also, that hu 
appears to he acquainted vith only one sense home by the cipression, 
namely, that of 'as to '■ 

It ia Scotchmen, mora partieularlj, that affect ' in respect of, now- 
a-days. Ixird Macaulay, in all hia writing, has aaed it oniy twice, I 
think. To pass to entire Englishmen, but few of them, in the lirst 
half of this nentury, have the expresuon. For an instance in Southoy, 
■ee his Vind. Eccl. AiigL, p. 4^5. Ur. De Cluinccy sometimes g^vo 
into It. Bee hia fCorkt, Vol. II, pp. 13, 177, 2o6: The logic of 
Jb/itieal £i»HBi»j) (ed, 1811), p. 31. 


coming popular. But Mr. Marsh rejects them on 
other grounds than expediential and aesthetic. Part 
of his polemic against them I transcribe. Having 
spoken of the preference given, by Coleridge ^ and his 
imitators, to this style of phraseology, he goes on to 

" It rests, of course, on the theory, that, in this phrase, 
respect or regard is an independent noun, and, therefore, 
should be followed by the preposition of. But this, I 
think, is a mistaken view of the subject. The word 
respect, in this combination, has none of the meanings 
known to [sic] ^ it, as an independent noun, in the English 
vocabulary. The expression in or with respect is an idiot- 
ism, a phraseological construction of an adverbial cha- 
racter ; and, in its ordinary modern use, it is the equivalent 
of * relatively \ Old writers sometimes say respectively to. 
This is now disused ; but relatively to is by no means un- 
frequent ; and * in respect of\ used in this sense, is just as 
gross a violation of English grammar as to write * rela- 
tively of\ or * in reference of\^^ ^ 

Here we again find Mr. Marsh on the confines of 
Olympus. * In respect of\ to mean ^ relatively to ', 

1 Coleridge is admitted, on all hands, to have been mainly influen- 
tial in revivifying the locution — well nigh moribund, when he began 
his career, — ^which is here discussed. And it is characteristic of 

* A Lord Grenville of former days wrote of " a long and destructive 
warfare, of a nature long since unknown to the practice of civilized 
nations." Here, remarks Coleridge, " the word to is absurdly used for 
the word in.*' Essays on His Own Titnes, p. 262. Not unlike the 
nobleman's *^ unknown to", the context considered, is Mr. Marsh's 
"known to". 

3 Lectures on the English Language, p. 661. 


he knows to have been, for a veiy considerable period, 
accepted English ; and he himself quotes Bacon for 
it. Nevertheless, it is, he declares, " a gross violation 
of English grammar". What, then, constitutes 
grammatical orthopraxy P If it is not dependent 
on usage, it behoves Mr. Marsh to acquaint us from 
Tvhat philologically accredited region of the firma- 
,ment he draws down the laws by which it is go- 

The argument furnished by Mr. Marsh, in sup- 
port of their choice, to those who elect ' in respect 
of\ is one which, in its totality, moat unquestion- 
ably they would not urge. Though they took up 
the positions, which they well might take up, that, 
in this phrase, respect ia "an independent noun", 
and that it signifies ' relation ', ' reference ', still they 
would not contend that it " therefore should be fol- 

' Mr. Marah's Beleolion of illustralion. iu order to bring- out the 
alleged nnalogioai alisurdity of ' in respect of, bc^tokens a most 
peonliar eatimute of grammnticalnesa. lie cannot place side bi; eido 
with >in respect of, eome Modred obsDletUm; because anj' obsolctism, 
it KemB, a vquallj had gmmmnr. The resulting parallelism would 
h» like the teatimony of the left hand against the right. Good gram- 
mar, it foUnwfl, is ascertained b; the beet nsage oontempuraneoualy 
current ; barbarizing whatever is diaused, and destined, in turn, to he, 
itself, barbarized b;; vbatorEr sapersedes it, in time to come. Of liv- 
ing grammar, of good grammar for us, this is a correct ounaeption; 
and it is perfecllj fair to try by it any form of phrase found in writings 
nf our own age. fiuC Mr. Marsh, in passing sentence on ' in respect 
of', takes his stand on an idea at grommnr whicb uvacuates the by- 
gone nsage of our ancestors of all aalhority to determine what it was 
right that they should say ; since he classes theic ' in respect of', for 
•with respect ta', absolutely, among "incorrect forms" and "inei- 
preasivo syntaotical combinations ", and calls it " a mere grammatical 
crotchet " and a " more violation of a gramrnatical rido ". Puor an- 
ceitors ! And how can Mr. Marsh deny to oar descendnnls the right 
sating, IQ like manner, that we, too, were imbeeilea ? 



lowed by the preposition of "?■ For, alike in old 

English and in modern, relation and reference take to 
after them, not of,^ in an objective conatruction, the 
construction here contemplated.' 

' "Noboilj ever thinks ot aajing 'in reference of ; but, if tlieee 

I phrases are Co be guvemed bj the niJea of English constraction of 

nouiw, there is as good groonil for this eiprossion lu for 'in respect 

Tba Latin etymology of rfapeet has nothing to Uo with the 

I ljufistioa ; for the Latin priniitiTe [«iV| wna not uaed for any siieh pur- 

I pose, or iu any such eonstiuotiun ; aud the phrase in quesliun is 

■Iriclly an Englitth idiotism." 

Su writes Mr. Marsh, in a foot-note ; and he is quite right in hold- 

I ing that the cunstruation of reapectui is no pveccdent lor the can. 

n of raped. But his doctrine na to the way we ehould cou- 

i our substantiies is not very intelligible. Is it, that af shoold 

he nslrieted to the eiprossion of subjectivity ? If bo, ■ love of money ' 

a wrong, since money does not love ; nnd tliu adncminal ' city of 

Home' keeps It company, Kome not denoting an action known ob 

• Eieeptions sboold be noted ; and here ia one. " They intraaled 
the doctor to make a more porricuiar explication of whatsoever he 
had spoken in rtfirmM of the passions to musick ", &c. Th« Camieat 
Buloiy b/ Fraamim (1655), Book 11, p. 27. 

In St. Jumes, 2, 9, and I. St. Peter, 1, 17,— in both which places, 

wip'Wmeana'parttaloonaideration^^webiive "rMpwifo persons" and 

nipmt ii/' parsons ". Even from these phrases, which are synon- 

nous, it is seen how freely wa allowed ourselvus, formerly, an option, 

the omttcr of prepositions. 

Old authors also have ' to value of a rush ', ' to glory of, ' remorae 
^ wn ', ' born o/ a woman", 'to depend of, 'to tai o/', where, dis- 
placing of, wo now put at, in,for,frotn, on, with. Add, 'independent 
JroM or DM ', ' injrredient into ', ' contemporary (o ", ' equivalent with ', 
&/:. &c. Almost every prepodtiun, in fact, once was usad where it is 
used no longer. All the archaiu looutions adduced ubove, witL thoa- 
.*ande more, are to be stigmatized as ungiammatical, if 'in respect of 
ly broadly be so branded. 

With reipect of, like anything else, would have been good English, 
people had only voted strongly enough for it. Dean Alford 
n tbat this combination, "nntcsa I vm miEtukon, is not found". 
With reapKt ofour onne profit " occurs iu The Hmey-coiHbir of Fret 
(1042), by John Eaton, p. iVL And bcre is no iuAtenue 
]er, and one of with reyiird nf. '■ But tho king's raaCi«» 

And on wliat kind of research, and on how much, 
did Mr. Marsh base his constructive assertion, that 
the substantive respect, elsewhere than in phraseo- 
logical combinations, does not import ' relation ', 
' reference ' ? I should judge, that, for conviction on 
this head, he thought it enough to look into Dr. 
Johnson's Dicthnanj} Inasmuch as the verb rei^eet 

travelling inccssaiitly betncsnE the liing and the duke, 1s- 

lioured them both to a reooncileraent; the Mng, icith regard of the 
liangeroaa and diacontenied times ; the dnie, ici'A rritpfct af his dutj 
and faith." Sir John HaywnrciB, Tkt First Fart of t/u Lifi end 
HeifHB nf King Seiirie the IIII. (1699), p. 7. 

' Under Dr. JohnBon'e ninth dsflnitioa of rs«pM(, "relfltion, regard", 
fire pasBugfs are quoted. In four of them, the word defined in em- 
bedded in the expreasions in raped of and loiVA raped to ; and the 
remaining passage is ont af ptnce, since rvipict, in its " in maii<r 
Ttapecta ", has a very different meaning from that nssignad to it. I 
now proceed with my uitutions. 

" Coniultatinn bath respect to the time futnre or to come; (hut ia 
to Htf, the end or pnrpDse thereof is adresaed tu sums net or alTnire to 
be practised after their consul talion." Sir Thomua Eiyot, Tim Oo- 
riTKCiur (1531), foL 211 [ed. 1530). 

" Nothing is good, I see, withont refptet." 

Shakespeare, TAe MerchBnl of Venice, Act ft, 8e, I. 

" In the infancie of the church, .... ChristitinB flourished not, 
either in number, or in wealth, or in authoritio ; and, therefore, Saint 
Paul had onely retpeet of those to whom he writ, . . . and raant 
not that his preoept should be held for a perpoCnall lawe." William 
Watson, A Deeaeordon. &c. (Ifl02), p. 298. 

■'Therefore those positive lawes that doe soe scTorely pnniah the 
nctuall breaches o{ the second Table, viithout any rcapeel to the sinnea 
that are committed agunat the Brst, were rather aette downs by the 
polioiea of men, then by the rode of the written word of God." Bar- 
nabe Eiche, The Hoaentie of This Age (I6H), p, 56 (ed. 1844). 

" So that ail theae fonre places hare one reijiicl and aymo -, and none 
of them look towards onr qnestion." Dr. Donne, Bialhaaalot (1st 
ed., undated), p. 160. 

" What I aime al, in if, I confcase, hath moat rt^ci to ray selfo." 
Feltham. Raali-a, Jtc. (ed. 162B), First Centurie, To the Pemaer. 

"Ereij laakt^ laboor, or iniploymeat must hare loferencB aod 



aynonymous with relate io and refer' to, a little 
deliberation ought to suggest, ijuit^ abstractedly 

rupcct tu sonifl end," Brnthwait, Tiit Eiiglith Gcnltmnan, &c. (ed. 
1641], p. 162. Also Bee p. 187. 

" Insomlmh as some interpreters mnceiTe it not improbabk tbaC 
Sdloman, in this plsee, mi);ht have leiptct to thoso rc?ul and saeec- 
dotal snuintingB," &c. Sp. Sanderson, Sfrmotii (ed. 1681), Vul. 2, p. 5. 
Alio ue p. 211. 

■' Must churoh-goTernment that is appointed in the Gospel, and has 
cbief renpect to the «oul, be conforniiibU and pliant to civil ....!" 
Milton, FfBK Warha (Bohn'e ed.), Vol. 2. p. 332. 

" That adminiatrBlion of the penple did consist in three fnactions, 
prophetical. regiU, sacerdotat ; all which had I'cspecC onto the Measias," 
&c, Bp. Pearson, An Expoaitim of the Greed (ed. 1816), p. 140. 

" The wealmesB of which argnmentatJon coneista in suppuaing that 
those variable reipicli of before and after are realities in natnrB." 
Glanvill, Seil* Tuum Ifiiil Eit (ed. 1669), p. 63. Also see Sotpiii 
Scitniifiea (ed. 1665), p. 61: liaayii, kn. (1676), IV., p. 3B: L<ix 
Orimlala (ed. 1S82), p, 12 : Letter prefixed to Bp. Ruafa A Bit- 
t/imrae of Truth. 

"Matter is the anme with body, bnt never without reapeet Ui a 
body which ia made thereof." HohbeB, Works (ed. Sir W. Moles- 
worth), Vol. 4. p. 309. 

" Local and icmporal, implying a resptet betwiit somellting absent 
and past, either to that whichi is present, or to that which is nt dis- 
tance and fntore." Bp, Wilkins, An Jiimy Ibwardi a Real Charatler, 
&o. (1668), p. 313. Alao see pp. 28, 20, 31, 35, 37, 316, 310, 333, 


" By the first [kind ot truth] I mean notbinK eIec but tliat things 
necessarily are what they ere ; by the second, that there are necessary 
mutual rupccli and relations of things, one unto another." Bp. Kuat, 
JJ)>»mui-KD/rruiA(16a2),8BC.I. And see this little work thronghoat. 

"Therefore that idea must have the same properties and mpi^ta 
for ever," Henry More, Aaiielatioru h^oh 'Lax Orirnlalis,' &c. (lfiS2), 
p. 19, Many other refereucea to (his work might be given. Also lee 
T^ Myitvry nf Oodlinia (ed. 1660), p. IBO. 

"Seeing, therefore, the observation of the Sabbath is expressed to 
have ft peculiftr ret/itct to tho children of lerael, as a sign ol' the cove- 
nant made with them, when he led them out of Egypt," Sec. Barrow, 
— ■ ■ ■ IS83— 16B2),p^ol. I, p. SBS. Also see Vol. 1, p. S18; 
Vol. 2, pp. 62, 65. 93, 102, 269. 381. 620, 

" And Antilochns, perhaps, might have a ivjji?o( to^'^Oti'nt. 

from consultation of dictionaries, that the subBtantive 
! respect had, pKibably, been employed for ' relation ', 

[ he put tiitrla," &c. Benlley, Workt (ed. Ret. Aleiandor Dyce), TdL 1, 
p. la*. Also see The Coyrapondenceaf Miehard Biiilley, I).B.,-[i. 413. 
An nnonymotia pontrihutor to The Sj/eelalor, No. 651, sending a 
tranalntion of an epigram on Menander, beginning nitb tliig coapleE, 
" The very boeB, flBBBt Menander, hung, 
To taste tbe Muses' spring, upon thy tongue ", 
begins hia comment on it in tbeae words : " This epiifrari has a reip/el 
to the ahsructer of ita subjoet ; for Menandur writ lemarkably n'itli a 
justness and purity of Innguage." 

" If BO, it sbawa why tiiE trial tias made ; nby it was the last trial ; 
for it rendered Abraham's faith complete, and had retpeel to the |;reat 
snd of ali the promiBea." lip. Warburtun, A SekcUon &c p 89 

"All these quotations solely respect the parliament imn ediately 

preceding that ot 1079, and hare no reapeet to any aabsequBnt par 

Haraont whatever." John Wilkes, We iVbrt* Br (a ^o 36 

I "And the warninj of the prophet h»d a pnncipal reipecl to the 

f Jews, also, who were too ronch inclined tn depend upon the assistance 

of EjtTpt." Bp. Lowth, Iiauih (ed. 1778), Notes, p. 117. 

" This circnmstanee of the place hns renpevt to the temptation of the 
Israelites." Jones of Nayland, Tkiolagieat and Minallanirius Works, 
Vol. 2, p. 214. 

" These questions, then, have direct reepeet to the rule and charncter 
which is to mark your instrDCtions of your people, so far as the 
o9ce of a teaoher is committed to yon." Ep. Wilberforoe, Ad4reKset, 
&o. (ed. ISeo), p. 37. 

Many more similar passages are at hand. "Here are references to a 

few, Thomas Qataker, Of the Nature and Utf- of lots {ed. 1627), p- 

\ Hi. Dr. John Coweli, The Interpreitr (ed, 1637), sig. A 4 iw-jo. 

IVabbe, Thi Sogue (ed. 1623), Fart S, p. 274. John Eaton, The 

ljBotiet/-eambe of Free Jutiifieation (1642), pp. 70, 188. Matthew 

" I, The Ute and Prireliee ef Faith (1667), p. 44. John Smith, 

J Mytirit ef B/ulorique UuvatTd (1857), p. 237- Hnmon 

~ Ulge, The AUioHee ef Divine Ofieei (166!)), p. 213. Charles 

1, Chrt/ea! (ed. 1777), Yoi. 2, p. 12. 
Dr. Johnson, under regard, in the sense of "relation, reference", 
f qnotes only two passages ; and they are not quite satisfactory, as rather 
Iffitemplifying the phrases with rri/ard of ani with regard to. The fol- 
fc-lgwing quotHtions are more in point. 

" Such as, in the Ketherlonds. hflye written, hnve , . . had cajnrrf 
tnlo their only used speech, whereas, in. deed, the nnderstaading of the 

' reference '. Both by reason of what they include, 
and of what they omit, the very best of English 
dictionaries are moat misleading. However, to 
justify the old-fashioned ' in respect of, we might 
even dispense with inquiring what significations for- 
merly attached to respect, in other contexts.' Had 
it meant 'poker', 'shovel', and 'tongs', still the 
concretion 'in respect of\ and, equally, in 'respect 
,/rom', or 'in respect againat', once established in 
any sense or senses whatsoever, would, so long as it 
continned thus established, have been good legiti- 
mate English, 

"In or icith reaped", we are instructed, "is an 
idiotism, a phraseological construction of an adverbial 
character," &c.' In comparmn, the same as 'compara- 

Teutonic, uacd of our Saion aacetere, as also that of the ancient 
Prancks, is most reqauite, and thereunto the present High, Low, and 
Eastluudiah Teutoiiic, together, with respect unto the dependant 
DHniah and Swedish, hesydes our modem vulgar English." Verstegan, 
A Batitation, &c. (ed. 1605), The Epiatle, &c., adjinem. 

" And though I denv not but this Father might have chief rrgard 
to Christ, the mptical bread which came down from Heaven, ;et doth 
not tliat hinder but he might nlao allude to what iras then matter of 
fiLOl in (he celehratiDn of the euchorist." HamaD L'EjtriingG, The 
AHianaof Strint OJian (1669), p. 176. 

'' That God ilmightj should erect this etatdj fabrick of heaven and 
earth, deelied with so rich and goodlj furniture, with oBpceial rrgard to 
man, so pony and mean a creature," &c. Barrow, Watki, Vol. 2, p. 
2e. Alao see pp. 04, 143, 220. 

Addison tells of a man who, on reading the Biblical Btatistics of tba 
■gea of Adam, Beth, and Mpthuselah, with the words " and he died ' 
at the end of each item, "immediately shut himself up in a convent, 
and rotired frnra the world, as not thinking anything in this life 
worth pursuing, whioh hod not regard to another." The Spectator, 
No. 28fl. 

' /h /mis, English'; but hardly has jiHf, for 'end', cvor been so, 

'In respect ia' and "with respect to' Mr.MaTs\i a^^^wsa*, OT&.'^a 

tiyely ', is a real speoimen of an adverbial phrase, aa 
in the sentence : " Where the whole power of Israel, 
400,000 strong, , . . fell before a few Benjamitea, a 
small handful, in comparison ", &c.* But in respect or 
icith reject is not, " in its ordinary modern use, . . 
the equivalent of ' relatively '." Who says that ' up' 
and ' down ' denote direction ' in respect, not abso- 
lutely • P s 

deems it inoambeat on httii Co render a reason for his approval of them. 
If ha had been nwara that respect has, anning ita aignifications, ' rela- 
tion ', 'reference', we may be aura he would not have resorted to the 
gmtniteus specalatiou which he foiEts on us, as if fact. But see note 
2 in this page, 

' Biibo'^ Anirewee, ^iaeCy-tiz Sermons (eH. 1841-4), Vol. 1, p. 330. 

Add in coni/qtietuie, for ' consequently ', Sea, for inatancEs, Barrow, 
fTerlii, Vol. 3, p. 381 ; Southey, Find. Eecl. Angl, pp. 133, 383. 

= Mr, Marsh, avowedly knowing nothing of the eiiatenoe of raped, 
in the sense of 'relation ', 'reference', and thus hating no hisloiical 
Mplaoation of 'in respect o/'', boldlj do^atizea, and lays dowo that 
in nipect or uiith respect is " an idiotism '', &a. &c. ; and, a base being 
thua ohtuned, one has only to tack to it the appropriate prepositiun, in 
order to come by our in reipccl to, miih respect to. But proof 
that his baae was ever in seo lie gives none ; and it appears to be, 
with bim, purely hypothetical. Further, to the respect which it en- 
telopes he abstains from attaching any definite meaning. Ihia base 
we are to take as a whole, and be thankful. MureoTer, it is altogether 
arbitrary, in him, to legislate that this base can, in propriety, he eked 
out by no preposilJon but to ; no more scientific reaaoD than his per- 
Eonal perception of the fitness of things conducting him to this conclu- 
sion. Pbilology of this autocratic stamp can scarcely hope, after dis- 
closure of what it assumes and implies, to win many adherents. 

The phraees in retpixl and with respect, fur ' relatiTelj ', Aa., are, I 
opprehelld, rare ; and, if only because of their rarity, it is highly un- 
likely that they generated ' in respect n/', 'with respect to', &c. The 
latter of them — though 1 have quoted Shakespeare's tcMeat re^ct : 
see the note in p. SB, supra, — I bate nowhere clmnocd upon. Of tbe 
former I subjoin instances. 

" For that pact of Affiicke hntb bat of late receited the name of 
Burbarie ; and some others rather thinke, that of this word Barbarous 
Ibat <!oantrej cams to be called Barbaria, and hut few yearns. >n rf- 


Mr. Marali's decision, touching ' in respect of, ia, 
that, to signify 'relatively to', it "ia just aa gross a 

(!peB(. agnne." Puttenhsra, The Arte of Eaglish foejii (1583), p. 210 

ShHkespeare, Third Part of King Rcm\j VI., Act 5, t 

" Onfllj the I 


'n raptft, nre tri&ea, tbinga of nought" 
SBmuol RowktLcia, The lour Kmvei (1600— 1612?), p. 50 (eil. 13M). 

" He attributed nato it ods onelj deaire, or first motion, eimplie ur 
abBnluieliu, and another, comparativelie or in rtipect." Sir Arthur 
Gorg^, TranslatioQ of Bacon's Be Sapientia Vetirum (ed. 1610), pp. 
80, 81. 

And compare tlifl following; "Te, howe wonderfully dye! a fewe 
Bomajns, i'm regardt, not only defends this litel territjiFy a;|;aynst tbe 
great numbre and puUwuice ofdyrera and aaudry p«ople," &ii. Sir 
Ibomaa Elyot, Tlie Lnage of Oom-iiance (ed. 1544), fo!. (12 v. 

" And, for crabs, tobstem, perewiutdes, &c., ia rtgard so plentUul 
and common, are but of Utile valne." Kichard Franck, Nottha'n 
Jfomoir* (ed. 169*), p. 181, 

In regard, here, as in tbe passage from Sir Thomaa Elyot, imports 
' OoraparatiYely '. Farther, by an ohsolato idiom, " for , , . are'' Li 
for ■ as for I . . they are '. And Bimilarly interpret " for .... for .. . 
have," in p. 6, tapra, lines 12, I'i; and compare the passage from 
Aschniti in p. 47, tupra. 

Respective and nepeetivchj. when meaning ' relative ' and ' reiatiye- 
ly ', I may, also, as well exemplify. 

" Heat, as concerning the homano sense at feeling, is a Torious and 
riipeetivi I'auig." H, G., Tim Mturall and Sxpetinmitall Bis/oi-g of 
Windi, &(.. {16S3), p, 27o. This work is translated from Bacon's Latin. 

Alsn see Brnthwait, The Etigluh Qmtlaaan, p. 200. 

" The evils of sin are of two aorta. Somo arc erill fonnally, simply, 
and per ae Otheraome are evill onely rrspeetivelg, and by acci- 
dent, but otberwise, in their owne nature, indifferent." Bishop San- 
derson, Ticihi SermoHt (1037), p- d6. " Seapeclieely to the jostiee of 
God", " reiptclivel^ to God's justice". Id., ibid., pp. 335, 337. 

" An whole Cborch or nation is not justified absolutely, hot reipeet- 
I'lto/y." John Eaton, The Honeg-eoiabe, &c., p. 92. 

See, farther, Heylin, A Full Stlation, &o, (ed. 1666), To the Reader. 

Uerpictive and mpeclirili/, for 'due' and ' duly ', though they were 
anee very conunon, are not notived by Dr. Johnson and his suu' 


violation of English grammar as to write ' relatively 
of, or ' in reference of." Tliat may, in ono age, be 
Englisli grammar, which is not so in another age ; 
for every age has its own standard of the grammati- 
cal. It ia, however, going boyond a rejection of this 
undeniable truth, to compare 'in respect o/' with 
■ relatively of or ' in reference of. The former 
was, during many generations, used by the best 
writora ; whereas, with regard to the latter expres- 
sions, Mr, Marsh does not even pretend that they 
have ever appeared in literature, or that they are 
anything but theoretic anomalies.' That they did 
not become English, while 'independently of and 
' irrespectively of did become English, was simply 
from unaccountable fortuity ; and no more scrutable 
reason why they were not vemacularized can be 
given, than that they were not vemacularized. ' In 
comparison of, whicli is still, to some extent, cur- 
rent, ought to be equally bad English with ' in re- 
spect of, in the eyes of Jlr. Marsh. 

Against 'in respect of, in modem use, the only 
maintainable objections are, therefore, its quaintness 
and its ambiguity. It is just the kind of phrase to 
be petted, as it is, by certain affcctationists." In old 

' I ftm very far from tBying that they may not haie got into print 
again and again. And, after all, ' relatively of is no Btranger llian 
'in relation d/', for ' witb rernrence fo ', oidtnplified in the fullowing 
extract from a lotler bearing thfl date of 1662. 

" The whole i«luid [of Jersey] in generally rultd by the great court 
Eo called in nlotion of ioieiioT Dniirte, of Khich hereajlor menttun ehall 
bo made,'' ftc. N. Lempriere, in Mtmoriali of tht Great Civil War, 
&c. (1842). Vol. 2, p. 406. 

' In the nest note, Mr. Marsh ii quoted as objecting to ' in roBpecl 
*■/■; ibst ic ia empioytid ia three aenK* 'In trapeot lu' has two 


times, we tad. ' compliance lo ' an J ' lE complianLe 
to'; and, at present, ■ (nVA is here our preposition. 
Similarly, as respect, for ' relation ', ' reference ', 
once took, in objective constructions, of, and now 
takes only to, it is better for us, aDologically, — as it ia 
better, if we would adhere to the preponderant usage 
of our contemporaries, — to say ' in respect lo,' or 
' with respect to '.' 

eadtid. It is 

s alirap clear, rrom the context 
r made eynaDymoua with < by r 

vMch of 

and tlie attachmeat of this s 

not uitftequently, designed to perplex 


' Our contempoiitry alTectere of ' in respect of, as Mr. Mnrsb juitlj 
ujs, are, fur the most part, " so aniioua to parade it, oa a badge of the 
■tjle of a icbool, that tlley drag it in on all occoaions where they van, bj 
eaj chance, contriTe to introduue it; very often employing it in CUU' 
BtrocCiotis that luaru it difficult to determine whotber theymeon're- 
tutivoly to ', or 'by reason of, or 'in point of ; and the vague use of 
the phraae, uf course, tends to embarrass tile reader by confonudugg, 
in expression, things logically very distinct." 

And this leads me to append a tew words on the phrase, in the sense 
of ' in point of '. In a former nat«, I have alluded to a passage from 
Tflloteon, which Dr. Johnson cites inappoeitely. It is tbis: "Every- 
thing whivh is imporfvct^ as the world must be acknowledged in many 
rilptclt, had some cause vrhich ptoduced it." Scapett beie denotes 
'point' ; and it often occurs in the kindred seoses, — unreeogniled, like 
that just menlionsd, by Mr. Uaroh and the dictionaries,— of ' object uf 
DOnteniplatiou ', 'particular', 'matter', 'article', 'thing', and the 
lilce. Cuwper writes, describing Mr. Throckmorton : " In paint 0/ in- 
formation upon all important subjects, tn rtaptel, too, «/' expression and 
addrea, and, in short, everything that enters into [be Idea of a gentle- 
man, I have not found his equal, not often, anywhere.'' Worki, Vol. 
6, p. 88. ' In respect of', lor 'in point of ', here used in connexion 
with it, nnd instead of it, just to avoid lepeating the phrase, is not, 
then, a creation of our century. 

But a long detail wonld be required for an eihibilion of all the 
shades of meaning which, in the antique 'in respect 0/", oppertain to 
Titpicl, a word comparable, for its mullivocatni^HS, witb tbe Latin mC in. 
Uf the vagueness of tbe phrosu in qutatiun there is suffieiml, -^reoot \^ 
the fact,— logo no further, — that it had, among V 

One may gravely doul)t wliethor those who hazard 
i statements aa have been adduced, or those who 
I receive them, often apprehend distinctly the postu- 
I lates which they involve.' That such statements are 
I hirgcly taken on trust is evident fi'om the paucity of 
I the contradictdona which they provoke. Yet, to risk a 
I negative, expressed or implied, if perilous in any 
is, ahove all, perilous, when it concerns an 
I article of language. Even the most learned among us 
I know, at present, but little of the history of the 
I words and idioms which make up our speech. Who 
I has read so much as a thousandth part of the English 
E on the shelves of the British Museum P Thus much 
I in bulk, provided it embraced the choicest and most 
I, characteristic portion of our literature, would furn- 
ish, if duly explored, something like a trustworthy 
dictionary, a thing never to be expected, save as the 
result of extensive cooperation, and judicious sub- 
division of labour. In the mean lime, it can become 
Lno one who values himself on possessing ordinary 

f tiona, those of 'bj means of, 'on account o( ', and 'in conaequHnco 
of ; thus Bometiines directing the attentina especmlly to the oonBider- 
ntiun of cause, sometimes puinting la s raliocinatiTe justilieBtion, und 
sometimes signalizing the aspect of effect or cegull. 

Mr. Marsh enumerates thres groups of senses, — and they comprehend 
the main aeneea, — which 'in respect wf' onoebore. Tlie history that he 
gives of their fortmies does not ulfect mj' argument ; and, therefore, 
vithout going into particulars, I only remark on it, that my own ac- 
qsainlimce with English literature leads me to conclusions eomewhat 

W ' livntley writes to John Evelyn, April 21, 1698 ; " I remamher you 

■ toM me the pcrsoit that first used the word foreign in English. Pray 

r write the story and bis name." The Correipeitdmee of Sichard Bent- 

Its. fl-D-.P- 168. 

How could either of these learned men believe such a thing to be 

aseertaiaabla .' 



prudence, to imitate examples which a moment's re- 
flection should suffice to discredit. Not to mention 
the English of any bygone period, to master exhaust- 
ively the English of our own time is beyond the 
competency of any one man ; and, except where the 
age of a word or phrase is strictly defined by some 
chronological circumstance, as its derivation from 
the proper name of some celebrity, who shall say, 
with certainty, whether it is old or new, or an antique 
proposed for fresh circulation? In all these and 
such-like matters, theories and positive assertions are 
much more wisely left unventured. Philology is no 
province of ecclesiastics ; it is not a species of theo- 
logy, half dogmatism and half denunciation. Its 
materials are facts which admit of rigid verification ; 
and its processes are simple applications of common- 


As some words, inBtinctively avoided, are con- 
stantly falling into desuetude, so others, often an- 
swering to calls too Bubtile for analyaia, are constant- 
ly presenting themselves as postulants for recognition. 
The generality of those which are accepted ^row into 
common use wholly unchallenged as to their pre- 
tensions, and are practically old before they are found 
out to be new ; their naturalness of aspect being 
such, that, from the very first, they are not perceived 
to be other than old acquaintances. A certain mi- 
nority, however, are, too frequently, scouted ou the 
Bolo avowed ground of their being strangers, and 
are spurned with an impatience which refuses even 
to scan their credentials dispassionately. There ia a 
dim and undefined idea, too, that their introducers 
deserve the imputation of conceit, or of presumption. 
Why should they flatter themselves that they have 
had the twofold fortune to detect a real desideratum 
and to supply it ? Yet, as a positively futile word is 
pretty sure, in our time, to get its deserts quite irre- 
spectively of clamour, no interests could take harm, 
if critics were to forbear violent speech about it ; and 
iS propose]', after all, has only done what our groul- 
t writers, to a man, have been doing time out of 


mind. "It should be understood/' says Campe, 
** that those who hazard innovations do not set up 
for lawgivers in language : they only exercise a 
right which every good citizen, in a free state, is 
eager to exercise, — that of drawing.the public atten- 
tion to a project of reform, the rejection or adoption 
of which he contentedly abandons to the general 
will, to the suffrages of the majority of the literary 
republic/' ^ This is good sense, assuredly ; and yet 
such innovators, and their devices with them, may 
almost always calculate on being objects of disappro- 
bation and protest, if not of ridicide. Cowper speaks 
of some one as having " much the same aversion to a 
Papist that some people have to a cat, — rather an 
antipathy than a reasonable dislike.'* Among the 
educated, and, in especial, among the most highly 
educated, the same sort of feeling, with regard to 
neoteric expressions, seems to be sedulously instilled, 
and, by many, is reputed a mark of liberal training. 
With them, as with Bacon, " the novelty and strange- 
ness of terms " rank " among the badges of sus- 
pected and falsified science." 

The habit of denouncing new words indiscri- 
minately, which too many scholars appear to con-- 
sider as an argument of true scholarship, has been 
derived to us from the Roman classics. " I suspect *', 
says Lord Lytton, "that every great writer of a 
nation a little corrupts its tongue. His knowledge 
suggests additions and graces from other tongues ; 

1 The Monthly Magazine,\o\. 21 (1796)/p. 613. TVifc \x"?>Xi^'85ass^ 
is by "William Tajlor. 



his geuius applies imd makes them popular." ' And 
he goes on to instance Milton, Voltaire,' La Fon- 
taine, and others, as furiiishiog justification of his 
dictum. And this we have from one who figures, 
without risk of rivalry, as the most wholesale and 
popularly influential corrupter of our language that 
modem days have produced.' Do languages, then, 
sometimes hurst upon the world incorrupt, as 
Minerva issued fully equipped from tho hrain of Jove ? 
Lord Lytton, as his own attempts at improving Eng- 
lish demonstrate, must have relinquished his theory, 

' J!»^limr! and lAe £nff!iih (eA. 1833),yt.l 2, p. 129. 

' It hofl been asMrtcd thnt Voltaire " did not dare, in his niimerouB 
compoBitiodB, to add n word or BspreasioD, Or eren to hazard ona of > 
preceding aatbor, however approved, beeaaBO it h&d not tlis uinction 
of the Academy," Williain Dupre, Ltxieograpkia Ji'toloi/ice GsUieo 
(IBOl), PrefacB, p. liv. 

On the other hanil, M. Francia Wey g:ives, as neoterisms Banctioned 
hy Voltaire, aiitocmlria, iermtir, ir&laile, iuiarderie, ftlomningraphi, 
iibarhariier, dieidrur, dffimvreur, dtptri^tuUt; dHhiertr, douWr, 
fatuimi, hiflrioaiqut, infaimblt, itijouable, itueeonnile, r'nvMirfii, ini'ri- 
_fique, pampili^tieT, pBlauper, Img^difa, vagiiaemeiit, vthhsrie. Renar- 
gUH tiitr la Ltttviiie JVowfoi'w, &c., VoL 1, pp, 177 — 184. 

By Bome of these wordB the French langnsge wan, unqneationably, 
enrighed. Bnt it derived no amelioratdon trom Buch spellings as M, 
eafiHU, ttms, and the like, which Voltaire gave hia udheeinn to, not- 
withatanding hii expressed opinion, that " c'cst le propre des barhares 
d'abre^ tons lea tnota." 

That Voltaire did not regnrd Frencli as incapable of fiirther im- 
provement U plnin enongb from the sayinfr attributed to him : " Notre 
lan^e eat nne gnenee flSre ; il fant loi faire raamune maluT^ etle." 

• Lord Lytton, in hia What unll he do Willi U f, makes Oolond 
Morlay (p'oan out against teitgram: "Oh that I should live to 
■ee Eucb a word introduced into the English language ! " There is 
a repnlatve affoetednesa in this, aeaing wham it comes from, — a wiitet 
that has given his countenance to barealiim, pkanliniaalian, supeniittn- 


fdl n. 


little nvmipitlar. It was the like of this jargon that enmged Fan 
frmel to eiciaim : " Que diable de langnaige est cecy \ Par Dieu, tt 
et quelquB heretieqae." 

that he can lay his finger on any past stage of oup 
speech, OS that which ought to hiive been ite final 
form. If, further, it be a charactei'istic of a great 
writer to corrupt hia mother- tongue a little, Lord 
Lytton, unleaa just the reverse of such a writer, 
must be a very great one indeed. Against the lack 
of discernment betrayed in the preceding quotation 
may be set the comment of Hallam, who, adverting 
to the first half of the seventeenth century, remarks, 
that " the French were very sti-ong in translations 
from the classical writers ; and to this they are, cer- 
teinly, much indebted for the purity and correctness 
■which they reached in their own language." ' As to 
ourselves, a student must be exceedingly inobservant, 
not to have perceived how deeply we arc beholden to 
the happy daring of translators for the amplitude 
and variety of our diction, and for the flexibility of 
our consti'uctions.' 

I iHtroduclioH to Ihi Zireralmv 0/ J'Mrojw (ed. 1847), Vol. 3, p, 


° " The great pest of speBUh is frequeacy nf tranalution," aaTS Dr. 
Johnson, in tUa Prefnee to his Dktiutiars ." unci, stiU more ahsurdly, he 
adds the wieb, Ihut, if we evtr buve lui English Academy, iu mem- 
bera, "inshiad of ooinpiling gramniBra and dictionaries," may "en- 
deavour, with all their inflaunce, to stop the licence of tnuiBliit'>rs, 
whose idleness and ignonmce, if it be suffered to proooed, will reduM 
us to bnbhlo a dialect of France," 

Sotithey says, in part »ery ddsputably, that translatorB, "in later 
(iinBa,liase onrrapted our idiom as much a*, in early ones, they enrich- 
ed our Tocabulary." CoUoquiet, &.a. (cd. 1831), Vol. 3, p. 307. 

"An eminent prolate of our Church " is quoted, by Euaden, as say- 
ing : "There is no way of writing bo proper for the refining and 
polishing a language, as the translating of books into it, if he who 
undertakes it has a competent skill of the onti loagne, and is a niastvr 

of the other. The Frtncih took no ill method, when they 

iut«adcd to reform aud beautify their luiigunge, in settijig theic Wt. 

" I eooceive," saya HazKtt, " that words are like 
money, not the worse for being coninion, but that it 
ia the stamp of custom alone that gives them circu- 
lation or value. I am fastidious in this respect, and 
would almost as soon coin the currency of the reuhn 
as counterfeit the king's English. I never invented, 
or gave a new and unauthorized meaning to, any 
word bat one single one, — the term impersonal, ap- 
plied to feelings ; — and that was in an abstruse 
metaphysical discussion, to express a very difficult 
distinction." ' But, if the deoiaiona of custom are 
not to be referred, in the mass, to a fixed chrono- 
logical point, like the birth of a philosopher, or the 
extinction of a tyrant, why should this original and 
ingenious diasertator have chosen to invest himself 
in a strait-jacket, and to deny himBelf the permission 
which almost every real thinker, in every age, has, 
probably, challenged to himself? 

I offer no apology for introducing the following, 
from the pen of the enlightened and liberal Arch- 
deacon Hare : 

" Though our language, like everything, and, in- 
deed, more, almost, than anything else which wo 
have inherited from our uncSstora, is to be regarded 
with dutiful veneration, that veneration ia not to be 
merely pa83ive,-^iu which case, it would soon de- 
generate into idolatry, — but active. It is not to be 
put aside and lockt up as an heirloom, but to be em- 
ployed, and cultivated, and improved, as an estate. 

irriters on work b> tmnslnte the Greek and Latin aatbore lati 
TAi Oitnrdiiin. Nn. 164. 

■ Tabk-tatk (ed. 18-18), Yul. % pp. 115, 116. 

We are to uphold our native language, but not the 
impurities it may, in course of time, have contracted 
irom ignorance, or indolence, or caprice. On the 
contrary, we uphold it best, by freeing it from theae 
impurities. We are to cull forth its pliistic powers, 
and to adapt it to the new ideas it is to clothe. Like 
magic armour, it will fit every form and stature. 
The only requisite is, that he who puts it on should 
be a true knight." ' 

Not for every one, however, would it, by any 
means, do to invent terms for himself, or even to 
venture on any but such as have become well estab- 
lished; and it is far too common, now-a-days, for 
^. young men, "directhry on being made free of a maga- 

.■.^^Sine.Tlf STa newspaper, to commence word-coiners. 
Gray - writes to Dr. Beattie : " I would not i 

ol. 1 (1832), pp. flJo, 04(1. 
tttion of Uraj'a herilage. . 
>r Lud tlien, a better Ruil pui 

> Tie Philological Msietait, 1 

' "'AntijBo' a the wort-l p 
boaest truth, ve aeitliec hare, n 
than be, nltbough he lived in tbo time uf the pureat iLnd besl, Gold- 
mnith, Starae, Fielding, aud Inchbald." Lundar, The Last Fruit off 
m Old IVw, p. 107. 

Further, oe to one vemacokr at ita heat, writing lo Mr. Henry 
Crabb Robinaon, — see his Diary, ke.. Vol. 2, pp. G21, £22, — he saya, 
regarding EUa'i Msmyt, by Charles Lamb ; "The pKpera are admir- 
able ; tbe langunge, truly EngUah. We have none better, ne« or old." 

Who hut Landor, iu ruDent timoa, would have ohjeoted to " an- 
tiflw'"? Letting tliiapiuB, as Johnson, oHer recogni/ing but one set 
or " wi^Us of English undeSled ", admitted the existence of others, bo 
Landor, forgetting that ho had restricted the pert'eutiaD of our lail- 
gnage to the days uf Queen Elizabeth and JuntVB I., Urdt eitcndud 
ita dorstion to the lime of Milton, and then EubaCitnted, in pluce of 
both those periods, the ai<i:and half of the lust uentory. Vide iiipru, 
pp. ID, and 13, H, 

But is Grny'« Gngliil;, from the ordinary point of view, altogolher 
Taultless i Look at bis verbs eombuttle, deballutc, tiMmrvait, xmdsftat ; 
his Bubauntires aurmabiiil!/, critiaalUj/, Ituctihoty, pei'/tctumttwiA, 


new words, without great necessity : it is very ha- 
zardous, at best." ^ On this remark, which is cited 
only for the sake of its pendant, the learned Scotch- 
man annotates : '^ I would as soon make new coin as 
knowingly make a new word, except I were to in- 
vent any art or science where they would be neces- 
sary." Undoubtedly, it was prudent, in Dr. Beattie, 
if he would deliver himself in a foreign language, — 
and even this was beyond his power, — simply to 
take it, to the best of his ability, as he found it.^ 

rinfreseativey zealotism ; bis adjectives inutile, marturientf verisimile ; 
his anent ; his preterites begun, run, and throtoed ; and his past par- 
ticiples broke, chose, and wrote. Add his deduct for ' deduce ', perform 
for * erect ', set for * sit ' ; power for * quantity ' ; bad for * sick *, better 
for *more', like for* likely*; a cherubim; "none but they**, "no- 
body but /"; " I have seen nothing, neither''; "nor drink out of 
nothing hut" ; "everybody . . . them**. 

In his Progress of Foesy, furthermore, he violates all idiom by 
writing : 

" Her track, where'er the goddess roves, 
Olory pursue, and generous Shame". 

1 Works (cd. Mitford, 1858), Vol. 4, p. 311. 

2 Speaking of the injury which our language has received, from 
various quarters, in recent times, Southey says, that, " to this injury 
the Scotch have greatly contributed ; for, composing in a language 
which is not their motber-tongue, they necessarily acquire an artificial 
and formal style, which, — not so much through the merit of a few, as 
owing to the perseverance of others, who, for half a century, seated 
themselves on the bench of criticism, — ^has almost superseded the ver- 
nacular English of Addison and Swift." Colloquies, &c., Vol. 2, 
p. 297. 

According to Dr. Priestley, under the date of 1761, " he must be 
prejudiced to a degree that deserves ridicule, who will not aUow that 
several of the most correct writers of English are Scotsmen." The 
Rudiments of English Grammar, &c., p. 6. 

" Why ", much more critically, asks an anonymous writer, " why 
should a Scotsman, who is ashamed of nothing else belonging to his 
country, be ashamed of its dialect ? It is to English what the Doric 
was to pure Greek, — adorned with rustic graces which have long b^ea 

We can easily beKeve, if only on the Blowing of the 
' single sentence here quoted from him, that English 
would Lave undergone no improvement at hia hands. 
Townley and Beckford are not known to have at- 
tempted any reforms or additions in Prench ; Milton, 
Mathias, and Landor attempted none, I believe, in 
Italian; and Dr. Beattie's self- distrust, just like 
theirs, may be commended, as a safe precedent, to 
the mob of neoterists. 

Thousands of words and uses of words, on their 
first appearance, or revival, as candidates for ver- 
nacularization, must have met with repugnance, ex- 
pressed or unexpressed.' As for those to which re- 

I fi'lt and acknowlodged in the poetry of that country. Wby, then, 
should it not be to!«raled io histoi-y, eBpeoially eince Bipariencp lias 
ghevrn, that no utforta of their beet writers bave been able wholly to 
avoid it?" Tl,r QuaHerly Revitw, Vol. 9 (1813), p. 433. 

Would that this welUmGanl intflrrogatDrj' advica were taken. Of its 

soundness I am conBlantly reminded utiesb and alresh. To talis a cei- 

loin London joiirnal o( wide oircnlation, The Daily Ifetct, what reader 

L of it. unlen a thorough trans-Tneedian in his conceptions of the 

I British tongue, bat mnst vieh that it spontaneondy praetieed broad 

I Bootdi, nutead of Tainly attempting Siiglisb 1 Unless trained, &om 

L hia Tory infancy, ia the use of oar langunge, a Scotchman who tries 

to write it is pretty Burs to reveal hia nBtionality in less Idme than. — 

to Bpeak Hith Sydney Smith, — he takes tu licrateh himeelf. 

' " It would form an interesting esaay, or, rather, aeriea of essays, 

in a periodical work, were aU the attempts to ridicnle new phrnse<i 

broDght togetber, the proportion obeerved of words ridiculed which 

hate been adopted, and are now common, — mch an ifmiuoiu, eon- 

leioiu, &c., — and a trial made bow far any grounds can be detected, 

,t DOS might determine beforeliand whether a word was invented 

Dnder ths conditions of aseimihihility to our language, or not. Thus 

I much ii certain, that the ridicnleis were as often wrong as rig-bt ; and 

[ Shakeapeare biiOBelf oonld not prevent the naturaltiatioD of aeeoHmio- 

f ialioH, rmmwrafiiMi, &c., or Swift, the groas abtiso even of the uoril 

Cul-ridge, A'olea aid Icdwc iipim SAaimptart, &c,. Vol. I, 

I pp, 27S, 270. 

pugnauce was expreased, wiien ttey were unfamiliar, 
or actually new, or were taken to be so, or for whicli 
it seemed necessary to offer more or less of apology,^ 

Tho trinl UetB Buggestcd has never, to my knowledge, been Berionsly 
undertaken ; and to eietnte sncoessfullj- the attempt which Coleridge 
rtuommeads iruuld ecu-cely bo possible to an; one persun, tbough ever 
BO diligent an inTestigator. 

Besides tmuKiiiua snd airsBumi), not only tbe unregrottitble falwUt, 
furiiuHd, glibbiry, luirical, magnificalt, oiMrmil, olmligi^act, pn- 
Tumpid, turgiAita, and veatatit^, but barmy, ehilblaiaed, clmiuy, dmnp, 
dijiinet, incuiuii, nifiati, pvffy, riaproeal, and rHmgradt are derided, 
by Ben JonBon. in The Poetaster. 

Touohing Shakespeare's alleged diElike of aeamtntodation, Mr. De 
Quincey falla into the came error with Coleridge, of whom he ia, not 
unl^equentlf, little more than an eubo. Gee hia Worka (ed. 1S63), 
Vol. 6, p. 61, 

Acetmmodaled is the word whicli Shallow taken out of Bardolph's 
month, and hurpa upon; and it is Bardolph's misuse nf it, not bis 
using it, that Shakespeare ridtculea. Compare CymlKliiie, Act 5, 
Scene 3. 

Nor has Sbakeapeare any objsotion to rcmimeratian. The manner 
in whiuh Costard plays on it proves nuthing. Compare Treiliia and 
Civuida, Act 3, Scene 3. 

In ehurt, bb to Coleridge, his memory not seldom playfd him falsa. 
One of the words which ho adduces Is touchtd un bj Ben Jonson. 
'' You are not to cast a ring for the perfumed terms of the time, as 
aecBmmodalion, cotnpltmcnl, iipirit, &c., hut uso them properly in their 
place, OB otbera." Timber, Perepicuitru. 

In the CuriaiUici o/ Literature (ed. 1866), VoL 3, p. 25, we read, 
in a foot-nuto : " Sliakespeote makes 'Ancient Pistol' use anew-coined 
Italian word, when he speaks of being ' better aammmodatcd ' ; to tbe 
great ddight of Juatico Sliallow, who eiclaims: 'It comes from 
HfleoBiBiorfo, It good phrase '." 

Shallow, in searching for an etymology, would most naturally go, 
us he beTB seems tu have gons, to the Latin. Nor is it certain that 
the Italian gave us aceommodBle. In A World of Wondrri, from tbe 
French, published in l<iD7, the verb occm's ot pp. 121, 216, 237, twice 
tu translate aeaimiuadtr. 

' Among the words specified in the pages immediately following, 
there are some which, thongh now current, were, us is gntherod 
from the comments evokod by them, onoo in abeyance, or, at uU uvents, 
uic fuuud stated, or intimated to have been so. 

PURISM. 107 

it is curious to observe how many of them have 
gained a permanent place in our language. Of such, 
to the extent of several hundred, with the comments 
suggested by them, scattered over our literature, I 
have prepared a collection. Perhaps a few excerpts 
from it will not be unacceptable. 

The time was when our homely gown was so novel 
a name as to invite denunciation.^ 

Sir Thomas Elyot, writing in 1531, terms the 
word maturity^ "straunge anddarke"; industry h.Q 
calls ** straung " ; he speaks of modesty as " not bee- 
ing knowen in the Englysh tongue " ; and of magna- 
nimity , as ** beeing yet straunge^ as late borowed out 
of the Latine ".^ 

1 *'The Commons were besotted in excess of apparel, in wide 
surcoats reaching to their loyns ; some, in a garment reaching to their 
heels, close before, and strowling out on the sides, so that, on the 
back, they make men seem women ; and this they call by a ridiculous 
name, gown^ Camden s MemainSj &c., pp. 252, 253. 

Gown, it thus seems, was the name of a man's garment, before it 
was the name of a woman's. 

A manuscript work, entitled Eulogium^ referred to the time of 
Edward III., is here professedly quoted. If in English, not only its 
spelling, but its language, must, of course, have been modernized. 

Barnabe Eiche was distressed at piccadilly^ both the name and the 
thing. "But he that, some fortie or fifty yeares sithens, should have 
asked after b. pickadillyy I wonder who could have understood him, or 
could have told him what dipickadiUy had beene, either fish or flesh". 
The Honestie of This Age (1614), pp. 37, 38 (ed. 1844). 

Did Biche suppose that the st aider articles of apparel had come 
down, with their names, from before the Flood ? 

* Except where a word remarked on is part of a sentence, I exhibit 
it in its present form. 

3 The Governour (ed. 1580), fol. 71, 73, 78, 173. 

In fol. 78, manstietude is spoken of as *' beeing, semblablye, before 
this time unknowen in our tongue ". Puttenham uses it. 

From a remark in fol. 201, it appears that intellectus bad not yet 
become intellect. 

" Sir Thomas Elyot, writing in 1534, speaks of Ike no^ ^^xcSi^Kt 

In the same year, it was deemed necessary to 
gloas, a.s being archaisniB, the substantives bchent, 
chieftain, desert, tkralh, thraldom} 

According to Richarde Willea, despicable, destruct- 
ive, homicide, imbibed, o^^qniom, ponderous, porletitous, 
and prodigious were novelties in 1577.* 

wonli /ruf a/ill/, temperance, aoiritfi/, and magnmrimHji, as bring tlien 
nnt in general ane in England." Tki WettminsUr Sevient, Vi;l. H 
(1831), p. 86. 

Eljot'a omi eriticiama On these terma I am annlile to give. 

Frngality I find iu TTdall'a ApopMhcgw (1542), fol. 90. 

' Tkfi equiialento given are prowiim, captain, wilderuta, handineii, 
bandas'- 8ae Thu Markian ItuaiUmiy (ed. Oldya and Park), Vol, 
6, p. 91. It U vturds in Tke Praier and Ctmiplaynte oftht Fkieiman 
mtto Chriiti that are there explained. 

At p. 98 ot the folame jmst referred to, hiryiagt a glosaed by 
"worship, praise." 

Hieron, in The Pnacher't Flea, Che Dedication to which is dated 
160*, writes : " It mny seeme Bopcriiuoas to draw the paoplH "to hear- 
ing Dpon the weeke-dsyea, when moa are otherwise in their worldly 
affuirca to bee omployed." IToria (ed 1624), Vol. 1, p. 539. 

" I hare learned since, that he ... . has a mother, between 
Eerentj and eighty, who walka, every Sunday, eight niilea to li/ariHg, 
KB they cull it, and beet again." Oourper, W^orka, Vol. 7, pp. 37. 38. 

In Cowper'a time, hear was atili largely useiI, by some people, for 
'attend divine serrice', oipecLallj for the purpose of listening to the 
senaoD. See The Literary Churekman, 1868, p. 1S4, May it not b« 
that the hearing in question was, originally, hiryingi f Sury, ' wor- 
ship ', wna not too old for Spenser. 

' Willes, in TAi Hiitory of Travayle, &o., Frifaa unia tin Header. 
edJlHtm. here glances at what he looks upon us pednDtrioa in Eicharde 
Edon. " Many of hia Englyshe woordes ", he aaya, " cannot be ei- 
cuaed, iu niy opinion. Tot amellyog to mnch of the Latine." Inateutt 
of the tenni whiuh he critiuzes, Willes tells us he would haie law, 
nuisome, laanttaughter, dnmkm, dutiful, leciglity, viondtrful, and 
itKiietniu. Among nnnatuntlized worda used by Eden, Wilica object* 
to aatiquet, diltoniiriet, deminatoft, lalieilale, the snbatilutes proposi^d 
for whicli are a'leicHt (aic), tu^ti, hrda, tarefut. Jhminaior 
uied by Pnttenham. 

Willi*, nt the end of his " Preface unto Iho Reader ", gives us 
idea who, in 1577, were accounted preeminently good writera 
English : 

PURISM. 109 


Sir Philip Sidney, who died in 1586, using the 
word diction, prefixes to it the parenthesis "as I 
may tearme it." ^ 

George Puttenham, under the date of 1589,^ notes, 
as neoteric, compendious, declination, delineation, di- 
mension, figurative, function, harmonical, idiom,^ im- 
pression, indignity, inveigle, method, methodical, me- 
trical, numerous, obscure, penetrable, penetrate, placa- 
tion, prolix, refining, savage, scientific,^ significative, 

&c. &c.^ 

— -^ 

*' I have not, for every worde, asked counsayle 
Of eloquent Eliot, or Sir Thomas Moore [sic]. 
Take it, therefore, as I have intended: 
The faultes, with favour, may soone he amended." 
Willes's edition of Eden's work was oh my hook-shelves ; hut I did 
not know what was to he found there ahout words, until I happened 
to be turning over the Curiosities of Literature. 

Sir John Harington, in A Briefe Apologie of Poetrie^ &c., prefixed 
to his translation of the Orlando Furioso (1591), says that the Earl of 
Surrey and Sir Thomas Wyatt " are yet called the first refiners of the 
English topg". 

^ An Apologie for Foetrie (ed. 1868), p. 68. IHction is used only 
once hy Shakespeare ; and it is where he makes Hamlet reply to Osric 
in an afiected style of phraseology which has come, most unjustly, to 
he called euphuism. 

Donne, in his Folydoron (1631), p. 62, has " diction^ or word **. 

2 The Arte of English Foesie, pp. 121—123. 

3 ** Ye finde also this word idiome, taken from the Greekes, yet serv- 
ing aptly, when a man wanteth to expresse so much, unles it he in 
two words, which surplussage to avoide, we are allowed to draw in 
other words single and asmuch significative/* 

At p. 120, Puttenham tells us that he intends, hy idiomj "mother- 
speach". At p. 86, he writes of the place where a "sharpe accent 
falls, in our owne ydiome^ most aptly and naturally". 

Gahriell Harvey, before Puttenham, namely, in 1680, had used 
idimne^ and in the sense it now bears. Ancient Critical Essays, &c., 
Vol. 2, p. 281 . He was followed, in the time of James I., by Edmund 
Bolton, in his Hypercritica, Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 262. 

* This ia the first of his own strange terms whicli P^t.\»Div«B!L 

s [Note in the next page.] 


TakingrevengeonTloma'^Nash Gab eU Harvey 
taxes him with having iorged a ni s hapen rabble- 
ment of absurd and ridiculous woids the proper 
bodges of hia new-fangled figure cilled foolrisme " ; 
and he instances sacr !eg ousl / co /a n noted, humour 
vnconTeraable, interfuse di^p tat e 1 ei maphrodite 
phrases, declamaf,ori/ stjks and censor a! m oralisers.^ 
This was in 1593. 

In The Knate of CI bh bv 'Samuel Rowlands, 

Qt pnliUt».[iiir\ he writes: "Tliis word|"alflo, ia reioived from the 
FrcEohmen, but, at ftia day, uaunll in Court, and with ail good secre- 
tunee : and caanot ilnde nn En^liall word to match him ; fur, to have 
said a man politiqut had not hene aa wel. hicaase, in tmeth, that had 
beno nd more than to have said a civil pereoD. Poliiiea ia rather ' a 
Barvcjour oF ciTilitie' than 'civil', & a 'publiiguu miniat«r or aaon- 
aeller in tlie Stale '". 

" Aa aaiuMilinff and nunurajirVy. Puttenham adds : " But perad- 
venture (& I could bring a raaeon fur it) many other like words, bor- 
rowed out of ths Latin and French, were not so well to be aUovred by 
na; as thone words : aiidiiiiiina,(nT'bo\i' ; fttea«ditie,toi'e\ciqaBDae'; 
egrtgiimi, for 'great'or 'notable'; implttf, tm ' replenuhed ' ; at- 
ItmpM, for ' attempt 'i mmpatitle, for 'agreeable in nature', and 

Puttenham being criticaUy choice in hia diction, it is interesting to 
see what Icrma used by bin ace now obsolete. Among them are the 
Babatantites aimian, amisffi, applautioH, tain, braggery, eonfeaal, 
ditafqiuiiHlarua, tpithalawy, fitlitls, heyteaTd, kealifttueta, impli- 
oatiBt, mantofludt, vterrndst, nummmlg. olialion, panwmml, pnJeiMt, 
r^aicemenl, niniM, rm-imijiut, mofa-y, liteU, riciotil!/ ; tlw adjec- 
tiicB eon/mi, imporlimt, ineMmaaibh, UimrabU, liminmti, tderaUt, 
t/ippcr, terniitiatlt, HplaHdiii; the lerba aeknmc, appaaiBnatt, diit- 
givrlt, exoruifii, foregrav/, mttten, pntp/mt, tohislick, Irmlaei; the ad- 
verbs gperlly, britaly ; and the prflposition heliilher. 

• Fiircdt Superiroffaliou, pp. 178, 179 (in Areheim, Vol. 2). 
Harvey also Bpecifias dnmidale ergonisl. The grief of Harvey wna 
natural, at being pelted with ta myaterioue a miaaile aa tbia epithet. 

" Tbb is the first part of The Fuur Ei,av<s. The verses quoted are 
from the edition of 1844, p. 29. 


published in 1600, " Signieur "Worde-monger, the 

Ape of Eloquence," is made to say :^ 

" As on the way I itenerated \_sic], 
A rurall person I obviated. 
Interrogating times transitation. 
And of the passage demonstration. 
My apprehension did, ingenious, scan 
That he was meerely a simplitian. 
So, when I saw he was extravagant. 
Unto the obscure vulgar consonant, 
I bad him vanish most promiscuously. 
And not contaminate my company." ^ 

^ Verstegan writes : "I wil not cloy the reader with .... the re- 
peating of such lyke discourses as hee used, that told, how, as hee 
itinerated, hee obviated a rurall person, and, interrogating him con- 
cerning the transitation of the tyme, and the demonstration of the 
passage, found him a raeer simplician ; whereas, yf, in his true speech, 
he has asked him what was the clock, and which had bin his way, his 
ignorance might of the simplician have bin enformed in both." A Res- 
titution, &c., pp. 205, 206. 

The date of this is 1605. Verstegan must, therefore, have taken it 
from the first edition of The Knave of Clubbs (1600). 

2 The majority of the words here grouped together for ridicule have, 
I need scarcely say, — the pedantic or Latinistic use of them being laid 
aside, — since become good English. 

It is curious to observe how long promiscuously has been abused in 
one way or other. Richard Franck wrote, in 1668 : " But we relinquish 
these pleasant streams of Errit, to patrole the fields of Cooper, in 
Angus, where Scotland's great General (the Earl of Leven) was born 
promiscuously of obscure parents." Also: **The day, as prenoted, 
promiscuous and gloomy." Northern Memoirs (ed. 1694), pp. 129, 

Simplician is used by several writers, as in The Comical History of 
Francion (1655), Book 6, p. 2; and by Heylin, in A Full Relation, 
&c. (1656), p. 40. Eumanitian occurs in Chettle, Kindhart's Lreame 
(1592), p. 33 (ed. 1841) : Gabriell Harvey, Fierce^ Supererogation 
(1593), p. 148 (in Archaica, Vol. 2): Heylin, ^Bxatnen Historicum 
(1659), Part 1, p. 129. Naturian, William Watson, A Decacordon, 

If we may believe Yerstegan,' equip was quite 
unintelligible, at least in "the north partes", "not 
many yeares past". 

In A World of Wonders,^ 1607, turhmt, an old 
spelling of turban, is found marginally explained by 

King James's revisers of tlie Bible, in avoiding 
holocausts, prepuce,^ rational* and tunic, pique tbem- 
selvea, as we learn from their Preface, on having 
" shunned the obscuritie of the Papists." ° 

Mabbe, in his admirable translation of Aleman's 
romance, explains, in the margin, mosquito^ and 

&V. (1602), pp. 3*1, 338. Ommadan. Gabriell Harvey, Pitrc^a 
Bnptfervgation,^. 186. Thealerian. Dakker, S«(i.o-mns!i> |1602), 
Big. 1 3 T. Still worse, as tp stjmology, \t hmigarian, lor 'a hungry 
person ". See Dekter, A ffniyA/t Coiyuriug (1607), p. 31 {A 1842) : 
Samuol Rowlanda, The Four Knatts, p. 110. 

' See a story in his A Ri'slUiiUim of Ltenyed Intelliffeiiee, p. SOS. 

' P. 236. Alao nee p. 317, where the BpeUinga are (iirimiWand tali- 
banl, the Intter of which ta also^tttlenham'e apcUing, while Naih, in his 
Laitm Stupi (1698), has titriitHlo. At p. 239, letritatich is eiplain«d 
to mean " a quatrain or staffe of touro versca." 

^ "Castalioa'fl BMant-penu ia as absunl, in French, aa the Hcmists' 
pnpiiee ia, in Engliah." A If'orld of Wenileri, p. 77, marginal note. 

' Dr. Timothy Puller, in his Moderation of the Church of England, 
&c. {1679), Chapter 4, omita thia word, and very diiingcnnonsly. Ba the 
reader will see, if ha looks into the matter. Aiymes and patehe com- 
pleta the list of the Bible-reviMrB. 

» Dr. Heylin, in his Obiatstiona, io. {1B66). p. 3., remarking on the 
phraaealogy of the Romish Eaglisb Bible, enumerates, as among- its 
" worda utterly unknown to any English render, unlegaa well-grounded 
and inatmctcd in the learned languagea " : ufguiailion, adulieratt, 
advent, eondiffti, domimcal, tvnruate, hoil, lanvei, neophf/l«, paraeltle, 
pnvarieator, preaenea, propotition, reprepiliate, rtaaacittlt, aab&atiim, 
violimi. I ahull not stop to comment on thia list. 

> " cuiex, ' a gnat,' which the Spsniarda call hy the nama of 
moaguito." The Sogm (od, 1623), Part 1, p. 233. 

' "Mulala IB a maid-child that is borne of a negni and a fape man. 

PURISM. 113 

Dr. Peter Heylin, writing in 1625/ by joining to 
infantry the apologetic words " as the martialists term 
it," intimates that the expression was not yet in com- 
mon use. Agreeably to the same author : " Plunder, 
both name and thing, was unknown in England till 
the beginning of the war ; and the war began not 
tiU September, Anno 1642 ''} 

Philemon Holland, having used little nephew,^ to 
denote the kinship of Cyrus to Astyages, has the 
side-note : " Or grandchild, as some will have it.'^ * 

and so on the contrary. And, because it is an extraordinary mixture, 
they compare such a one to a mule." Ibid.^ Part 2, p. 328. Negra, 
for * negress *, occurs again in Part 2, p. 261. 

Our present unetymological ttiulatto M^as long in getting settled. 
**The rich molotto lady, I presume ?" Hurlothrumbo (1729), Act 2. 

1 A Full Relation, &c. (1656), p. 261. 

2 Examen Historicum (1659), Part 1, p. 248. To this statement 
Fuller offers a slight amendment, in asserting, that " the xmrnQ plunder *' 
began, in England, ** some months, the practise thereof, some weeks, 
before our war.'* Tl^ Appeal of Injured Innocence, &c. (1659), Part 
3, p. 50. 

3 By his little nephew^ an expression elsewhere unknown to me, 
Holland seems to imply, that nephew, in its present acceptation, was 
coming into use. But, if nephew was to be allowed its new sense, 
little nephew, as significative of a relation different from nephew, ought 
to mean * nephew's child '. 

* Cyrupcedia (1632), p. 7. At p. 116, Holland has nephewes, with 
the marginal annotation : *' Children's children, — as we say unproperly, 

At p. 178, miriades is explained by "ten thousands." Holland 
might be quoted largely for information as to what words used by him 
were novelties. Among his inventions is otacusts, p. 118, interpreted, 
in the margin, by " privy escouts." He must have been of a sanguine 
temperament, if he supposed that posterity would consent to Anglicize 

Holland, if read, especially in his final work, for philological ends, 
might easily mislead. He was forty-nine years old when, in 1600, he 
published his translation of Livy ; and he put his last hand to his 
Cyrupaedia in 1629. His manner of writing never changed; and, 


Miltou,' under the date of Hi49, calls denwgognes 
" this goblin word ". 

Seven years later, Heylin, named juat above, com- 
ipiled " An Alphabetical Table,^ containing the Un- 

while hepropoBodnewworda without end, he rejected, in his language, 
aimoat nothing that he found ealnhlishBd. Even in Sir Thomaa Mora 
there is litllo whioh ho thought bo far witiquated na lo be given up ; 
and herein he wrts markedly peculiar. 

t' Eikimoklaalei, Chapter i. Mill«n here refers to h passage in the 
^im Baailikt, Chapter i : " Who wore the chief demagogtiH and 
^patronei of tnmults," &e. 
' It ia giveu at the eud of Obtfrwitiona, &s. (1G66). I pass "bj the 
TTOTlla which Heylin taxes his author with using in new aonaGij^ and, 
Iif those which he colla "uncouth and anusuall", I hy no mem i' 
£s^c|ibe all, in the catalugue which follows. Abitrua, aogvicKi, 
aieguat; adoption, adcmlitieiu, alleviatt, amphibiout, amm«di>*rt, 
Wtagenitl, mpirae, camalilff, chimgrapAy, datiatlnT, catniHRuHraf^ 
MirifimMfi'. eomplaeBteii, complieali, conadt, amnnle, eonfraliniitg, eul- 
ptMlitg, deprtdntum, ttetpandence, dapnndias, dntinalion, dual, wiStyo, 
tmerge, imnymt, imtluMfnt, equilHraU, tr»ifitate, a-udition, evaenali, 
aeogitalt, txeoriiUe, exuitranOf/, foHuitatitly, smaitialt, gnlalian, gmt, 
htctie, hibtrnat, holocaust, horiimtal, liypMJiait, iilentils, I'MOiHimt, 
impedt, impcttauilg, impurity, immiiblt, inavpicieH; inmHtatieii, 
iHturiantif, ineurioui, individuaiiim, ii^mi, inhume, iaitialioti, ituT' 
injuitCudt, luimw, iHlerfin, iiUiriect, iHtrimie, irrilate, 
liitorwfwB, luminarf/, luxariancy, magnttit, melwrate, mfreuriatitt, 
\-4MtatmrphtH; mirtaterf/, meih, moi'iua. narriiter, natt, nonmua, nex- 
I, ituie, oUigue, oseuU, tOHbo", odium, offertory, emm, anaraut, 
spiiu, organieal, pact, plaeailf, pondtroui, partmlaur, pre- 
n, pnposiertiit, pmariealian, radiant, rancidity, rocipreeate, re- 
Wlluttitn, refuSymt, relax, npertory, respond, retrntion, rcttrhtrMiott, 
ktmr, ittntillation, ie4«loia, letiei, tterile, Himulale, alipu- 
, ttricturt, mptffelatioH, supinely, tiuceptible, symbol, synoptit, 
•i, limenty, temporalities, lindewy, terrene, (mWuKH(, trepidation, 
1, tnuuifjr, valedielion, Tmialitg, veteran, vi^l, virile. 
Charged with ha'ing amployed "many lofty words," L'Estrango 
replied : " As to thoae lofty words, I declare to all the wnrld this not 
uningnnaoDs acknowledgement, that, having conversed with authon of 
the noblest and eheif rematque in several languages, not onely their 
notiona, hut thoir vary words, eapecially being of the moat elegant 
I import, became, at length, so familiar with mo, na, when I epply'd my 
" 1 Chat present work, I found it very difficult to reuoance my 

PURISM. 115 

couth and Unustiall Words which are found " in 
Hamon L'Estrange's Reign of King Charles, the first 

former acquaintance with them ; but, as they freely offred themselves, 
so I entertain' d them, upon these considerations." The Observator 0^- 
served{l&6Q),^. 2. 

The Preface to the second edition of The Reign of King Charles opens 
with this sentence : " What oblique descants will come traverse upon 
this honest narrative, I already prejudicate." 

At p. 21 of the work, L' Estrange writes, with reference to Lord 
Keeper Williams : " For, when once the publique is put into our clien- 
tele, under our protection, all by-relations must stand aloof. Nor was 
his mischief great, his cancelier ; his fall being onely from the first 
loft : for, though he parted from the Great Seal, he kept the lawn- 
sleeves ; and, though he left the purse behind him, he went away with 
the money, having feathered his nest pretty well : and, apprehending 
his condition to be somewhat tottering, he made all the means he could 
to reingratiate himself with the Duke ; but nothing could prevail ; 
nor would the Duke be exorated, no, not by the intercession of the 
Countesse, his mother : but it was not enough to pluck his feathers, 
unlesse his nails were pared, also.*' 

L' Estrange tried, but in vain, to convict Heylin of having mis- 
understood the meaning of the Latin stylus ; and it is no wonder that 
the divine, while defending himself, was tempted into parodying the 
historian's pedantry and grandiloquence. " Now the thunder- thump- 
ing Jove transfund his dotes into the pericranium of our learned 

author, who seems, like Rhombus, in Sir Philip, to be 

even gravi dated with child, untill he hath endoctrinated our plumbeous 
cerebrosities in the adaequate sence and perceptibility of the word," 
&c. Extraneus Vapulans (1656), pp. 37, 38. 

Archdeacon Todd injudiciously subscribes to Vernon's judgment, 
that Heylin " so wrote as to be comprehended by the most vulgar 
reader." My own conclusion, after reading several thousand pages of 
his writings, is, that he was scarcely less fond of hard words than the 
victim of his criticism. Whether any given expression was allowable, 
or unallowable, he would not, however, grant that any one but him- 
self was a proper arbiter. As I could easily evince, many of 
L'Estrange's terms which he reckons " uncouth and unusuall", had 
been in good use for half a century, or more, before they were placed 
in the glossary epitomized in this note. 

Heylin, though now pretty thoroughly forgotten, was, in his day, 
a man of mark. A stauncher or more learned son the Church of 
England can hardly name between Hooker and Waterland. For 
voluminousness I know of no writer, during the whole of t\\ft ^^'^^^^^ 

edition of wliicli very affected and tasteless effusion 
had then recently been published. 

"There is a new word coined, within few months, 
called fanafics," writes Thomas Fuller,' in 1660. 

Bentley,* in his answer to Boyle, says : " Tbe 
words in my book which he excepts against are 

t«fiiith Eentury, that BurpnisiM him. Utiwimriiibli', fcarl^EB, spirited, 
logioBl, of boundless informstion, and a niBater in Ma viaj nf fiommii- 
oicatiDg it, there is muoh in him Chat challenges admlratioii. The 
■erriia character nf his loyalty he shared with all other mnnarabists of 
his time ; and, in estiniutin^ him, it cm taiOy bu maile too mach of. 
/b to his pugTiHCity, also, it was, to bfl sure, somewhat in eicess ; bnt 
there wbs nothing ill-naturud about it ; and one rends with pleaanre, 
that he and Fuller, for all the hard hittiog they exchaog^d, subsequently 
not only made vaoh other's aeqnaiatance, but beuame fast friends, and 
M continued untdl they were separated by death. 

1 Mixt Gantempbitioai in Bitter Timei, Part I, 60. Fuller did not 
object to it, hoWBTar; for, in Part 1, 2B, and ugain in Part 2, 45, be 
uses the tana himself. And Henry More, in ilia Mystery of GBdliiiinii 
(leeo), p. 617, has the aubstantive/ffiindo. 

' Worii, Vol. 1, Preface, p. liv. Bentley'a writinga have been but 
witeleRsly scannud by our laiicograpbere, who might bafe added, from 
them, the words, orfomis of words, herefoUowinjr : tbev.a. c/iuponnle; 
tba T.n. prrvent ; tbe suhstantiTSs caupoualion, obtl, pawaaer, tcaim ; 
Had the adjectivea Cnhiiiiati, cAurieal, cismuriiie, eycliaB, phgnogm- 
mmical, piyeUmantic. 

Benttey may, furthor, be appealed to as warrant for several worda 
nhiuh are known, to our diction a ry-malcers, only aa of Iilor dati'. 
Here are bohib of them, with their oldest recordod authurilips attached. 
AutAenticali : Warton. Cbuponafe. T.n. : Buili'D't IMelhnury. Unrr- 
ati: Bailey'i SidioHary. Sectntion, aa now used: Edinburgh Bt- 

I do not contend, however, that the overpassed words jiYEn above, 
and in similar lists in thia Toljime. ought, all nf them, to be inserted in 
a dictionary ; and yet, in consistency with tbe plan on wliich diction- 
aries bato hitherto been compiled, not one of tliem should be omitted. 
Nor am 1 10 rash as t« imagine that I have, here or anywhere *!dse, 
diseiivered absolutely the earliest nse of any word. As to avlhuititale, 
for instance, I have proof that it wm used in lfll2, and again in 1617 ; 
but I dare my it had often bven in print before. 

PURISM. 117 

comtumiUious,^ repudiate,'^ concede,^ alien ed vemsd^lar^^ 
timidj negoce, j^utid, and idiom ^ ; every one of which 

1 Comtnentitious is used by Sir Arthur Gorges, Translation of Bacon's 
JDe Sapientia Veterum (ed. 1619), p. 142 : by Gaule, UvQ-fiavria 
(1652), pp. 45, 236, with the adverb at pp. 236, 252, &c. : Glannll, 
Scepsis Scieiitifica (ed. 1665), p. 112. 

2 " Yet, when she understood how he was abjected and repudiated in 
the French Court, it could not choose but be a great agony and amaze- 
ment unto her." Thomas Gainsford, The Sistory of Ferkin War' 
beck, &c. (1618), in The Sarleian Miscellany- (ed. Oldys and Park, 
1810), Vol. 6, p. 556. 

Still older quotations will be seen in Dr. Richardson's Dictionary. 

3 " That the imbarque and stay of our ships at Blay, by Lewes his 
command, was an infringement of the league, it is conceded'^ &c. 
Hamon L'Estrange, The Reign of King Charles (ed. 1656), p. 58. 

* Now written alien. For the substantive, see Bentley*s Works, Vol. 
1, p. 365 ; for the adjective. Vol. 1, p. 360, and Vol. 3, p. 227. 

* Addison, in The Spectator, No. 165, adopts Bentley's vernacular 
idiom, but with some appearance of misgiving. Gibbon, in his 3fe' 
moirs of my Life and Writings, speaks of " repudiating (as Dr. 
Bentley would say) my vernacular idiom." Colman, in The GefitU' 
man, No. 3, and Cowper, in the Preface to his Iliad, employ the 
phrase vernacular idiom, and without thinking it necessary to excuse 
themselves for so doing. 

*' There are two expressions of frequent occurrence, equally wrong : 
* incorrect orthography * and * vernacular idiom '.** Landor, The Last 
Fruit off an Old Tree, p. 103. 

But, surely, ' vernacular idiom * is quite unobjectionable, if we take 
its idiom in the proper sense of the term. 

Vernacular is one of the words, — along with benevolence, cuticle, 

flagitious, patriotic, primeval, &c. &c., — by which, as being equally 

out of the common with their French originals. Sir Thomas TJrquhart, 

in 1653, represented the far-fetched jargon of Rabelais' s Limousin 


Invernacular is used by E. Jones, in Cicero* s Brutus, &c. (1776), 
p. 198. 

^ If Boyle had been more explicit in his objection to this word, 
Bentley might have found it difficult to defend himself. Vagueness 
he seems to have thought fairly answerable by evasion. Boyle him- 
self, in his I>r. Bentley* s Dissertations .... Examined (1698), which 
called forth the defence quoted above, bad used idiom, at pp. 42, 43, 
67, 68, in the sense which it bore with his contemporaries, and which 


I wore [««'] in print before I used them, and, most of 
them, before I was born [1663]." He adds: "But 
the Examiner might have remembered, before he 
talked thus at large, who it was that distinguished 
his style with I'^wc^ and recojHOScc,^ and other words 
of that sort, which nobody has yet thought fit to 
follow him in."' 

It Blill lienra. Bentley— see his WorHii, Vol. 1, p. '655, — had timde it 
■la^onymous nitli 'dialect ' ; as equivalsiit to nhicb, or to Man^age', 
8 beea employed by Ladj Mary W. MoDtogu, Blackfitotie, 
EOibbon, and many others. Instead of idiotit, aa more accurately ep- 
■ ptied, Bentley haa iiioihm. VoL 2, p. 70. 

"And irhat ii histury without iU idiamf, truth, but a meec ro- 

Hamon L'Eatrango, Thi Eeign of King CAarla, Preface. 
A nearer approach to modem usage is aeen, where the same author 
K^W^iteB, that " ths priest . . according to the idioms of antiquity, 
gatwaies imported none inferiour to the biEbop." Tht Alliance of 
^M. (1669), p. 322. 
"Well applyed. John Ellis, and, pasaibly, intolligihle enough in a 
■iplaee of manufactures, but nothing proper to the true meaning of the 
Bword in the vulgar iditme." Heylin, Ezlraaeia VapuUtna (18156), 
■^ 279. 

, See, further. Bishop Sprat, Tht Sislori/ of Iht Roffal Soeicly, &c. 
Mpi. 1667), p. 42. 

^ fiichard Franclt writsi, affectedly enough, of " the Wi™i or form 
a horn." NortJuwn Mimoira (ed. IfiB*), p. 177. This work was 
imposed in 1658. Also vide lupm, p. ]09, note 3. 

cceptation now obeolete, ' be ignorant of.' I find an in- 
n BtirthoggB, Caiaa Dei (1675), p. 25. 
Tha legal lense of iffnore, which, since Burke showed it to the pub- 
is gradaally become popularined, I do not know to he ss old as 
le days of Boyle. Our preeent igiiors is deritod from ignoramus, an 
opression formerly employed by jurymen. 
Bentley also instances Boyle's eolemporarg. as objcctionahle. His 
1 " iroaehi'ig of eipressionB, " whicb Buyle impugna. he dous not 
even dHgn to defend. 

* When Boyle wrote, recojwfn — eieeptin the sense of 'revise,' — may 

(till have been regarded ns somewhat Gallic ; nnd fur this rraton, pro- 

■'tably, be wont back, in bit affectation of clasaieism, to the Latin, in 

hoofing reeegniiKf. 

' Jd the conelmoa of this sentence, Benlley alludes to Boyle's pro- 

PURISM. 119 

Jeremy Collier, criticizing the expression "wafting 
air ", remarks, that wafting " is almost worn out of 
use " ; ^ and he blames Congreve for qualifying 
'roof and * knowledge' as ample j^ 

Addison noted-pp^le as being " a French term of 
art " ; ^ relief, in its application to a picture, he treats 
as if still foreign ; * and he speaks of " what the 
painters call a groiippe ".^ Milton's cornice, culmin- 

phecy : " Sir William Temple may say sufficiency y and the world will 
speak after him." Dr. Bentley* a Dissertations .... JExamined^ p. 287. 

Audibly, at all events, the world has not herein chosen to "speak 
after" Sir William Temple, who would impose on us the word 
sufficiency f in the sense of 'self-sufficiency'. Boyle delivers himself 
as if he thought sufficiency, whatever its meaning, a neoterism. If 
not, then,^gi*ossly careless, he was grossly ignorant. 

I should mention, that Bishop Lowth, for one, has taken up with 
Temple's sense of sufficiency. " In the mean time, God administers 
and dispenses the several evils of this life by different measures, and 
in various ways, as best may answer his wise, his righteous, his good 
and merciful designs : to humble us ; to check our pride and suffici- 
ency ;'' &c. &c. Sermons and Other Remains (1834), p. 188. 

" Lowth was well aware of his own excellence on this point [viz., 
as a writer of English], Alluding, one day, to Mr. John Lind, who 
had defended the conduct of Lord North, in an admirable pamphlet 
on the American War, he observed : * No man can write better Eng- 
lish than Lind, except myself \'* Ibid., p. 25, foot-note. 

Yet the Bishop could call Solomon's Proverbs ** the most curious 
and valuable re^nain of antient wisdom". Ibid., p. 109. Was this 
ever really English > See, besides the Dictionaries, Sir John Haw- 
kins, for " our little remaine of victuals '*, in Hakluyt, Vol. 1 (1589), 
p. 556 ; and Oliver Cromwell (1651), in Mr. H. Gary's Memorials, &c. 
(1842), Vol. 2, p. 380. 

And could the Bishop have defended his verb disculpate, his sub- 
stantive expectative, and such a spelling as substraction ? See The 
Life of William of Wykeham (ed. 1759), pp. 161, 38, 86. 

Elsewhere, the Bishop thinks good to write eucumer, ferriery, hist, 
and reap'hook, for cucumber, farriery, hiss, and reaping -fwok. Isaiah 
(ed. 1778), Notes, pp. 9, 52, 51, 127. 

1 A Short View, &c. (ed. 1730), p. 218. 2 Ibid., p. 254. 

3 Dialogues upon the Usefulness of Ancient Medals, Dialogue 3. 

* Ihid. « Note on Tht Story of Phaeton. 


ole, equalor, and zenith are, in his opinion, too tech- 
nical for ordinary apprehension.' Further, on his 
credit, cartel, commandant, corps, defile, gasconade, 
marauding, pontoon, and reconnoitre were scarcely 
Engliahiu 1711.* 

A year earlier, Swift ' ridiculed akrt * and banter, 
and spoke of ambassador, battalion, circumrallation, 
pnlisado, and prelim imr}/, as if he snpposed they 
were not likely long to eurvive what he took to be 
their then recent birth.' 

Eicbardson, in Clarissa Har/orce," makes one of his 

■ TAt Sptctator, Nu. 297. 

* Hid., No. 166. '• Half tlie French words used affeutcdlj' by 
Meknths, in Drftlcn's Marriage d-la-Mode, ni innovBtiona in out 
language, are now in common use. Kair^eli, foibli, chagrin, grimaa, 
imiarras, double mtendn, equieoqut, 4cbiirciaaeiiitat, ridicule, — all thesB 
words, which ehe learns hj heart, to use DccBaionall^r, arc nu* in com- 
mon UM." Isaac Disraeli, CuriiitUiei ef Litaratuci, Uiilwy of New 

» Tht Taller, No. 230. 

* Though Addisair seeiDS to regard alertniai at good En^lieh, he 
writes aUrU, — sue 7'Ag dptetator, Ku, 403, — as if he cDnsidcred the 
word to be French still. 

* That Bwift CDuld tslie eien the ^Eoler part of tbese terms In he 
ahsolntelf noiel is incoDsUtent with his liBvicigbeon much oFa reader, 
or, at UuBt, with his huving had a. good memory. 

"Your jnung gallants of the time . , nt hcst laik of nothing hnt 
rampordt and parnpaii, maiguetadi, eitnami^ont, and eanvnada." 
Eichnrd Fleckno, A Selaeion o/ Ten Tairi Travella, &C. (1666), pp. 
11, 13, 

Thb list, aalt'dating Swift's by more than half s centarj, is curious, 
if intended lo register words wbioh, when Fleokuo wrote, were emerg- 
ing, or threatening to enierge, into popularity. 

£aNi^'r>, in 1655, would not haie altmclcd notice: though now 
poetical, it is older Ibsn ramperl. Farapei is in many a book anterior 
lo Fledrao's time. CanamaiU, the Bubilnniive, is not noticed hj Dr. 
Johnson, or by his editor, Archdeacon Toild, 

■ Vol. 6, p. 2-ii (ed. 18U). But, even in the time of Kichardson, 
tie word traa ua the point ot achicTing aometbing o( rctpeclability. 

PURISM. 121 

characters say : " When I have least to narrate^ — to 
speak in the Scottish phrase,- — I am most diverting." 
Dr. Johnson ^ charges Dr. Blackwell with using, 
in attainder, quilanlc, and parapet, " words that every 
other polite writer has avoided and despised." ^ ^^djCZ- 
rangements and reconnoitred^ he treats as if they 

I note some instaoces of its occurrence prior to its being acknowledged 
as good English. R. 0. Cambridge, The World (1754), No. 66. 
Garrick (1769), Private Correspondence^ &c.. Vol. 2, p. 344. Miss 
Burney (1782), Cecilia, Book 9, Ch. 2, and Book 10, Ch. 10." William 
Taylor, The Monthly Review, Vol. 16 (1795), p. 514: The Monthly 
Magazine, Vol. 4 (1797), p. 335 : The Annual Review, Vol. 1 (1803), 
p. 256. William Godwin, The Enquirer (1797), p. 470. Coleridge 
(1800), Essays on His Own Titnes, p. 377. Charles Lamb (1802), 
Letters (ed. 1837), Vol. 1, p. 215. Southey, The Annual Review, 
Vol. 2 (1804), p. 17. 

In The Quarterly Review, Vol. 4 (1813), p. 433, we read of "the 
abominable verb narrate, which must absolutely be proscribed in all 
good writing." Eight years later, this "abominable verb" was used 
in the same work, by Southey. See Vol. 24 (1821), p. 463 ; also \ 
Vol. 57 (1836), p. 2. And Southey had used it long before, as I have 
shown just above. 

It occurs in The Scotch Fresbyterian Eloquence, and not as a quota- 
tion, p. 67 (ed. 1693). At least twenty-five years earlier. Bishop 
Lloyd recognized it as English. See, under signijie, his Dictionary 
appended to An Essay towards a Real Character, &c., by Bishop 
Wilkins (1668). 

1 In his review of Memoirs of the Court of Augustus. 

2 Had Dr. Johnson read all other polite writers } And, even if he 
had, could he rationally believe that he remembered they had, to a 
man, avoided any particular word or words } As he himself and other 
lexicographers have shown, the three expressions which he here de- 
spises had received highly respectable sanction long before his day. 

' Aaron Hill wrote, in 1743 : "A writer polished into the modem 
embellishments would have taken this opportunity to shew his erudi- 
tion in French, by the word reconnoitre. Horrible affectation of jar- 
gon! Such abominable insertions as this phrase, and tapis, and 
eclaircissenient, and all the frighttul et csetera most in fashion, into a 
language they rather stick to than unite with, seem to me as ridicul- 
ous an endeavour as an Act for Naturalization of Blackamoors." 
JForks, Vol. 2, p. 224. 

' i'£i CBAPTEK IV. 

were not yet domeBticated.^ Jeoparff, mite, and 
icomonhood he declares to be " obsolete " ; jeopardy, 
to be " not now injuse " ; succumb, to be " not in nee, 
except among the Scotch " ; and proceeds, the aub- 
atantive, to bo "not an imitable word." Smoulder- 
ing, he says, " seems a participle ; but I know not 
whether the verb smo((/rf^' ' be in use."' In 1771, 
his opinion was, that "feeling, for ' tendernesa ', or 
' sensibility ', is a word merely colloquial, of late in- 
troduction." ' He also writes : " Wagers are laid, 
in the city, about our success, which is yet, as the 
French call it, pivbiematical." ' 

Miss Carter, having occasion, in 1754, to use the^ 
word kiitsicoman, remarlcB on it, as being "old-fa- 
shioned." ° 

Writing in 1761, Dr. Priestley says:' "Wo do 
not call a female author an authoress ; and, if a lady 

Seeannoiire was used, by Gnvea, as \Me as 1773. in the original 
sensa of reconiiaUre, ' recognize." " He wonld httrily have reconnoitred 
Wildgooae, howsTi^r, in Uii short huir and present dqcouUi appeiiT- 
anca." Tht Spiritual Quixote (ed. 1820), Vol. 1, p. ISO. 

Five yeari before, Horaaa Wulpole wrote ; " So ineompetent has the 
generality of bistoriona been for the province they hure undertaken, 
thai it is almost a question whether, if the dead of put ages could 
raiive, tbey would be able to reamnoilre the events of their own times, 
ua transmitted to us by ignorance and miarepresentation." Mitlorie 
Soubtt, &c., Profnce, p. t. 

1 Be« The liler. No. B. 

' Dr. Hichankon flnda it in Sir Thomas Moro^ Holinsbcd, and 
Biehop Jewell. For tmoiildtr, as a verb active, aee Bir Thomns Elyot, 
The Image ef Oovernance (1544), foL 25 v. 

* Bee Dr. Johnson'a DictioHarij, first edition. 

* The iViVaW Comtpimdenpf of David Qarrick, (tc. Vol, 1. p, 146. 
' Letter to Mrs. Tbrale, Nov, 1, 1777. Boyle and Swift niual, 

then, bare Galliciied. Bca the Doctor's Lietionanj. 
« Letto-i la Wits Talh-it, &c. {ed. 1809), Vol. 2, p. loS. 
' Tif jSudimeHla of Engiieh Grammat, &o., p. 53. 

PURISM. 123 

write poems, she is, now-a-days, called a poet, rather 
than a poetess, which is almost obsolete." 

Wording, in 1762, was considered, by John Wilkes, 
to be a vulgarism.^ 

Strange as it may seem, Gray,^ in 1771, regarded 
eschew, forth, gaud, meed, sheen, in sooth, and wight, 


as " obsolete.^' The adjective infuriate he thought 
was coined by Dr. Beattie.^ 

1 See The North Briton, No. 17. 

' Works, Vol. 4, p. 309. Gray refers especially to the diction of 
poetry. He adds aye, f and, and ween, 

3 Works, Vol. 4, p. 311. Almost incredibly, Gray believed Dryden 
to have minted the verbs disherit, furbish, smoulder, villanize ; the 
substantives anay, beldam, beverage, a'one, disarray, knar, mood, 
roundelay, trim ; and the adjectives doddered, retchless, wayward. 
Works, Vol. 2, p. 153. This was in 1742. But Gray, to the very last, 
held views, as to the vocabulary of our language, such as no heedful or 
wide-read student of English literature could possibly entertain. 
Even the Bible would have shown bim array and furbish ; Chaucer, 
crone ; Spenser, disarray, disherit, mood, and roundelay ; and Shake- 
speare, beldam, beverage, trim, and wayward. As to villanize, we read, 
in A World of Wonders (1607), p. 203 : " Because the curtizan had 
angered bim, he would revenge himselfe upon God, and so despite and 
villanize him as neither Turke nor Jew could have done worse." 

Gray's finicalness about expressions was excessive. For instance, he 
writes : '* I rejoice to find you apply (pardon the use of so odious a 
word) to the history of your own times." Works, Vol. 3, p. 84. 

I am not aware that this use of apply ever was ".odious". In- 
stances of it prior to Gray*s criticism are seen in De Foe, Moll Flanders 
(ed. 1840), p. 347 ; and in Richardson, Sir Charles Grandison (ed. 
1811), Vol. 2, p. 378. 

** I have been too ill and too dispirited to apply to anything for 
some weeks past." Miss Carter {17 Q9), Letters to Mrs. Montagu, Vol. 
2, p. 60, 

" Those who apply to the study of the common law often boast," 
&c. Bp. Hallifax (1779), An Analysis of the Roman Civil Law (ed. 
1795), Preface, p. xvi. 

" He mingled in cursory conversation with the same steadiness of 
attention as others apply to a lecture." Dr. Johnson, Life of Savage. 

Also see Graves, The Spiritual Quixote (ed. 1820), Vol. 1, p. 114; 
Southey, Letters, &c. (1797), p. 9; Cbtoper's Trork8,NQV\,^.1\. 


Dr. Jolin Iloadly wrote, in 1773 :"!.,. received 

tboni handsomely at half pasl seven, qb the modern 
English now is." ' 

Sir Harry Hamper, in a play of Foote"s which 
came out iu 1776, aska, at Calais ; " But is not there 
fiomc danger ? Won't their magiatnttes, their polict/, 
m they call it here, take it amiss ? " ' The word 
poUcp, at least in its present sense, could not have 
heen common then in English.* 

" I don't know whether I can assent to your critic- 
ism on the word replete, that it is never used in a good 
SL'use. Were it left to me, I would use it in no 
sense. It Las but little meaning. It was never 
naturalized in conversation, or in prose, and, I 
think, makes no figui'e in verse." So wrote BisTiop 
. Shipley to Sir William Jones.* 

" If I may compose such a word," adds Sir William, 
himself, to the word heart-rending? 

" The world itself is in a state of superannuation, if 
there be such a word," wrote William Cowper, in 
1781.' The same year, he calls wixell "the Irish 

In Dr. JolinHin'i Diclionortf. eTen in the (tdition of Dr. Lstbam, 
the sense of appln here eiemplified is orerpassed. 

' l%t Private CormipoiuleHte of Satid Ganiet, Sc!:.,Tu\, 1, p. 571, 

^ The Capuchin, Act 3. 

> Horace 'Walpole uses it In hia Bittarie Souiii, Ac. (17SS}, Pra- 

' M^moirt .... 0/ Sir William Jonet <fii. 180(1), p. 20t Tlio 
letter quoted is dated in ITflL. 

" Tlui Bnthor of Ibe English Commentary hns & note on thi» passage, 
rrrpleti with doe titste and sound criticism." Colmnii, Pmtt oh Several 
OimMioM. &o., Vol. 3, p. 114. 

' Mmielri .... 0/ Sir WilUani Jwiw. p. 20S. Waller had nscd 
Jrarf-ruii/i'ijr ;bnt the lenn most lisve been unusuiU.nhta Sir William 
JoDes wrote wt abavo. in 1T82. 
' ffirir (ed. Sootbej, 1835—1837), Vol. 15, p. 66. 

PURfSM. 125 

term " ; ^ and, in 1785, taken in, for ' duped,' was, with 
him,^ a "jockey-phrase." To beetling he annexes 
this note : " The word has the authority of Shake- 
speare, and signifies * overhanging \" ^ As to rife, he 
feels there is occasion to explain that it " is a Saxon 
word, and signifies * frequent ' or * common '.'' * 

A use of the word ticket, which has not yet risen 
above the level of slang, appears to have come up 
about 1782.* 

Uvedale Price, in 1794, having used the term 

^ TForkSy Vol. 4, p. 161. No doubt, unwell, while still a novelty, 
affected the sensibilities of those who heard it, much as ungood affects 
our sensibilities. 

Unwell has, almost of course, been classed as a "Yankeeism". 
Lord Chesterfield used it. And it was familiar to Miss Carter in 1761 
and 1764. See her Letters to Mrs, Montagu (ed. 1817), Vol. 1, pp. 
.103, 213. But it was not unknown a whole century before their time. 
"A little unweir' occurs in Sir Thomas Urquhart's Translation of 
Rabelais, — Book 1, Chapter 6, — published in 1653. 

Since I wrote thus much of this note, a remark made by my little 
boy of ten has induced me to extend it. On my casually speaking to 
bim of some one as being unwell, he repeated the word, called it 
*' strange ", and added that he supposed I meant ," not well.'* To 
say truth, in the vernacular language of England, unwell is not com- 
monly employed, except between men, in the general sense of * indis- 
posed '. Women avoid it, unless talking among themselves ; and then 
they use it, for the most part, euphemistically. 

2 Works, Vol. 6, p. 134. Edward Moore, in The World, No. 96 
(1754), calls take in a "fashionable phrase*'. Richardson uses it in 
Sir Charles Grandison (ed. 1811), Vol. 6, p. 398. Dr. Johnson calls 
it " a low vulgar phrase ". 

3 Odyssey, Book 10. 

* Note on Faradise Lost, Book 1, 1. 650. Rife occurs in Gay's 
Folly, Act 3. 

* The year Miss Bumey published her Cecilia, where we read, in 
Book 1, Ch. 3 : 

*' * A ticket ? ' repeated Cecilia. * Does Lady Nyland only admit 
her company with tickets ? ' 

" * Lord ! ' cried Miss Larolles, laughing immoderately. * Don't 

^■i^^^^B CHArrtiK IV. 

piduresquene»s, attaclied to it this foot-note : " I hiive 
ventured to make use of this word, — which, I believe, 
dot-8 not occur in any writer, — from what appeared to 
me the necessity of having some one word to oppose 
to beauty and sublimity, in a work where they are 
BO often compared." ' It would strike us as strange, 
if any one should now think an apology needed for 
tacking -ne&a to an eatabhshed adjective, the result 
involving neither undue length nor harshness. Price 
risks unpicturcsque ; but its substantive was beyond 
his daring, 

Mrs. Godwin stigmatizes " a villain in gram " as 
"a significant vulgarism."^ 

On the word of William Taylor, livelong, in 1797, 
was "growing obsolete."^ Tho next year, Taylor 
wrote, in what must, at that time, have been account- 
ed moafc ouHandiah phraseology : 

"Were we endeavourmg to characterine this work, in 
the dialect peculiar to Professor Kant, we should observe, 
that its intem'ioe, like ite extensive, magnitude is email ; as 
a detached disquisition, or as a contribution to the theory 
of taste, it is alike unimportant ; its suhjectivi.' is aa slight 
as its objective, worth. Of the author we cannot but bus- 
pect, that his empiricnl acquaintance with works of taHt« 
is not comprehensive ; his recepfiviti/ for (eslhetie * gratifi- 

you know whnt I mean ? Why, a iiflm b only u visiting-curd with a 
name upon it ; but we nil call them iiehcti now '." 

' An Eiaii!/ en lit Pictwtiguf, &c., p. 38. 

= PoithHmoaii Worhs {1798), Vol. 4, p. 49. 

' The MoHl/ili/ Seview, Vol. 23, p. 175. 

* A» knowing thia term, and as nercr slirinVing from nnythinu un- 
HBuol in diction, it is nnacoountablB that Taylor should write : " lady 
Knuell's letters hare rather n moral snil paliticul, than a beautiful 
Tttlue." The Monthly lUcieui, VoL 75 (1814), p. 166. 

JUuch in the same way, Addison, in his Ti-avels, &b., Breacia, Virona, 

PURISM. 127 

cation, not delicate ; his transcendental deduction of the 
categories of criticism, neither discretive nor exhaustive ; 
and that the phenomena of beauty, with respect to him, 
rank among the noumena."^ 

The reader will not require to be told how many 
of the terms here got together for their oddness 
would now elicit no remark even from a purist. 

In 1799,^ a critic expressed the wish that a cer- 
tain author " had not disfigured his pages with the 
French words '^fracas, routBy and trait,^ 

Padua, tells of ^'•apoplectic balsam". Cowper has ^* ludicrous 
talent "y-in the sense of * talent for the ludicrous'. JForkSfYol. 7, 
p. 327. And I have more than once read of " a miscellaneous author." 
Yet some of our accepted idioms must once have seemed quite as 
odd. We have sick rooms and dying beds. We qualify an asylum as 
insane^ and we have not only houses that are mad, but doctors and 
nurses, with others who, for all their hearing and talking like other 
folks, are d^af and dumb. 

^ The Monthly Review, Vol. 25, p. 585. 

2 Ibid., Vol. 28, p. 56. Mr. John Pytches would have omitted these 
words from the dictionary which he began, but unfortunately left a 
fragment. He adds apropos, bizarre, canaille, cap-a-pie, hauteur. 
See The Monthly Magazine, Vol. 21 (1806), p. 386. 

3 To most Americans it will, I suppose, be news, that these words, 
and so the substantive invalid, still have, with Englishmen, their 
French pronunciation. 

Gray names together, as French words, advertisement, eclaircisse- 
ment, eclat, ennui, fracas, hautgout, raillery, and ridicule. Works, 
Vol. 5, p. 299. 

Some of these words, as advertisement, raillery, and ridicule, were 
pretty well established long before Gray's time ; and some of them are, 
to this hour, essentially French. 

Hautgout was, once, anything but uncommon in literature and in 
speech, and was often written hogo and hogoe. 

It was hogo, I surmise, that suggested the vulgar fogo. At first, 
probably, fogo was added to hogo, for the sake of jingle ; and then, as 
the word,, from resemblance io faugh, foh, intrinsically conveyed the 
idea of disgust, hogo fogo was shortened \xifogo. Again, in holy fogo, 
the holy may be a corruption of hogo. 

The Eev. Jonathan Boucher ' hastily specified, as 
new, in 1800, the words berth.,* cockroach,^ grog, gully, 
legijingi, molnssps,* and smash. 

In the Edinburgh Renew for 1809,° crans' is called 
"radically and entirely new, and as utterly foreign, 
as if it' had heen adopted from the Hebrew or 
Chinese " ; and exception is taken to millennial and 

' See A Glotmry, &o„ IntroducHon, pp. xlix. and I. The Introduc- 
lion was nut publiEli(<d tQI Inng ufter tho author's death. 

" It iras used by Da Foe, in 1720. See Cafilam Sinr/Zetan (ed. 
1840), p. 178, Three instancea of it are Heen in TAs Jealaun Wi/e. hy 
Colmiin (1761). Also sea Misa Burney, Etelma (al. 1779). Vol. i, Ch. 
16 : Thomas Dibdin, T!w Airthday, Act 1, Scene 2 : fiobcrfjcphann, 
TiBB SMni/B ta yanr Soui, Act I, Scene 3. 

' Its etymology our reiiooffraphflrs do not even attempt to trace. 
Without question, it \a from tlie PortuKuese carn'u>hti, 'chafer', 
' beetle ', and was inti^uced into our languuge by Bailors. 

' This VBa a term of rather rare occurrence, it neeme, prior to ahont 
the middle of the Init cenlnry. The old form of the word is eiHbitod 
in the "Widow Jfuloma" of Murphy's JTphohterer. 1768. 

Thfi very marliBd diatineSon bfitween molassei: and treacle ia eom- 
mooty ignored in Americs, where the latter is seldom heard of under 
that namo. " Vol. IS, pp. 2S, 29. 

' Among their authoritiea farm'nif, the Dictionaries quote Edward 
Halle, Bishop Taylor, Cudworth, and SirThomss Browne ; and I find, 
in Hanry More, frff«», rrruttji, emiailmlt, and croirmsiw. To the Scotch 
flritio, with hia provBrbial " smnll Lrtlin '', rery likily even the eraina 
ipmrantia and erana iBgiiitBi at the lawyers were " Ks utterly foreign 
as ... ■ Hebrew or Cbineae." 

' The original has " are " ; irumal beinc coupled with n'n*i. But 
brtmnl is used by Sir T. Herbert and Sir Tbnmns Browne, as Dr.' 
Johnson and Arclideacon Todd acquaint us. Also seo Tki HatHrall 
mid Ezp-iimenlalt Sinlary of Winds, &c. (1668), p. 3 ; and Thomas 
Taylor, i^iiMdni'iM (1704), Vol. 2, pp. 320, 321. As might have been 
expected, the critic knew nathini; of Unrtial's hrinnnlia ; and hs can- 
not hare heard of the French hrumal. 

' Burnet bos been cited for this word ; and I might adduce, for it, 
the author of Tlu Lift of Joteph Midr, Henry More t^panim), and 
Jeremy Collier. Dr. Kichardsou does not know any such adjectiTe, 

" UtUiif. a word both useful and readily intelligible, mus very slow 
in bacomiag nntunilized. 

" It is beyond all doubt, tbiit ■ he was sometimes 
t thus imposed upon, or, to nee a word which seems 
I now to be naturalized, thus myxtijifd." So wrote 
[ Southey,' ia 1816; and, in 1826: "The studentB 
I were friends and ehums, a word so nearly obaolete, 
I that it may be proper, perhaps, to explain it, as moan- 
I ing ' chambor-i'ellowa.' " ' 

h Under the date of 1818, Archdeacon Todd " says 
I that grade " has been brought forward in some 
I modem pamphlets"; and he rashly risks the pro- 
L phecy, that " it wilt hardly be adopted." 
I Lord Macaulay* finicaDy objects to mltirii/ion, 
I as " not pure EngHsh." Probably be would have 
I found no fault with mttirifi/, which, however, to 
1 most people, is no English at all, pure or impure. "^ 

I Uciliar a fonnd in Duprfi'a LeiicograpMii Nialogiia Oaltiea, jlub- 
I lithedln IHOI. M. LaresDl calle it, tnlS22, "motTioaTeaii(]ui oam- 
I nieniie & prendre fareur." Sictionnaire Baiimni da DiffiniMi .... 
I A (a Langiu Fi-an^aise, Vol. 2, p. 602. "Son admisaton dana la 
I Dictionniiire date &e 183S." M. Francis Wej, Remarqai), &o,, Vnl. 
I 1, p. SI. 

I Ab lately aa laSS, M.ViannBt railed at his cnunlrymcnfor uainp t!iB 
f TErbg uliltMr, acUvfr, and firmiiler. M. G6iiin has well replied; 
" J'BTnne que je ne rou^nj biun oil est la crime, Cea mots sont clnita, 
marques praamti nela, puiaqae nnite avona ulilf, aetif et fnrmiih ; ila 
n'Dltt point d'^quivident en fmnijaia: panrqaoi done les repouseer^'' 
Mer/alioitii Fhihlogigiun (ed. 1868), VoL 1, p. 28, 

> Stiagi Moral and Politieal, Vol. 1. pp. 261, 262. 
' Fiiidieiit Eceletia Atigllentiw, p. 502. 

• In his flret edidan of Johnson'B Dietionari), 

• Mi'trllaHiBiu Writitvjs (London ed., I860), Vol. 1. p. 331. 

> We ihnuld be wreUbedl; atraitened, if one might not introdui-n 
^'RHuh a wnid as taturntioH. Saiuratioa oaed by St, August ine : and 

it diffured, to him, from iitlurilat, jost MjUliagna* would differ from 
I JHUdtuu. Annlogoua M Ihwe wonh are mataraiio and maturitiu. both 
j whioh belonfr to thfi golden s|>:c of Lntin. 

Salurity, for ' satnratingneia '. wonld he ambiguous. ConTct»elij,«i 
I KOidi pnpatalim be, for 'prepnrcdnesa', T^ia \»,tt«T, »a ■^^ofii'aSvi^ 


The substantive con>!nrvniioe he called,' in 1832, 
" the new eant word." " Puffed with wonderful skill " 
he introduces with the half-apology, " to use the 
modern phf aae " ; ' and that, though he had put the 
verb, and without prochronisni, into the mouth of 
Osborne, ' the bookseller knocked down by Dr. 

Mr. De Quincey, in 18^2, writea of " the two sup- 
porters, or andirons, — a,3 they were formerly called." ' 
It must seem strange to an American, to find andirons 
spoken of as a word grown antiquated 

Fabaloux, for ' incredible ', — a. senao of the word 
which, by the by. Lord Macaulay has oounte^ 
Danced,^ — ia, with Mr. De Quincey, a "modern slang 
phrase";" and so is the subatiintive ;)(?rco'^' Does 

eqnivocolnesB. Lord Maoaalaj \aa nut earupled to emploj. And, in bc 
dning, he did weli. But wliy wm ha tu tiavu the muriujiolj of eecbew' 
ing^ riddles ? 

' Miiceltaneota Writiiigi, Vol. 2, p. 78. 

' Id., VoL 2, p. 281. 

» Id., Vol. 2, p, 270. Mr. J. C. Hotton shows, in Thi Slang 
DiotiuHttTy, that it must hare been comin< 

* Kio,la-/,»im, p. 247. 

' " He foand that the waate uf the scr 
oui." MiscellantoKs WHtisgt, Vol. 2, p. 

' Werhs, Vol. \, p. 23i. tout-note. 

' Id., Vol, 11, p. 95, foot-uota. 

In Vol. 1, p. 73, Mr. DBQuinoeyuBBa>r(ur(,- but, in VoL fi, p. 139, 
he Beems to heaiCate about iU prnpriety. Culeridge, I tliink, 
where eiCQees hiinselr for acceptiag this irregolsr Bueceasor 
furefBtbera' fimre. lie writes /iww, in his CAureh mii Statt {ed. 
is:)!)), p. 404. He could, however, write JUtura in 1812. See 
Omnimn, Vol. 2, p. 17; or Literary Ibimiiii (1836), Vol. 1, p 

Mr. De Quincey ohio vrritoB: "Cant words ought, Dertainly, to bi 
ptoiCribed, an degrading to the mnjeaty o{ religion. Tho word prat/- 
rr/ul, for instance, bo commonly used of lute yuars, seems objcclionable.' 
//Sr-A Vol U, p. 20fi. 

PURISM. 131 

his own " played H — and Tommy '^ ^ belong to a 
loftier atmosphere ? 

" When, some twenty years ago," writes Arch- 
bishop Trench,^ "an * Educational Magazine ' was 

That is here assumed which ought first to have heen proved. Many 
a pious person, if denied prayerful and prayerfully^ would feel, and 
would rightly feel, himself or herself to be grievously robbed and 
wronged. Richard Baxter has prayerful; and it is no blemish to the 
elegant pages of ray revered teacher. Professor Longfellow. 

^ ** Many a wild fellow in Rome would not have played 

* H — and Tommy ' in the way they did." Works, Vol. 3, p. 250. 
" And, about a hundred years earlier, Lord Bacon played * H — and 
Tommy ', " &c. Id.^ Vol. 9, p. 135, foot-note. 

2 Englishj Past and Present (ed. 1859), pp. 77, 78. In The Lite- 
rary Churchman for 1856, p. 9^, educational is sneered at as *' unscho- 
lastic". Two pages after, it is used in an original review-article ! 

William Taylor used this adjective in 1810 ; and he had been an- 
ticipated by Burke. It was in print, however, long before Burke's 

" WTiat, then, would the Holy Ghost here teach us, but that the 
educationall and professionall are to be imputed and accounted for 
nationall, sinnes? " John Gaule, HvQ-pLavTia (1652), p. 30. 

Many a word is circumstanced like educational^ regarding which it 
would be vain to inquire whether Burke, or whoever first brought it 
forward in the last century, was aware that it had been used before. 
It is not unsupposable that a word may be proposed independently 
by a dozen diiferent writers, and, after all, from not being a desidera- 
tum, may fail of being popularly accepted. To pass to ascertained 
facts, there actually are words which were ventured many generations 
ago, but, for some reason or other, were not taken up, became alto- 
gether or generally forgotten, and yet are now familiar to everybody. 
In such cases, we have not resuscitations, but virtually new inven- 
tions. Among the words specified below, two or three fall strictly 
under this description. 

Abandonment. Nash, Christ* s Tears over Jerusalem (1594), p. 165 
{^\n Archaica, Vol. 1); Lenten Stuffe (1599), in The Harleian Miscel- 
lany (ed. Oldys and Park), Vol. 6, p. 146. Dr. Johnson gi\eBabandon- 
mentf but without an illustrative extract. Our ancestors long express- 
ed its sense by dereliction. The verb abandon was, in 1631, classed, 
by Henry Cockeram, among words " now out of use, and only used of 
some ancient writers." 

stiirted, the first impression on one's mind was, that 
a. work having to do with education should not thus 

Aieestoria! is not a word peaaliai to tliis centarr, as, on the ehowinFr 
oE the leiico^Bphers. it seems tu be. It wns used in 1659. See Thi- 
EarleisH MUcillimy (ad. OHja and Part), Vol. 6, p. 88. Also bm Dr. 
Johnson, Tht Sambla-i'^o. 192, Sfdn^y Smith has BncM'on'a//^, the 
sdTflrb. Workii (one-vol. ed,, 18an), p. 417. 

Appetize is treated, in the Dictionari^B, as if Sir Walter Scott may 
hflTe introduced it into litemlnre. It is found in Urquhart's Transln- 
tion of Baielnii (ed. 1804), Book 2. p. 196. 

A»h, the singulRr of laha, ia not recognined by Dr. WebBtor'B 

- editors, except at part of a compound. AruhdeacoQ Todd wrote, in 

1818 i "We say, in colloqnial languagv, 'burnt to an ajJi '." And 

this had long heen home-Engliah, as it in still. Even Dr. Donne 

speaks of the nsA of tobacco. Fohjdm-nn (1631), p. 142. 

Alraiiliout, which has snpplnntod nlrnliilitrioNa, wa* first registered 
hy Dr. Worecster. I lind it in Hiillam, Snulber, Mr. Carlyle, 4c. 
Bat it WM used in IGfii, hy R. Whits, in hia Tr^osktion of A Lair 
Diieeurie, &c., p. 94. 

AtthtntitBti. Thomns James, A Trealiu of l/ir CetrapHon nf 
Bm'plure, &e. (16!2). Part 3, p. 10 : Francis Cottingfain (161T), OvI. 
Cttmdiai it Illiul. Vir. ad G. C. Epitt.. p. 1B2 : Benlley (1718). 
irop*»,Vnl. 3, p, 618. As a Latiniatia participial adJBclive, the word 
occurs in Henry Rarl of Mnnmnuth, Adtertitrmeati fmm Pamamaia 
(1666), p. 62. The TBrb aathetiHciitB -koh unknown to Dr. Johnson. 
It is used by several of his contemporaricB, as Burke, Horace Wal- 
pole, &c. 

Commetifafion. Edmund Bolton, ITypercriliea (1616), in Anrimit 
Ceitieal Eitay; to.. Vol. 2, p. 233. GhuIf, nOe-jinvrfa {1652), pp. 
127. 358, Thi Nuluralt and Experimmlall Hiitary of Windt, &c. 
(1053), pp. 76, III. In our own time, it has been nied by Dr. 
Whewell, Hr. Isaac Taylor, the Rot. Charles Kingslcy, &e. Sa. 

Dmattciati. This verb, which Burke uses, is found in Nash, Cki-iit'n 
Ttilri, te„ p. 47. 

Decilry li not the modernism which Dr. Latham represents it bb 
heinfr- See, for the word, Stnbbes, The Anatmnie efAbtiKt (1686), pp. 
14fi. 170, 516 (ed. 183(1). Dr. Richardson quotes, (or it. Sir Thomas 
More and Prynne. 

EiperieaUal is credited, by the leiicographsrs, to none but very 
modem writen, as Dr. WhewcU. But Co]pHiI<;ii had aiilicipntfld him. 
Xr/irrimtiallg'a, used by Henry More, PhilosophiaiU Poeim (ad. 1647), 
Preface to jiyeAosoia. 

bcai' upon its front an offensive, or, to say the best, i 
very dubious, novelty in the English language." 

Siathetiri) vu negteuted, nntU Dr. Worcceter discovered it in 
The Jferti Britiah SevieK. It is used by Stubbeg {\bSS), utrnpi-a, 
p. 162. 

EHiaiUitti. In Chrufi Teaii, &c., p. 78. Nssh has this verb BPtive, 
— for which Dr. RIohardson giyes n still earlier aatlioiitj; — and so has 
Camden, ia hia Btmaiiu (ed. 1G74). p. 328. Horaae Walpole ased it in 
1760. Jlimilittliiig has the sanation of Blackstone. Archdeacon 
Todd defines hitmile by " hnmiliale ", irhiah, howevBr, he forgets lo 
record in iU plac«. Dr. Lathun kuowa no verb hamiliati ; and Dr. 
Sidhardson exempIiSes the word ns an siljenlive oiilj. 

Infamize la found in 7V« Lifg . . . of Falker Bail {ed. 1678), p. 
li. Dr. Wurcesttir Srat mentions it, nnd as used b; Culerldi^c. In- 
/amizer is one of Najb's words which Gftbriell Harvej held up for 
ridicule, in I6Q3. See Fieres't Supcrti-ogation, p. 179. 

A'ona is oraiiited, hj Dr. Worcester, to Coleridge. See, for it, 
JmriBs Hajward, T/n BaniaA'd Virgin (163S), p. 169: Bmthwait, 
Tht lit'et ef all The JtumaH Emperori (1636), p. 37o. 

jVomfef, in the sense of ■ small new book ', is met with in Gabrieil 
Bunej, Fimr Letter; &o. (1692), p. 37 (in Arehmea, Vol. 2). Nnvtl, 
of which it is a diminutive, is used, by Harvey, in A New Letter, kc. 
(1693), pp. 4, 10 (in Arehaica, Vol. 2). 

Palrial. Gaule, n"C-/*atrin, p. 301. William Taylor, The 
MoHthlg Rsvieif, Vol. 23 (1797), p. i84; The Manthly Magazine, 
Vol. 9 (1800), p. B i T/u Annual BcniinB, Vol. 4 (1806), p. 237. 

Pi'emit, for ' premise ", appears in Dr. Doone's i'scuda-marljir 
(1610), Prefuoe, aig, E 1 v, Thv only authority for it which the Dic- 
tianaries mention is Kutchmnn. 

QmliCative. Giiute, Iluf-finvriii, p. 49. 

Jbiw, for 'disturbance', wus Kpuken of, by Archdeacon Todd, in 
1818, as "a very low eipreesion " ; nnd he quotes Douce as snying 
that it "was very much used a few years since." Spraoger Barry 
used it in 1746. See The ^rirate CorrupaHdence of Lovid Oarrici, 
&e.. Vol. I, p. 41. 

Stance, the verb, meaning 'floe', "appears to be modern", Dr, 
Biehardson says. Dr. Johnson knew cif ni> nuthoiity for it; and Arcb- 
d*aoon Todd quotes 77iB 7d/«r. Milton used it in 1G41. Sec bis /!■«< 
fforla (ed. Bohn), Vol. 2, pi 416, 

nisehaUhip was first disinterred by Dr. Worcester, and from the 
pages of Sir Walter Scott. I find it iu The French Aeadeinie, part I 
jcd. 1680), p. £01. 


Well, and wLat is the matter with eiliicfitioiml ? 
Utility, perspicuity, and concisenesa are, we all know, 
to peraons of a certain sort, — those who would keep 
the world in leading-strings, — nothing, if to bo pur- 
chased at the cost of lEuiovation. The people who 
would ohject to etlucafional are, however, of the same 
type, and, almost invariably, of the same class, with 
those who, if they were but honest enough and man- 
ly enough to speak out their convictions, would 
ohject to everything that is connected with the word, 
in our associations. For, inconsistent as the majority 
of men are, we every day observe, more and more, 
that, as those who seriously favour progress at all 
favour it in all things, so those who openly resist it 
in one direction would, in propitious circumstances, 
resist it in all directions. 

niuatrationa like the preceding might ho largely 
multiplied ; and, indeed, there are, in my third 
chapter, many quotations which, though there 
brought forward for a special purpose, would none 
the less be in place here. 

TsHt and lonlri' are foimd in nn Diclionaries but thnae nf verjreMnl 
date. Yet thi'Be words ware in nse before 17S4, S. Biebardaou, Cam- 
ipondtnct, &c., Vol. 3, p. 31S. 

Teib'il WEie flrat Teoorded by Dr. RicTinrdson, and as uwd by Bp. 
■Warhurton. It otcura in Litht'ow, Tht T«ia!l VIkiihis,', &c. (1U32], 



Novis in rebus licet nova nobis verba confingere. 

SouTHEY, in a letter to William Taylor/ protests, 
with much emphasis, against his addiction to words 
" which are so foreign as not to be even in Johnson's 
farrago of a dictionary." " Do sometimes ask your- 
self the question," he again urges,^ ''whether the 
word you are about to use be in the dictionary, or 
not." This was in 1803 and 1804; and, already 
then, Southey would have found himself cruelly tor- 
tured, if adjusted to the Procrustean bed which he 
recommended to his friend. Sixty or seventy years 
ago, our dictionaries were, to be sure, a trifle worse 
than they are now ; but one may well marvel, that a 
man of letters, whether in 1804 or in 1873, should 
remit a fellow-craftsman to an English dictionary, 
as determining what is permissible in phraseology, 
and what is otherwise. Most people, however, after 
they have learned to spell, keep books of this class 
mainly for show, the end they best fulfil. Lexi- 
cographers apart, it is only a curious inquirer, here 
and there, that appreciates intelligently their de- 
plorable vanity and delusiveness.' 

^ Mr. Robberd's Memoir of William Taylor, Vol. 1, p. 452. 
2 Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 488. 

^ Johnson's Dietionarf/, in particular, though a great advance on 
its predecessors, has been ludicrously overrated. Q^vvit^ ^q^^\^\'^^\^ 

Boldness of pretension is, notoriously, the surest 
and tile safest of means for gaining acceptance with 
the multitude. And no less undeniable is it, that, of 
all claimants to consideration and authority, tho maker 
of a book, provided it is not a poem or a novel, is the 
most generally taken at hie implied self-assessment ; 
us if his intrinsic credit were best ascertained by his 
own valuation of it. The few write and lead, and 
the many read and follow ; and the many, exagger- 
ating the difference of cure and conscientiousness 
which obtains between what is merely spoken and 
what is formally set before the world, assume that 
statements deliberately made in print, and, as it 
were, under hand and seal, must needs have secure 
foundation- A statement so made becomes, when 
once lodged in the memory, an article of stable 
mental furniture ; and it ia not easily dislodged by 
a counter-statement, however solidly substantiated, 
Indeed, oi'tentiraes it is not even perceived that the 
original assertion is contradicted, unless the con- 
tradiction is professedly and pointedly propounded 
as such ; and this, if not pressed with vehement earn- 
estness, is unlikely to gain even a fugitive attention. 
Moreover, there is, in the majority of men, a pride 
which resents the very idea that their first impres- 
sions may stand in need of revisal. Mere chance of 

are still thasG wlio believe, with a critic of the last century, tliat John- 
Bon " has collected every word, good or had. Ibut nu ever used by 
luij English wriMc." Dr. WitharBpoon, JForks (ad. 1802), Vol. 4. 
p. 472. English literntuK proper beln^ t&kcn to date froiD a.d, 12S0, 
if Dr. Johnson has recorded even a litlio o( iia vocabiilnry. — both 
words and senses being intendvd by this eiiircssiun, — be hiia done in- 
tiredibly veil. 


circumstaQcea is their infalliljlo dc term iqp tor of tho 
true lind the false ; and, somehow, it cannot but be 
that their oJd mumpsimus is prei'erable to any new 
emnpsimus.' It was not their choice that an alter- 
native was not offered to them in the first instance : 
but tliere is a fault somowhere ; and, as it cannot lie 
in themselves, it must, of necessity, lie in the tardy 
and intrusive competitor for their credence. By 
prejudices, fullaciea, and conftised reasonings, such 
us these, truth is stifled, error is propagated, and, 
especially where the indolence and the ignorance of a 
generation or two have authenticated their claims, 
bookwrighta the most untrustworthy grow, in popular 
opinion, into authorities all but irrecusable. And 
with their sins of omission it fares much the same as 
with their sins of commission. Point out, be it ever 

' WLea astng iiivmpsimna sad imiptimiii, I huTe so often be«n 
ruked, in couveriuiliDa, wbat 1 alladed to, thai, peihnfs, the fullnwing 
i[aoCalion, to sumo of nij' readers, may not be euperQuous. " Quiilaia 
JiuloctOB aacrifluua Anglus per annoa trigintu mumpinmia legEre sglilua 
VBt luuo niin^iMUf ; et, quam moneretur & ducCo, qt etrorL-m. emenda- 
ral, reapundit, be nolle muture snnm antiquum mwiipiiima iyaas noro 
Mimptimu." So— as quoted liy Mr. Dyco — writes Sir KioUu-d taee, 
ill hi» De Fruela qui tx Doelfiiia fenipilur (Basil, 1S17), p. 60. 
Camden, in his Jifiaami, tella the story in Enylisb, in bia usuul lifuleai 
way. H«yliu, in The Mistory cf .... St. Gnrge of Cappudveia 
(1631), p. 1 1, spenlls of " thoK lelf-conceited onea wMuli are so Btlff« 
— ta King Harry used to aay, — in their new mmpaimui," ka. ; nod, 
agnin, in the Gaural Prffats lo bis Sctleiia Vindkata (1667), of " a 
vuinglorions afiecCation of adhering to their old ■uumpiimu; ns King 
Jliury uaed lo aay." Was Heylia onaware of the origin ol' the aaj- 
ingF Or did the old loyalist think that a jest ia iiot duly ucuredited, 
until {Atronized hy a great man t Also ue Ueylin's^ FuU Siialiim, 
4o. (1666), p. 413. and -Era.a™ Sulwiwm (1B69), Part 1, p. Ufl. 

Sir I'homua Elvot ollndts to tlie anecdote quoted abore. Sve Tht 
(lavfrmar (lfi31),' fol. 173 (ed. 1580). BentLey, too, frta acquainted 
with it. 

80 conclusively, tliat they have passed by, unnoticpil, 
matters which, demanded record, yet thoir silence 
shall have as many champions as their discourse. 
No doubt they were men of research ; they were 
bound to sift and to cull ; and they must have been 
governed, in what they did, by reasons which, though 
not proclaimed, may be presumed to be unanswer- 
able. The entertainment of these sophistries and 
suppositions, which are none the less persuasive for 
seldom iludiug a voice, can alone account for the 
profound confidence which is still reposed in certain 
English lexicographers and grammarians. 

The lexicographer and the grammarian are tied, 
primarily, to functions for the most part purely his- 
torical. Like any one else, they have a perfect right 
to speculate, over and beyond registering facts ; but 
they have no right to do as, at variance with all the 
rest of the world, they so often do, and that is, palm, 
ofi' their own whims and theories, as if the net result 
of the most approved usage, Coekeram, for instance, 
ordains, in the name of elegance, that babblers de- 
hlaterate, that naughty children should be depalmaled, 
that bread and buna are pistated, and that biera 
are to be superseded by mndapiles. Cobbett ' teaches 

I A Qrammar of the Engliih Language, Section 108. I have given 
onljr EpocimeoB uf Cobbett'a bnrbamin^. 

" The mere undurstttoding is carelesa about history, hnving «et up 
oertain abBtraDtiona tu ita stead : i^noniiKie, too, \a careltes about his- 
tory. Tho lUETO Hoderstanding aeEka ttflet uiuformity, atripa off tho 
diatinetionB of things, nnd trips W bring them, as far as poBsible, with- 
ia the cimge of a single generalization ; ignorauDe, too. delights in that 
simplicity which saves it the tronhle of thought. The cnmbined in- 
fluence of these two nKuntii may be seen in Cobbett* s Grammar ; for, 
in him, thej coexist in the very liighest degrou, ^'otliing oan b« 

• that we should proBounce and write blowcd, bunted, 
casitid, dinged, draiced,freezed, grou-ed, menned, slinged, 
spatted, springed, atinged, drided, sKceped, sirimmcd, 
swinged, throwed, Ihrusled, weared, weeped} Dr. 
Webster, in his more unreasonable days, was pleased 
to prescribe bawble, clew, fciher, fiber, gayly, luster, 
meager, melasses, somber, specter, theater, traveler, savior. 

clearer EhrEwder thnn that Grammar, so far ax tiis HstcqIi'bii 
untlorgtanding can aupply the want of intellectual discipline, and oi 
philoanphlcal and philological knowledge. But, from his ignorance of 
othuc laagaagea, and o£ the history of his own,— on ignorance on 
wbioh, of course, he prides himseli, — lie is frequently wrong, and 
here, ea in other mattere, is thorougli -going in hie mietalies. That 
Cohbett, as nciting the two elemenU of tUe JBCoMniml spirit in Buoh 
perfection, should he averee to what our grammariana cull irre^lar 
verbs, and iboald he deiirous of eotting np one invsriahle form, a kind 
of ten-pound frinchiBe, without any regard to the difference of citcum- 
Btnnces, for nil verhs without eiccption, was natuiiilly to be expected; 
and, accordingly, he draws up a long schedule A of irregular verba to 
be lummarily got rid of," Archdeacon Hare, in The Fhiloiogieal Ma- 
teum. Vol. 1 (1832), pp. 660, 661, 

' Dr. Johnson's ruling, in his Qrammar, ae to the preterites and past 
participles of certain Tsibe, ia peodiar. Bneefhtd, caCthtd, raught 
(for rtecluj), and teachid he allowa as preterites ; abid, tiie, tmil, 
thrive, ivril, &c. &c., as both preterites and past participles; ai'o>», 
iere, thoat, drove, firnoah, rude, roie, ilrovi, looi, teare, &a. &o., a* past 
participles. SitUii, without alternative, he giTea aa the past participle 
of tit. Did he ever vaature to write it? But his liberality, also, 
«hould he eiempli6ed. Regarding ihfar, for instance, he ia very 
acuommodating, in that he girel us a choice from among s/iare, ili'ire, 
ttud ihtarid, as its preterite, and between thort aad aheared, as ila 
pitst participle. 

By the way, ihort, as the prcterilfl of iheer. Dr. Webater'a edilora 
call " obsolete", tboiigli they And it used by Mr. Tennyson. I 
■honld be rather surpriacd to hear anything but thore, in England. 
High and Inw alike use it there. I give aomc refenncvs for it, old and 
recent. John Nordcn, J Siiifull Maii» Sutacr {IUSS), tol. 8B v. 
Ilonry Earl of Monmnulh, AdverUiemeMi from I'nmnaui (IBofi), 
p. 312. Cowper, Iliad, Book 23, 1. 172: Oili/airi,, Ho,>k 24, I. 51. 
Lord Lytton, What will ht da with il t (ad. 1859'i,yQ\.'i,'5.^'a. 

arid a boat of other personalities,' with aeoree of pro- " 
nunciationa as outlandish as aticieni, angel, bedizen, 
dSaf, primer, and the utterly un-English see,' as the 
last letter of the alphabet ; and his countrymen have 
been so foolish aa to adopt whole categories of his 

In precisely the same way. Dr. Latham, in what 
he is pleased to call /m Dictionary,^ lately published, 

1 Every rflad«r of old English literature Imaio thiit very few of 
ihGae BptUings are noveltiiis. But, ia tlie preec-nt diij, Ibe; aie, to a 
Iwfce extont, AmericanianiB. 

All the world, I take it, has, foe ft generstion or more, laid tha 
Gtrera on the aatepenult of inimical,- and yet Mr. B. H. Smart, in 
hi> third edition of Wali^a SicliBnary, p. lii., nole BO, soya, of Dr. 
'Wtbaler, foe sanclioning this proniinEialJon, that he "seta Rt liefliince 
tha longH and ihorts of Stan and Oxford, (if he knows anvthini; of 
them), anil, in all such cases, with republican contumucy, follows the 
uneducated tendenoiea of Englieh speeth." 

This EtofT about "republican contumacjr " and its deplorable con- 
eamitanta waa, douhtleas, grateful to Mr, Smart's Hrislocriftic putrons, 
to whom facta were little oc nothing, so long as Americans were well 

The great mistake made by Dr. 'Weheter, his spelling apart, conaiited 
in liis awuming that the prononoiation of tho heat educated Americans 
of hia day wa< the true standard (or the rest of their fellow-citixGna ; 
and that pronunciation deviated from the English, by a conaiderable 
heritage of archaisms and Scotticisms. 

On the inexpedieace of two standards of onr language, one foe each 
aide of the Atlantic, I may touch at some other time. 

' Of 3 Ur. Wflbster says; "It ia pronounced m«." Bo he has 
taught Americana lo call it; but this fact did not warrant him in 
stating roundly what he knew Ui be, with regard to all Britons, totally 

Dr. Webster's editors mark the word ifrf, on their own authorily, as 
" obsolete". Thbwill seem strange to Engliebmen, who never give 
I any other name. Are the afoces^d editors grossly ignorant } Or do 
they take up the position, that only the English eurrent in America 
deserves to bo regarded as proper English f 

The abstraction of i Mr. Do Qnincey calls stdily. Worki, Vol. 15> 
p 243. 

' ArclideacoD Tadd cnhrgcd Hi. Johnson's JJicifoiiory not a little, and 

has, without giving a hint of their conventional 
orthography, foisted upon us aile, alko/tol, appall, 
awless, or, benum, henegroe, Miin, and a great many 
more of hia private and other peculiarities. Nor iH 
this all, by any means, or the worst. Despite the 
waniinga afforded by his numerous predecessors, and 
in defiance of the scholarship of our age, with its 
exaction of thoroughness aa a test of literary work- 
manship, he hita made hia election to walk, in the 
main, in the old i>ath3. So far oa can be gathered 
from hia pages, ahbeij may have been first used by 
Lord llacaulay ; ably, by Sir Edward Creasy ; and 
adjerliral, by Dr. Latham himself : the attempt to 
define the antiquityof a word not falling within the 
scope of his otiose endeavours. Again, though it ia 
a laudable principle to certify the existence of a term, 
by adducing an illustrative extract, there is no ex- 
cuse, where such extracts are not at hand, for 
rejecting, after the manner of Dr. Latham in 
almost every page, words which, immediately on 
their being named, every one recognizes to bo aa 
current, among us, as the air we breathe.' It may 

muddlwl it in about tlio same proporthin, hut, Bflir all, professed to ba 
only an editor. Dr. Iiatham takes the Iriiit of their comhini'd Ubonrp, 
cnlls it a haais, makea some indgniflciuit additions, and ^tbs the result 
bis own name. 

■ Not unusual are, omitted under o .- ahlaUhip, ahhar, y.n., aMmf, 
atmliUuniiin, abm-livmevi, ahiraleeimn, abunlaiiil, abtlainer, abstrnmlti, 
asefltrator.atfintiBti, aeciirMan, oeeotaiitthiiitjf, aecaunlnHlship, afguim; 
aenage, atriBuinioialy, aeraial, addilim, aiiquaei/, adtqiiatenm, oMr- 
lieily, itdifniii, a^ttdtnatar, a^Hdieatt, v.n., adoptpr, edorably, attemtr, 
OiftwaWMiHW, a^tetidtea, uffittmgl]/, aforelhimgU, age, T.n., eggrMtt 
aggreaivily, offffrmitm'ia, aimUaly, aimltiitnaii, air-tight, algebrsi- 
tally, atimugi, aliyhi, adj.. al/evialar, ollun'nfffy, emhaaadorihip, amtti- 
<tum, amiatililg, omorpAuiH, iiHiiZDfou<,i»igcUciiny,iitig\iintanii.a,wiX- 


be asked, too, whether abnegate, absolirfeness, abiilme»f, 
oivlaim, according as ' are rare ; whether ncpphaiid, 
ailiiale, aUision, altisonant, antipaH, aniUcripi are not 
rare ; and whether abetment and agnatic are obsolete. 
The judgments hereon of Dr. Latham, and equally 
the bulk of hia judgments, differ, it may safely be 
concluded, from those of every one who has qualified 
himself to sit in the court of English philology. To 
hll page after page with pai'ticulars of hia short- 
comings, under each of the heads glanced at above, 
would cost only a little time and a little search." 
More than this, thousands upon thousands of words 
used by our old writers, and entered by other lexico- 

Ut, gimiliilfdor,anti-mtridiaa,anlt-M«ptiai,anle-peniill, anthfr, aoriatle, 
apvritnl, sti., appetia, apple-dampUng, applicani, uppnciaiiii; aquarium, 
UrchoBhgical, atsfNiimt, asionanee, ataonaiital, aKuagfi; mtraddle, 
allBeh, T.n., audiileiieis, aiilie, avatar, aveynge, v.n. 

Among tbese words, eien raoh n pariat as Lord Manulaj has used 
aif/ttdiealf, .v.n., eggremimlg. alimiage, aimltaineis, nlleviiilor, ambaiia- 
derihip, aiiglomaiiia. apprecialor, anHiiiiinliil, and ettaeA, T.n. ; and at 
laiHt half the real; he would not, I suppose, have ohjeot«d to osing. 

Further, we find ailiiKaaure>ni>nt, hut not admeaiure; amativnifti, 
but not amatirf ; and the adverbs alaoimmly, ansuvrltit/y, entieipa- 
titetj/, antiphranlicaUy, aphorialieKlly, but not the adjectives which they 
praanppoae. And why should JrinninK he honoured with presentment, 
but not ArminianUm ! • Why Aratism, but not AmineiuiitM f All 
iul is omitted ; and adjutanty has nu sense assigned to it bendM that 
of " snistuice." But such etricturca are endless. 

NeverthelesB, the judgment, touching Dr. Latham's Siction/iry, ut 
an English jonmnl of bigh literary eharsoter is, that, " whftterer roam 
tlidre mftj be for improvement on Che aide ot sntiquitj, it in a most 
admirahle repertory fur all that regards tbe lat«at strides of the lan- 
guage." The Guarima, 1871. p. 1396. 

' Thii, I believe, not only is, but ulways has been, mora common than 
aeenrdCngly tti. 

= Fuller lists, from which those here given are abridged, will b» 
found in two lalttra whidh I contributed to Tht Scadtr, Vol. 3 (1864), 
pp. 833, 684; and VoJ. fi (1866), pp. i2, 13. 

griiphors, or by glossarists, are ignored by Dr. La- 
tliiini ; the neoterisms of the poat-Jolinsonian period 
are, to him, in great measure, as ii' they were not ; 
and, in matters of etymology, he has scarcely 
emerged from the eighteenth century. Nor, if he 
has here been perstringed but gently, is it because he 
has merits which challenge tenderness to his defects. 
And such is the latest and most pretentious of our 
manufacturers of English dictionaries ; a brood to 
■which, at present, it is idle to resort, if we would 
know even the wealth of our language, as exhibited 
either by our forefathers or bj' our contemporaries,' 

■ Before taking leave of Dr. Lutliain'a Dictimiarg, — of whiuh I Lava 
bere entmined, aad examined very auperjlciallv, but a minute portion, — 
I will quote and laiCiciKO, bj way of apacimtn, two or three eilracta. 

" Ariitarehy. : Body of good men in power. Rm-e. 

" The gronnd on wbich 1 would build hia chief praise, to some of the 
ariitnTehy and sour eensures of these dajs, requirea, fiiat, an opolujj'y. — 
Sarringtan, Briif View of thi Chiirc/i of EnglaHd, p. Ifi3." 

This ar^cle is taken, in the block, from Atchdeacon Todd'a additions 
to Johnson ; and the Arohdeanon must baTe been sligbtly beuiueed, when 
he delined aritlarchy m we have seen, ofisring, as its ctymotogj, 
"iptaroq, greatest, iind dpjij, government." The allusion is to thnt 
tfpa at rigid critics, the titDiouB camMentator AriEturchus. The word 
ia formed tromjlrulflreA.aa the oMoAafaciffry is formed from pAnrarfi'**; 
and it denotes what we might express by arialarthiim. Archdeacon 
Todd'a definition and etymology are substantially copied by Dr. 
"Webster ; while Dr. Webster's cdiwrs, BBtiafled with the old doflni- 
liou, derive the word from " Or. ofiiarapxKi best-ruling, Irom Spioroc, 
btiBt, and apj^iiv, to rule." Dr. Woroeeter, who, just beftare the word, 
hm ariatarch and arisCarchian, and eorrecUy defined, gives, with an 
apprOBOh to eorrortnesa, " a body of severe oritios ", os its Bignlfi cation, 
but most thoughtlessly etymologiies it by itpiirroc and apxii- 

On loolling into Sir John Harington,— for so his name is spelled on 
his title-pngB,— I find 1 " Howheit, the ground on which I would build 
bii ehiefe praise (to lomo of the Ari'larshy and sowre censures of 
these dniEs) Tei[uireB, flrst, an Apologie." Ariatarehj, like nil proper 
lies, und a((j(iclives therefrom, is ilaljci*ed in Harin^Von.-, «&4,\(^ 

Amonj^ proverbial sayings wLich, though half- 
Msehoods, pass for whole truths, is the ono that 

reforMioc K> tha original, Dr. Latham might, possihly. haTa aTniiled a 
repetitinn pf Arclideacou Todd's ludicrous and unecholarlilie error. 
" drmlet. t. Bracelet. 

find. Iloniir. 
Every Dyrapii of tho flood lier tresses rending-, 
Throws off her armlet of pearl in the main. Bnjdin." 

Johniran's two Rrst, nnillnstrBtBcl, defioitiDDs are omitted: "1. AUllle 
arm ; as, an armlet of tlie sen. 2. A piece of armour for the arm." 
The remaining deflnition is injudininusly reduced, m above, from " a 
bruuelet far the arm". For, by a lirncelel, wlien the ward is nnqunli- 
fled, WB understand an omnment worn on the wriat, or just aboyo it. 
The omaraonU worn, hy orientals and others, much higher up than the 
wrist, ore instinctively imlled, by English -speaking people, arraleti, not 
iraaltlK. Phillip Sruhbnfl wrote, in 168S, of " hracelettps, and (trme- 
letlti of goliiv:' Tht Analomif of Aimea {Td.lBSS), p. 76. And Dr. 
Kewman writes, in his CallUta, p. 39 ; " They glitter, from head to 
foot, with combs, hrooches, necklaces, eallare, eaiiin;^, arnlcti, brace- 
lets, &0.- 

Further, Dr. Latham should not have left ituRnotieed, that aiiNfef, In 
denote an}>thing but ' little arm '. is an abnonnal dimtnntive. But of 
Eueh considerations he aeems to take little heed. 

Dr. Johnson defines the adjective texagataif by " agi-d sSiij jears ", 
but gives no extract for it. Arohdeaoon Todd altera this deflnition to 
" threescore ", and qootes Lord Chesturfleld'B Comnum Snnw : " Sani- 
gmnry fair ones, and upwards, whether they wore handsome or not in 
the last century, ought, at least, in this, to rfiduce themaelvea to n 
decenny and gravity of dress luited to their jeara." Dr. I.atham 
aimply reprints nil thie ! I may oM, that there ia older authority than 
Lori Chesterfield, (or texauamTy. SeeGlaavill, /Vm Ultra (1608), p. 
23. The Tord is there a substantive!. 

The substantive mmmitl, omitted by Dr. Johnson, ia given by 
Amhdeacon Todd, who tails us it is " from luin ", and defines it to be 
"one who funns an abridgement." It is observable that the llrat of 
hb two quotations, which speaks of " Summi'ti and Canonists ", did 
rot suggest the correct meaning of the term. Dr. l.athnm punctually 
reproduces the ignorant vapieneaa of the Archdeacon. And fir. Eich- 
ardson ia in the same boat with them. The tunmUla were Hugo de 
B. Victor, Thomas Aquinas, &c,, for whom, and tlieir writings, see 
Ducan^. Subjoined area few Teferences for aummiit, which U not a 


arrogatea a pi'esutnption in favour of whatever is 
Gsfciblished.' To confute this universal propoailion, 
it is enough merely to ask wlien it began to hold 
good. If the adage imported less of compliment to 
the sagacity of our predecessors, it would do much 
more of justice to that of their descendants. Wise 
as our predecessors were, why may not we be wiser ? 
In what had they any advantage over us ? Is not a 
small body of facts a leas safe basis of induction than 
a large body of facts P Or has the faculty of turn- 
ing accumulated experience to good account perished 
from off the earth ? Neither of these two last ques- 
tions would any one dare to answer in the negative. 
And yet, from indolence, issuing in selfishness and 
timidity, — in a word, thanks to the spirit of conserv- 
atism, which infects, more or less, all minds hut the 
truly energetic, and hence enlightened and disinter- 
ested, — the anile aphorism still triumphs, solemnly 
devolving, from age to age, its loathsome spawn of 
shams and inveracities. With just apprehension of 
reason, the conservative comes to tiiko his stand 
I solely on the imagination. For, at transition, as 

very miusunl word in niir old writer!. Bishop Bale, .WcW Wnria 
(1849), p. 3o0. Ilr. Donnp. ftp>(!'o-«mi-(F/r(1610),PrefnPP, eiff. D I, 
■nd pp. 229, 2S0 : Ai'afAniiuCM (lir9t,un<1nted,odilion),p. 32. Gntaker, 
Of tht Xatiiri itud Use of LnD (eiL 1027), p. 251. Dr. Rioliordaon 
quntea Bp. Bull for it. 
I Pwellint; on pxrticutan of the eort abnre instnncei^, I mi^ht j^o on 
\ for hunilreds of pages. And T here epcak lilerally nilhin cnnipngs. 
' Ever and snnn we are rpminded, in mnoh the samp spirit nf 
exsjnieratinn, that aineerity is alnnyn to he hnnnurrd ; though, prM- 
ticdlly. nur respnet for it ia confined to those with whoae wars of 
Ihinltinfc anc! noting we hure eomelhinB in eommon. To thi- thii)r« 
niiirder is a sort of hi|;h mnss; but their pitty Iiaa not eicn eB.'mv:^ 
them a niche in any Dictionary or npUgiona. 
■ _» - 


necessitated by change, the imagination revolts, and, 
therefore, is prone to resist change immediately,- — 
no matter how strongly it may be recommended by 
obvioua expedience, — rather than try lo deal with 
transition on philosophical principles, the bridge 
by which we pass, when we pass consciously, from 
the old to the new. Hence, spontaneity, conserv' 
atism unconfessedly teaches us, if it ever was to be 
trusted, is to be trusted no longer; and human 
nature is a thing to be repressed, not educed. And 
thus undivided allegiance tfl prescription and au- 
thority at last resolves itself into servile apery, the 
great motive to which is, far too often, the behoof of 
its inculcators, to the disservice and thraldom of 
their disciples. As regards everything else, so as 
regards language, the spirit of rigid conservatism 
operates as a principle of unalloyed evil and mischief. 
Here, however, just as elsewhere, happily it is far 
less acted on than preached ; or the result would be 
to reduce us, for arrest and inertia of articulateness, 
to the standard of Caffraria or China. But, in pre- 
sence of the appliances for thought, and the incent- 
ives to employ them, which are afforded by modern 
civilization, retrogression is simply impossible. Lin- 
gually, as well as otherwise, the English-speaking 
peoples cannot but press forward to better things 
than they now enjoy ; and the language of our re- 
mote posterity may be aa superior to our own, as our 
own is superior to that of Mande\-ille or WiclifFe. 

Languages, like nations, have their stages of de- 
velopment, apparent station a riness, and decay; but, 
ao Jong as a people advances in intellectual cultiva- 

tioi), its medium of expreasion is never obsorved to 
I deteriorate in quality. In the interval which was 
I measured by the accession of Queen Elizabeth and 
1 the death of Milton, a general mental activity con- 
I curred with a wide-spread conviction, that, poetry 

ig left out of account, English of the old stnrap 
I was inadequate to the purposes of literature. With 
r laudable inti-epidity, the writers of that period help- 
led themselves, and without stint, to new words from 
I every available quarter. "While a large share of 
I what they ventured singly at last turned out to bo 
I ephemeral, a still larger share of what they ventured 

common was promptly engrafted on the Tulgar 
I tongue.' The age of finical dilettantism and emaa- 

' For a oonsiderable length of time, the PurilnnB wtre in un niau 

B behind utber English Christiniis, in point o£ profane unil [lolite li'aru- 

ind IL muBli, ibDCKtoTt, have bmm tram motivcB a£ humiinitiiriiin 

■ipvliey thtit tlicjr (1ci^lin«l to iwi^U tlie fluoJ of nluBsidsiD, genuine anil 

f ajinriaus, nitli which their riiaU, eapcciiillf the eleriea among them, 

Intmdfttad the lilemture of the siiUnnth and acventeenth centuriea. 

Tu any uno conversant with tho thuologiual effusions of the Church at 

England in that age, the following pungent dvUncntion, from tho pen 

of H sturdy Fnriton, will commenJ itsalf ub not in the lunst ovar- 

L cbargGd; and the pedantry of the I'laaa of writers reflected ou Efarcetj 

I improved. Tram about 1580, for snnie ninety years. 

" As for the strange manner of prtaiiliing which ie in use in rnnny 

■.placei, both in tho Universities and elsewhere, thrre is no man wl'11 

d hut, if hee knoweth it, bee iSoth eiceedingly pity it. One, iis 

I thnn|;h the pulpit were but aa a scaffold, in which he, like a Master 

I of Defence, were to play his prizes, and to give testimony of iiii wit, 

I playetli upon every word, and descsnteth upon every ktier in his 

I text ; and, as thoogh the Scripture were but > rattle for children and. 

1 foolea to make tpurt withall, he tosat-th it hither and thilher, and will 

' lie to offer it any violence, to &ame it to an imagined cunrcit, 

I draw it to an idle purpose. Another, as if his pnrpoEe were 

eiliely to amaie the vnlgar, and to offrijht and aatonish the mnltilude, 

nounlelh alnfl, and is all, in his great tvords and new-coyncd phrasei^. 

nore fit for some mimick or tragedian then a muUBter ot \.\ie tita^'^. 


culate elegance, with its paralytic imitators of Tem- 
ple and Addison, soon afterwards followed;^ and 
this was succeeded by the era of galvanized sesqui- 
pedalism and sonorous cadences, inaugurated by 
Johnson, with his train of Hawkesworths, Cumber- 
lands, and Parrs, — a brood of pygmies essaying to 
wield a weaver's beam. But elephantine graces ajid 
their awkward mimics maintained, as was fitting, 
but a brief-lived supremacy. Even in the days of 
Johnson, however, the English air was beginning to 
be redolent of freedom. Whether this portent of 
doomsday and perdition, — fructifying in the Ameri- 

A third, to gaine the opinion of a profound man, tbat looketh into 
matters of more depth then the common sort, rubbeth over the .un- 
savory writings of some moath-eaten frier, and, by an uncoth fashion 
of teaching, together with a multitude of allegories and intricate dis- 
tinctions, mazcth both himselfe and all those whose unhappy chance it 
is to be his hearers. A fourth, to be reputed a good linguist and a man of 
great reading, stuffeth his sermon with a legion of allegations, and en- 
terlaccth it with many shreddings of Latine and Grceke ; and, by 
that meanes, though his doctrine perhaps may bee profitable, yet he 
confoundeth the memory of the diligent and attentive hearer. Thus, 
while men, being sieke of the Pharisaicall disease, love the praise of 
men more then the praise of God, and preferre the ostentation of their 
owne supposed learning before the edification of Gods Church, the 
people is brought either into such an amazednesse, as they thinke that 
anything may be made of the Scripture, or to such an unsetlednesse in 
judgement, as that they doe rather hunt after variety of teachers, for 
their strange manner of preaching, then seeke for sound instruction, 
for their owne better edifying." Samuel Ilieron (1604), The Preaclhers 
Flea (ed. 1624). 

The passage here quoted occurs in the first volume of Hieron's col- 
lected works, p. 533. 

1 Gray, writing in 1742, says that the English tongue "is too 
diffuse, and daily grows more and more enervate.'* Works, Vol. 2, 
p. 159. 

He has not thus described the English of 1742 at all amiss. And 
very like it, with the addition of localisms and general slovenliness, is 
the English of most Americans at the present day. 


can War of Independence and the French Revolu- 
tion, — were owing to the inductive philosophy, to 
John Wilkes, to the spread of science, to the Devil, 
or to all together, toryism was at a loss to resolve : 
but there it was, past all gainsaying. Britain was, 
at last, effectively awaking from its long slumber of 
acquiescence in things established. Our very lan- 
guage shook off its nightmare, and once more 
breathed as if broad awake, and no longer under the 
palsying spell of hidebound custom.^ Men of the 

* Cowper, in his private letters, imposed no restraint upon himself, 
as regarded verbal coinages ; and, in this respect, he differed nothing 
from the generality of his contemporaries. When addressing the 
world, he professed, however, strict conservatism in his phraseology ; 
and his neoterisms we arc, therefore, bound to receive as unpremedi- 
tated. In the preface to his lliad^ we read : *' I have cautiously 
avoided all terms of new invention, with an abundance of which, per- 
sons of more ingenuity than judgment have not enriched our language, 
but incumbered it." Where archaic, he very rarely deviates, in his 
diction, from such familiar precedents as Shakespeare, Milton, Dry- 
den, and Pope. His archaism would, in a writer of the present day, 
be thought rather profuse. Yet not only words, and senses of words, 
recalled from the past, but many which are, presumably, personal to 
himself, are interspersed through his translation of Homer. Of what 
may be such I have made a list of no fewer than eighty which are un- 
registered by Dr. Webster's editors. Passing by the novelties of 
meaning, among the novel or unusual words, to name only a few, are 
architravedy athletic^ sb., cast-off^ sb., cauldronedj cityward^ columnalf 
erystalledf emtoined^ desirables^ drunkardy adj., handftU, adj., helmeted^ 
hovely v.n., leftwardj adj., misdeem^ v.a., mytholoffize, v.a., overbubble, 
v.a., overpitchy v.a., phalanxed^ p^-opend, v.a., revulse, v.a., sepulture, 
v.a., ftpearmanshipy tridental, tripart, adj., updart, v.n., upwetit^ yean- 
ling, adj., youngling , adj. Apart from the eighty words spoken of 
above, Cowper virtually reinvents, where he does not borrow, acumin- 
atedy debark, v.n., glutinated, intellected, invigour, v.a., market, v.a., 
mendicate, v.a., pash, v.a., procumbent, resupine, sacrijical, saginated, 
shive, speech, v.n., unchild, v.a., upridge, v.a., uprun, upsend, upstart, 
v.n., upswarm, v.n., &c. &c. A certain share of all the forementioned 
terms were, without much question, of the poet's own minting, and 
unconsciously so ; and we have, in them, an interesting illustration of 

most contrary modes of thinking, and resemblin 
each other in nothing bat their sound literary cul 
lure, unconacioualy .influenced by the spirit of th) 
age, agreed in forswearing, as to the use of thei 
in other- tongue, the supine parrotry which ha( 
formed so important an ingredient of their educa 
tion.' And thus we are brought to the fathers c 
the English which now prevails, — a language ra 
tional, natural, copious, and expressive, for thoM 
who require nothing more, and, for such aa aspire t 
philosophize, precise and comprehensive, at least fai 
beyond all old- school precedents. 

We live, then, in an age when purism i 
longer a religion. And yet it behoves us to remem 
bor, that, if purism is ridiculous, neoterism, whetha 
in words or in style, may easily become nauseating 
"Propriety of thought and propriety of diction" 
says Lord Macaulay,'' expanding Horace,' " are coni' 
monly found together. Obscurity and affectatioi 
are the two greatest faults of style. Obscurity o 
expression generally springs from confusion of ideas; 
and the same wish to dazzle at any cost, which proi 
duces affectation in the manner of a writer, is likelj 

the espansiou of TQCttbuIaiy which our language was beginning I 
undergo, at the hands of sthulars, often quite anawarea to thcmsBlTe 
in the lost quarter of the ciglitoctith centur]'. 

' Between the time of Milton's deoth and the l>irtb-da)' of fn 
Enifliab, there yiete doiena of eicellr-nt writers, we all know, what 
grout nini was neither mere ease and cleganee, nor formal gTaildn< 
quence. Still, that interval was, markedly, one of imitation ; wtd tin 
rahUe of litcratnra who peopled it framed their atyle, and tied dc 
Iheir phraseology, after certain models then eiclasiTcly in vogue. 

* £siirff B» Maehiarelti. 

' "SciiheaH recte aapere est ct priacipium et fons,'" 

I to produce sophistry in his reasoningH." The study 
after singularity of expression is, moreover, a weak- 
3 which soon betrays itself. Nor is this all. It 
fails of its end; and a disciplined taste recoils from 
fiintasts and contort ionists like Mr. Carlyle, Arch- 
bishop Trench, and Mr. ISrowniug, with just the 
sort of feeling provoked by the antice of a clever 
bufi'ooii. It seems, indeed, aa if eccentrics of this 
cast must be constantly repeating to themselves, 
with Tragedio : 

" Me, for my novelty, let oil adore ; 
For, as I wril^, none ever wrote before." ' 

The real fortiKzers of our language, so far as they 
have fertilized it consciously, have been actuated by 
motives of utility. Trummelled by the poverty of 
our vocabulary, they have honestly striven to enrich 
it ; neither aiming to be applauded for their good 
services, nor deterred by the obloquy of purists. 
, And our verbal poverty has, oftentimes, prcsst-d 
I most heavily on those precisely who had the fullest 
I command of our verbal I'iches. WiUiam Taylor 
I judiciously lays down, that "Seology ought not to 
1 be pursued for its own sake, but only when the ex- 
tant terms of the language are defective, or not pre- 
' ciae, and when a definite and convenient exprossion 
[ can thus be introduced in their stead." ^ " Unusuiil 

' Fieldiiig, T/ii Pltaiurti of tie Town. 

' The Mtmthlg Rniicw, Vol. lUO (1823), p. 23. Elsewbcre Tayliir 

J ghrewdly obsBrves, tbat " 4 aew or ait uiieuninion word iilwujs attraota 

I notice to tbe phnus in vrbiub it occure : and, bonce, it is well placed 

'n those sentencHs which merit th« panss of utteatiuu, and will beHr u 

eiaiirelj aiamination." lUd.. Vol. 106 (1825), p. 4B2. 

Tajbr'n own coinages, patruniied impocta, and revirals, wbich. 

and new-coined words ", aaya Coleridge,' "are, doubt- 
leaa, an evil ; but vagueness, confusion, and im- 
perfect conveyance of our tlioughtsare a far greater." 
Not content with barely enunciating a grievance, 
Coleridge took practical steps to redreaa it ; and his 
marvellous subtilty and power of analysis could 
never have been fully appreuiated, had he shrunk 
from a phraseology unshackled by ordinary restric- 
tiona. Nevertheless, we are told, by Madame de 
Stael, that " il n'est point, en g^n^ral, de symptome 
plus s4r de la sterilite des id^es, quo I'invention des 
mots." ' It could, then, be nothing short of absolute 

cannot amnnnt to fawer than a fhnusoni), dwindle, if lealed by hia 
laudable criteria, and hj Iho exigMieies of Eiiphonv, to a meagre list 
indeed. Mnat of tbem ore nanual, certainly; itill, either heoauie 
there were ehnrter and as regalarly formed Bubstitutea for them, or be- 
caaae they ntFended the Gur, or for some other good reason, itery few 
of them, if any, bare been accepted. Here ia a sample of anme nf the 
more eitraordinnry among them: oHBMfpio', amiiHaiilily, onnitwM, 
epartnienlal, altreapmejit, iiiadt/icn, amdeatil^, eangtmrBiit, emaidtr- 
atise, dffiai, delaiiinl, diipiritude, trnpoiummeiit, ^urstioH, etidgale, 
expUHdian, rxteniialBty, Aozsn'y, JiypirtprtfiMie, imprejudiee, inlir- 
tttaiitity, jwalary, meptfUtidinetii, mantnlily, nwtfrttral, minvtiem, 
memtntaHailf, mmetrnt, tnanopoloui, moratory, tuolngom, tieftirehjiy, 
»6lei»al, rngmoiu, mhntim, phyiiurrat, pHri/aU, relainal. riKalrviti, 
mltUitinHt, tearrm, ttrutinmaly, tienriaus, mlieilatc, mgritgataFj/, 
mjiportantt, ttrnporanmu, trfpiiuty, Hbiguariaii, iindiaroU, uahtipptn, 
volupfg, tpildir, T.n. 

' Biagraphia Ziletvria, Chapter 12. Coleridge baa also said, ger- 
vanely : '' To comej his meaning precisely is a debt which nu author 
owes to hia readers. He, therefore, who, tn escape the charge of 
pedantry, will rather be misundoratood than startle a fastidialiE critic 
with an tmnsual term, may he compared to the man whn shonld pay 
his creditor in base or counterfeit coin, when he bad gold or silver 
ingots in bis posseunon, to the precise amount of the debt ; and ihia, 
nnder the pretence of their unshapeliness and wont of the mint-iin- 
preeaion." GhMrfh and Slate, &C. (ed. 1830), p. IIS. 

^ " II est dnngErcux de doniier ton approbation am neolngue*. 
Les idcea uourellea qu'ila pr^teadent ne puutoir emettrc u«cc lus rua- 

idiocy that has so polluted the waters which wo draw 
from what was once the " well of English undefilcd " ; 

f and the contemporaries of MM. Guizot and Victor 

I Hugo must be stark imbeciles.' 

Of new words we may enumerate at least five dis- 

I tinct sources. Those words which may be called in- 
spired are due, almost wholly, to the common people ; 
others are elaborated by the learned ; others are iiu- 
id by conquest, as the Norman element of the 
Kuglish, and the Semitic element of the Indian ver- 

[ naculars; others, all the world over, are imported 

I by commerce ; and others, still, are introduced from 

' abroad by fashion, or are borrowed thence for their 
usefulness. It is with the two first classes and the 
last that we are concerned practically. Inspired 
neoteriaras, as springing from the needs of the 
illiterate, often respond to a general need, and are 

I easily enfranchised. Besides, being, mostly, mono- 

t, la plupart da temps, de< rSieriea r^bnuffijoi. 
I BouTeuC ausei leur ombiirms pravieiit de uo i[u'ilE ignoreat lear mecier, 
ce q^u'ils ne oonnnisseiil |Nia un ossez gntnd noinbre de TOuables, et 
lavHat poict appliqiur, dd gionper it propia oeui qqi gant a hoc 
toaition." M. ^tauaa Wnj, Jiemarqiua mr la Laague Fiaafabe, 
. 1, pp. 172, 173. 

iL'eipirience d^montre . . que les talents de eecoiid onlro aont 
I teax qni chercheut Is plus les termea noureaui." Id., ibid.. Vol. 1, 
I pp. 174, 175. 

" \a Bray^re, > lata celebrated writer amang- tbtun [the Freuali], 
I va^t use of many new terms vbicb are nut tu be found in any of tlie 
wmmnn liictionnriBs befunj his time." Swift, A Pi-opamI, &c. 

Unwcvar full, or defeotiie, the diRtionHries of hia time may hnve 

llflou, L* BrujfirB wauld havu been an ttscaption amiing great writers, 

■ if he bail not innoTited, in Ilis language, fyea Swift did lo, little ai 

imn to have (uipeoied the fuui. A» to dictionaritia, the Dpuii 

i( uf Ihcin, as If lie auppuaed their uonteutd wore cuuiiltiiti^tiL'd 

I bcynul Ike I 

Byllablea, they are easy of temembrance ; and, — 
wliere not abbreviations, — being formed on the most 
obvious analogies, they are rarely exceptionable as 
illegitimate formations. However less immediately 
valuable for popular use, the coinages of scholars, in 
proportion as they supply recognized wants, likewise 
make good their value eventually, by obtaining the 
rights of citizenship. Intercourse with foreign 
countries and their inhabitants contributes further 
to augment our liugual wealth. And thus our ex- 
chequer is constantly increasing ; and, at the same 
time, its contents are constantly liable to mutation. 
Once it was not so ; but, now-a-days, we may accept, 
as an indubitable argument of a nation's heathy 
activity, both intellectual and material, the fact of 
tho expansivenoss and mobility of its language. 

Strange things are to be found in the history of 
the words which we have, on the one hand, corrupt- 
ed, and, on the other hand, have retrieved from cor- 
ruption. With a list of a few of these, and a few 
remarks thereon, I shall close this chapter. And a 
thoughtful attention to this Hst, ^ort as it ia, will 
suffice to impress a variety of profitable conclusions. 
The purist may gather, from it, that much which he 
accepts simply because it is established, had its origin 
in gross ignorance, or in barbarous indifference, 
Nor will the philosophic philologist fail to he re- 
minded, by it, that there is abundance of work to 
be done towards reducing our language to desirable 
regularity ; and, in the success which has attended 
past labours in that direction, he will find some 
small encouragement to hope that future labours 

to the same end will not be wholly unavailing. 
Every here and tliere, he will perceive, the efforts 
which have been made to ameliorate English have 
triumphed signally over the resistance of narrow and 
stolid conservatism. And farther like efforts will, 
doubtless, have a like result. Let the reformer bear 
iu mind, however, above all things, that, in order to 
tlio effecting of changes in our mother -tongue, he 
should guard heedfuUy aguinst undue haste, and the 
offering of too many novelties at once, together with 
every other impolicy that may alarm the timid, or 
otheiTvise raise up obstacles to the realization of his 
beneficent project. 
WThe old lyvelijhede, a formation akiu to liheUhood; 
once meant ' quickness ' ; ^ and Hfelode, in time 
changed to lycelode, hjfehoile, &c,,' meant 'way of 
life ', and then ' means of living '. Lyvelyheile, mo- 
dernized into livelifiood,^ lost its old sense ; ' means 
of living ' lost its old expression ; and we now Lave 
a marriage between the surviving partners, 

RighUcke, probably from mere slovenliness of pro- 
nunciation, passed into the mongrel righlcom.* 

' As late as 163S, I find : " Thii third, not ocding to tlie other two 
ill blitheotno livclihooil, and feature uf boii^, oamu, for rH (tial, short 
of tliem in the rest," Jamen Haywnrd, The Baniih'd Virgin, p. 1S3. 

< Hieron has a Berman. the riEclicaiiDii to whioh ia dateil in 1616, 
r«l3lled Th« Chriitiant Zive-luode, Fhilenion Holluud has iieehdt in 
UiA Ct/mpifdie (1832), p. 123. 

' Id its preeent meBning, onlj Bpellvd lIcelj/hoBd, this word 1TBS 
used hv King Jamos'ii reviaors of the Biblo. in their PrefHee, in 1613. 

' With our ri0hlKHt, in [Joint (if hjhriilism, compare, beaidM, the 
^Otch iPiyjjijioiM, himihuiciUl or hel/iiicaU, Used bj I'lliUip StubbBs, in 
Tfn jinalomit nf jliiurt {15SS), ^p. 211, 232 («1. 1836). Lithgow 
lm» AcfAniii. 6bo Tht Toialt IHnaiarai, &c (1632), p. 397. 

Beotlej would hurdle liave liiwommended BlubWa ti<n&\ W Vt 

[ No doubt we are to trace tlie origin of otir now 
lassical helpmate* to a corruption of the "help meet 
1 " of the Book of Genesis.^ 

" Tbe word hsathtii tjomea rrom iBvn)." Wurkt, Vol. 

1 comman in the iaji of pre-Bcientifii! 

or, vafer. Tmpenie non Mrael audici, ral an 
W trupenU, lie safni fit Ibiiiicb. Obriie aunt et aliic mtionea, seio, SBd, 
qua) mill! magia arrideat, aut lam probabills vidi^alur, nulla.'' Meric 
Cflsaabon, lie Qautuor Litignia CiimmeuMio, Para Prior (1650), p, 

Of such tMngg the volume here quoted is pretli^ well made up, 

' ] have called the word claasicsl. Lord Macaulaj' irriCes, ia tho 
third ohspter of hia Hldmy : " A waiting woman was generally eon- 
le moat Biiitablo helpmate for a pajaon." 
L faw refercncea for the eipresaion here follow. Mrs, Suaanna 
(Btlivre, A. Sold Str«ie fir a Wifi, Aot S. Vanhrogh and Colley 
er, TA«iV!iroferfff(«iflHrf (1728), Acts. Foote, ?»« CommUiert/, 
1. Cnmbiidge, Thi Wurld, Xo. 56. Edward Moore, ibid., Ko. 
Colmaa and Thoratou. The Cmmiteciir, Sa. 4 j. CDlmaO. Praat 
I Bnetat Oceaiiant, Vol. 3, p. 217. Wordaworlh, Paelieal Wurh) 
L 18<e), Vol. 4, p. 321. Chiirlfa I.ainb, Final Memorials, 4o.. 
L 2, p. 106. Soathej', Colloquial, ke. (ed. 1831). Vol. 2, p. 2D9. 
* arise Kiagaley, Tmo Ymr, Ago (ed, 1867), Vol. 3, p. 7. Mr. 
IBkin, Snaim and Liliet (ed. IS71), p. 77. 

'~ ' mponnd to bn defended; and ;et it hu been 

d hj- at least two writers of verj high repute. Sea Soutboj, Ltfi 
'<y (ed. 1864), Vol. 2, p. 161 : Dr. Newman, Sisearaimi and 
III oil Vm-ieua Snbjwtii (1872), p. Ifii. Also aee Mr. Charlca 
ngale}-, Tioo Yean Ago. Vol. 2, p. 62. Mr. Jodrell and Dr. Wor- 

rri'dibljr name Milton fur it. 
Sp. SprnI, under the date of 1692, hus the compound meit-help, for 
Sue Tit Sarleian Mimxllanif (ed. OHjs aud Park), Vol. 6, 

William Strode writea ot "the yoak ot n mcel hilper." Tht 

ai«g Itlaiid (teSS), Act 4, Si^ne 3, 
» The following ia tuken from a work printcMl before tho daya of our 
thorized version of th<! Bible : " If the oncietita would havo their 
« corrected rather with words than blowea, mutOi more ouRht the 
10 du alt withall, whom God CBllctb a hflps llkri to us." Tin 
■i^eademie, Part 1. (1580), p. 476. 

Our periprr/iff, as in the term ' science of perspec- 
/ii-e,' ought, by derivative rights, to signify ' micro- 
scopy and telescopy ', or ' dioptrics generally ' ; and 
yet, in all probability, we shall never return to the 
old and correct prospective. 

Inasmuch as kerchief, from the Old French couure- 
rhef, meana, et3^nolog;ically, ' head- cover ', our poclcel- 
Aandhcivhief and neck- handkerchief, when submitted 
to analysis, seem to designate articles intended for 
most complicated uses," 

Bridal, a word now suggestive of no beverage less 
luculent than champagne or sparkling moselle, ori- 
ginally meant ' marriage- feast ', and took its name 
from the ale which was drunk in honour of the bride. 

Anklet, armlet,^ and trrisflef, except to mean ' little 
ankle ', &c., originated in pure ignorance ; but no 
one would now think of using them in their ety- 
mological senses, or of avoiding them in their con- 
ventional senses.^ 

' See Mr. I£. Piii Talbot's Eugliah Elffmolagies, p. 230. 

' See the note nt the foot of p. 144, aigira. 

» Sfiealifff — for nil th»t Bun Jonson, Gmle, and Milton, willi 
Thomas Tnylor, Chnrles Lumb, and (.'oleridge, in later timva, hure 
Bhuwu OS the right word, ititHtiitl, — liotda ile ground, and is liketf to 
1(0 on liulding il. Howell uimti^i. Se« Dadana't Gmvi (1(110), 


Nor nnght tUifie lii signity, as it gBnorally dow signifj, 'divine '. 
" IMfick liqnor." Sir Thnniaa Urquliart, Trunslatioii of Rabelali; 
Vol, 2, p. 11 (ed. 1684), "Jtiific ponfrioalion." Bishop Lavinglon, 
^Uimi-u-H Bf M>tk»dM>, &c.,Vol. 2, p. 2iO (sd. 1754). " IMfc 
energy", "dnijts furj". Thomes Tnjlor, Tht I'ampilrtrvr, Vol. S 
(1816), pp. 94, SS. 

" Some produBts we obnei-rc then In he naturally leprnu« ; and such 
an miiallj' stmuk with morhijli-k dtformitiia," Franck, Hwthfni 
Mcoioiri [cd. 1694). p. 2fl5. The cudins .fick—aovi -/c— has not, 
here, it£ proper force. 


Almost evcrj'bodv writes aerolite, direnf, /orfi/o, 

/roiifispiece, landinape, jxinc/er, posthumous, proiho- 

i}otary, rhyme,' and Tiirtar.' Some of these words 

once were spelled better than thej' are spelled now ; 

I and, when we amended ahhoininable,^ ancient, consort. 

" The moat peli-iffe oolumn of stillnass, " Mr. De Qainccy, Worki, 

\ VdI. S, p. 261. Hera,"iQiHtpB(ri/I(i"iasiniply 'most jDelfijJnC; and 

(wlrifuctioD, with IVlr. De Qmncify, is a. Uiing that Bdmits of degreoi. 

And then thste is, as againat the esaet, 1)nt aurfeiriof^, lelryrapheme, 
oar lawless tclfj/rmii, lo which is stricll)' applicalile the maxim of the 
otvilians, aa rs^ards a. climdestiiie marriage : " Fieri nan debnit, aed. 
fcatum. valet" Add the hideous orlhapadic, which Cicero liimaelf 
woold llsve auffHred m, for the aake of consniity, to enll tpHlililif. 
But I must cat short an cnmncratioD of anomalies, whiah might he 
■peoifled to ledioDsneBs. 

' Rlmt and ri/ine were among tlio old English farms ; and tliere ia, 
Bt IcMt, quite na good ground tii refer (he word to the Anglu-Sainn 
riw, of unknown parentage, as to fivdjiag. Mr. De Quiueey — Vol. 13, 
p. 102, foot-note, — aaaerta, nith his usual pereniptorintsa, that "tlie 
Greek rythoieii [nic] waa, cerlaiolj, the remote fuunlaiu" of rkyitie. 
' TThj, by thu hy,— as in Tid. 12, p. 266, foot-note,— does he writs 
\ rAodomotitadi: ! Does he lake it to be Uellenio P 

Instead of rlmtt, many old booVa have rliijihmea. Bo write mnat 
|- of the authora in Ancient Criliait Eaiiaya, and, at a later period. Fuller 

d Henry More. 

' "It must not be allowed", anys Mr. De ftuiocey, "to weigh 
Igvinst the validity of a word onee fairly naturalized by use, thnt, 
originally, it crtpt in upon an ahuae or a corruption. Preaoription ii 
(a strong a groand qI legitimation, in a cnae of this nature, as it ia in 
law." Works, Vol. H, p. 201, foot-note. Still, as, where it seems 
to be at all practiuable, there ia nothing reprehensible in trying Xo re- 
form a had law, so. in like eircumatanoen, there ii nothing reprehenai- 
bla in trying to reform a bod word ; and one ia at a loss (o conjeeture 
why. for instance, The Timn newapaper should perseTeringly persist 
in striving to incutoite or perpetuate such miaapellings aa miatj/zt, 
chymul, and dioceta, 

' It has often been noticed, that our ancients ci 
proved Bbamiiinlilt and abomiiiaHeii, by turning then 
and abhominatimi. But abhojiumablc and aliioininalic 
been used in Old French. 

AcEOiHiag to Dr. 'Webater't editors, ahhomiuabk ■ 

■ived they itn- 
to abkaminitblt 
d muoh earlier 

conifer, deerepid, deiari, enierodt, e7mnenf' epatu, 
idfot, preddent,^ preheminencv,^ siiname, liiiptndiou^,' 
and mbgtrttction, into ahominnble, ensign, amcert, con- 
strue, decrfpit, desert, Imniorr/ioidi, imminent, hepatic, 
idiot, precedent, preeminence, surname, sfupeitdom, and 

moQ smon^ writcra o! the Elixa.bcthiLn pcnnd ' And it wua used in 
the lime of Edwurd III. Both ab/iaminnile nnd adAominncoan occui 
in l\ie Apatiigji for Leltard Hvrti-lnea : nnd Wicliffe m his New TEstii 
ment, hns abhempiiifiiim. Vdnll, Donne, and a few others of their 
leEpeative ages, alnnyB put, I believe, nbamynabli 

The Rer. Jonathnn BonDher, renisrkmg on nbhotaiaithle, of whioli 
his Gist definition is " unntanly," is "not mre that this ancient spell- 
ing .. . ainj not lead US to a heller etjfmologj' he , to oS and koniB, 
as implying Bomuthing that is unworttij nf a man, &nd, therefore, [u 
be dslested." But is fancy to be preferred to histoni; tnith * IIow 
would he have dcriiiid Pluutus's cognatv id>oimm ' And what notion 
can he have thought it eonvejed to a Roman ? Ho would have hetn. 
pleased with Fuller, far his abhemiaal. See The Appeal of Injurrd 
InnfKtnee, &>. (1659), Part 2, p. 90. 

Very frequently, alike in Old Italian, in Old French, nnd in Old 
English, h was omitted from the beginning of some irords, and pre- 
fixed to othoTS, in defianct< of all propriety. Nor did tliK abuse of A 
slop there. In Old Frenuh we find niei/ifienlioH, and, in both Ubl 
French and Old Italian, an h, in tbtir words eor^spoading lo our old 
pre/iemiiicwt and prohnne. 

' This strange blunder, dating from the era of Qneen Blii-abetli, 
waa long very common. Even Bentham has eminently, tor immineiiHij. 
' In old books I huve found enitrgn, for ininierge; inuineraik, for in- 

n«merabls ; UlaiBrale, for elaioivle; ilttule, for dude ; itmnergait, fur 
mien/eul; irradieats, Ibr eradicate. Lord Cliesterlteld has itiieil, for 

Sir T. N. TalEourd boldly, not from ignorance, uses iltueldalt, in- 
tttai of elucidate. Fiiml Mtinariala of C/iarlei lamb, Vol. 2, p. 47. 

* If we account this error typographical, there muat have been a 
wide-fipread conspiracy among old printers to pseud o^apbize, and 
anlhors must have been strangely oompliant to their inferiors in know- 
ledge. Priiident, for preeedevt, — like tiiiineal, for imminent, — it may 
rather he believed, establisbed itself through carelessness or ignoraneo, 
and was kept up bocanso it was not thought worth while lo change it. 
To Apportion the fault of such blunders between author and printer is 
impossible; hut, for all the ofHciouinee^ oF printers, authors mii>t 
hnvB been muoh more yielding, formoilj, that ^.V^^ Mfan^s-i-ia^*.,"?!. 


Hiihtraclioii, we went amiss iii nici^dling with amse, 
v/ioise, ci/re, danse, extriimec, fcrrier, forceitble, forahi, 
fornace, hainoim, j'uge, km, loge, prise, rost, seise, tran- 
quility, ritioiis, mltiir, wrncic, and hundreds upon 
hundreds of their fellows.' 

tbey delegated their choice of phnuteolngj' lu oCbcrB. 'i'hiit man; uu 
exprescion nhich we read in boak» ii there on the sole nuthurlly u! the 
ty|iB-£etter or preBB-coirectDr is, however, to be presanied. I nijealf 
tiate hod ii homely /dU-i smartened intu prrtoni ; furtunc having hein. 
Icind in Hiving me from inditiduak or pertitt. 

Ueferring la the time vhen the playl of ShnkeBpenre were Brat 
pven to lilt) world, Dr. Jobneen ims aao^ped, that, "in no otiier dge 
vu the art or printing in aaoli unakilrul hunds." On the contrary, Ii> 
whonivver the credit helonged, for cuerulnest and unirormity aF spell- 
ing,— certsi a options being allewcil fur, — boului printed before Ibe 
ii'CeBsion of Charles L are, in general, far superior to hooks printed 
daring the hnndrcd yearn that next followed. 

' This form I find used by two writera within the last hundred 
jMts. Sw Charles Johnson, ChryatU (ed. 1777), Vol, 3, pp. S57, 
277: Godwin, A» FMijuiry. &c. (ed. 1703), p. 461. 

FUa, Tor /ny, is accepted by llenry Brooke, Tin Feol of Qmlllg 
(ed. 1782), \'ot. 1, p, 206; and by Uvedule I'riue, Jh Emay m ih» 
' i^uturespit, &D. (1704), p. 280. 

Flaff, the verb, Nnd jlea, the name of the insect, were once pro- 
nonnoed exactly alike, at 1 leam From Eicliutd Hoilges, T/ia Fiainmt 
, Dirtetiotnfor th True Writitig of Siigliih. &c. (164B), p. B. 

' Arohdi'ucon Todd and others have shown that Milton and Derham 
use thu form, wliicb is atil) a cockneyism. I hnd it in Uciiry Eiirl of 
, Monmoulli, Isaac Barrow, the Duke of Buckingham, Sir William 
' Temple, Joremy Collier, Stwle, Mftiideville, nnd Jip. Warburton, slao. 
De Foe l>as lUipeiidvaut. And ao has Henry Brooke, in The Foot of 
QuaUly (ed. 1792), Vol. 3, p. 241. His Irenienduom and trmmiditoutls 
miileh it 

In the early work by ^arbnrtnn, from which I find that he wrote 
ttvpendiom., uecur msrmuiiia, moHifi'uuui, and lUmaai. Many an old 
writer has barbariout j Ghuirill, tmuioMt. Some of these ipcllingx I 
refer to by and by. 

' Many apelUnga typified by ariUr-eme»l, atehievi, coUedye, cxtrenm, 
virer, teropkiikia. have htnn altered for the better. But we can uiake 
no boast of nniCormity. Wbile throwing out the h tram ghfim, an 
M form of oarfiutu, we have rotoined it in ghiuily and ghMt; nnd. 

The I in the -hie of syllable is entirely intrusive ; ' 
imd so it 19 in the -ele of treacle; ' as is the d in 
I ^eiu/er and in the adjective tender. 

Ancient, cormorant, currant, parchment, peasant, pen- 
I itant, pheasant, truant, and tyrant ' simulate Latin end- 
ings to which, etymological ly, they have no right.* 

I tliongli we hsTC improved coHvi-^h inCo Lwrnty, wg hmn left imiigk 

I vntuuched. We vrite A«ifAeH and ■'(uif, bat no loD^'r tAoar and 

maak; pamphltt, but no mora (iiiJpA and prop/mm; frmty, lint nut, 

II of old, fatttiwm; netipl, though ire hnve giTen ap dictipl. We 

[ hnvo ajgcnti^ mainlaiu, and mUy, bat abundaua, maintmimiit, and 

■nilltry. SetHK would mitch Km(; (sort'e, trevmit. Whatwo nre 

I pleasod to call our orlbogritph^ ia, in shnrt, n perfect cbaoa. 

Even Milton could vtitu, inatead of fa-iUa, feruler, a Bpelling in 

[ vogne at least a century before hia time. Compare dirggir, from dngii. 

McMHssr and paisager, m baa often been remarked, Imve undergone 

iDmetbing of the aame cbange, in becoming meuengtr lud poKtiiger, 

IhaC tlie vulgar have wrought, in devising faHMKgef. 

Our nuparagiui waa, a long while ago, ajminyt, sp^-age, and ipniiif/iia. 

I Bttrnk, in TAe Itiffn-, No. lAO, has eparagram. In Watkur'a DictioH- 

aiy, wlliuh was a great siitbority with our graudfathtra and grnnd- 

muthera, we are told. louubing aipai'iigm, that " the corruption ol' thia 

[ word into tpiTrme^ram is so general, tbat a^aragua haa an air of 

■tiffneta and pedantry." 

But to remuiki of thia sort there is no limit. 

' Ascbam, in The HthoUmaattr, writfla lillabf ; Ben Jonson, in .his 

■/immc'; njllabe; and So writes Sir F. H. Doyle, in hia La-.turra on 

I JPotllff (1869). Tba inaortion nl' thB Buperflnoua ;— wbieh no lan- 

I gUB^e hut ouFB eihibitd, and wbieb doea not appear in H/Mobic, — is 

1 eaailf accouat.ed it. An I wiu slipped into the -be uf tyl-le-be, to 

P give the word a Diara Eiigtiah appearance j and, in course »( time, it 

got tn be pronounced, and was nekome, as giving the organs uf speech 

Bometbing more prebensiblc than before to take bold of. This ia onl; 

I cunjoetora, of courau, 

■ From Sipiatit, ultimately; as nyll/ible comes from mWa^i]. 

* The conjugatea of our fortfulhcra' tyrua — wliich is still the Fiench 
rrn, — would bo li/rttiilal, Igimitiae, tj/rariai or tyranln/, &c. The 

[ fominine li/rmmut ouctua in Kicbardsun'a novels. Tyran itself wai 
t quite obaalet« in I6oo. See £dnard Terry. A Fogage to Eatt- 
Iitdia, p. SB. 

* And formerly we bad maryeut, Calcni, and lurbaiU, for mari/in, 
laloii, and lurbeH. 



Nor is any re^rd for rule or regularity to be seen 
in our headleas able, bkhop, cates, cheifver, diamond, 
fence, ffipsy, pert, pJasfer, mimenf, scorch, story, iansy, 
valen, vanguard; ' in our decurtate cab, cent, chap, 

FufitanU niia, bX one time, rerj comman. Cnntetsely, there liAs 
been an attempt to intiudace into French swh fornia as infam, for 

Mitbbe hai IsHcsiit, for lencH. The Rngut, Part 2, p. 112. Graf 
writes of an oppidant of Eton ! ff'ori., Vol. 2, p. 383. 

The old tmmt't for teiiM, probably belonge to the snme cIubb of cor- 
mptiiniB. That tcfient imitRteri, in sppcaniiice, an active piuticiplr, 
and not a pusairi^, was u triSe to our anceiitflrK. Or. WebstPr's editors 
— copying Mr. B. H. iSmnrt, and without thantB, — dtflno tenmt, as 
contraBted with tend, to bo "n t^not held hy ieveral perlnns," and 
aasert that it was nnao " used by pedants who affected great Bccutacy." 
OthoTs than such long used it. And ia it proved that tmait woe ever 
employed as if undeiBtond to he a third perean plural } With tend 
compare the hahilat of uaturalists. 

Alianl and alinit, for alitti, are frequent in old hoolis. Both forma 
occur in the original edition of the authorized vursion of the Bible, 
and alao ia the earlier Geneva reraion. 

hilimmt and erphanl, for intimatt and orphan, with other Vindred 
depravatiana unnoticed by the lexicographers, must he familiar to all 
Etudenta of our older literature. 

' From babilis, epaceptH, acales, iTehequtr^ flrfBWM, defen/x, Egyp- 
titm, apert, miplaiitrum, arrtiimeni, 0!d French eaeoreher, hiatarie, 
athnmaia, avail), avant-garde. 

Here, as in the note after the next, I have advisedly given Latin or 
Low Latin forms, in preference to Greet 

I may add tcena, aa whore we epealt of ' a girl in her ttiini.' This 
word wu uaed by Henry Earl of Monmouth, oa early as 16o6. 

In some parla of England, the humbler orders give the name iltrl. 
formerly applied to a prison, to a union or workhouse. It is aimply 
the lost syllable of Bratitt. To anch influences as oprrated here we 
are indebted, no quoation, for tnost uf our verhul rednrtinna, aa drop^n, 
instead of which, Udull, with many of the learned long after him, 
wrote hgdfopis. 

The list given in the test ia short, compared with what it might be, 
repecially it we went hack to Old English. The Italian contains 
hundreds upon hnndreda of similar ahbri'viutlona, sucli as finti, 
ipaerils, laltotaro, Iwilriasimo, nemiee, enu'cidio, pifafia, ragiio, rmneia, 
Ib, iciiro, vanffilo, vmo, wtiio, nngnuolB, from infant, ht/peciita. 


demi-rep, extra, mob, phiz ; ^ or in such shrivels as 
aid, alms, balm, blame, coy, crown, dime, dirge, dowry, 
idolatry, ink, lightning, mercy, oil, palsy, pence, priest, 
ransom, remnant, surgeon, vindictive,^ 

electuariumy illustrtsaimus, inimicus, homicidiumy epitaphium, aranea, 
Jfauriscusy eremita, obscurusy evangeliuniy hibernusy homoy lusciniola. 

^ Apocopated from cabriolety centesimusy chapmany demi-reputation, 
extraordinary, mobile, physiognomy. 

The cent referred to is the coin. In ' ten per cent.,* &c., we have an 
abbreviation of centum. 

Extra has come to be a substantive, after being used to mean, from 
the influence of its context, * additional', 'supernumerary*. And 
lattetly we have taken to using ultray a preposition, with the same 
latitude. Analogous to this ultra would be intra, to signify * internal' 
and 'inmate'. 

'^ Referable to adjutus, eleetnoaynay balsam, blasphemcy quietus, corona, 
decimus, dirige, dotarium, idohlatria, encaustum, lightening, miseri- 
cordia, oleum, paralysis, pennies, presbyter, redemptio, remanent, chirur- 
geon, vindicative. 


Dia Matteraprache ffligleicli rEinigen nnfl bereidiern iat i&a Oeaohaft 
dtr heaten Ebpfe; Rciuiguug uline Borcii'lierung erwi^iat eiuh bfbera 
geiatloe : denn es at niclits baqnecDBr uls von dem Inhalt atHehcu, oiul 
Buf dan Ausdrack peasen.- — GoetJie. 

Let HI dare to Eiuicli the language in w)iicl> wa irrita, by design ; 
but let us not debauch it by inadvertence.— If'illiaia Ctidwhi. 

"What between the activity of modem life and the 
productiveness of modern reflection, new worda offer 
themselves for trial, in peeuliar abundauce ; and it 
behoves us to try them. But what are the consider- 
ations by which we are to be governed, in determin- 
ing to harbour, or to discard, them ? 

The principal, obviously, are prompted by observa- 
tion of the fate of words in the vicissitudes which 
English has heretofore undergone. Of philosophical 
purifications effected except by instinct, our language 
has as few to show as any other. It may, however, 
be safely predicted, that, in the future, unless our 
successors lapse into barbarism, un philosophical de- 
pravations of our language will be comparatively 
rare. Even now, ignorance and chance, which have 
availed so largely to load our tongue with anomalies, 
are no longer, as regards it, other than an insignificant 
source of mutation. From mere impulse of ex- 
pedience, we shall go on, as we have always gone on, 
supplying blanks, curing ambiguities, and removing 


excrescoiices ; but, in time to come, in distinction from 
tile past, our innovations, whatever they may be, 
will, in the mnin, be controlled by analogy. We 
shall continue to change our language, and, very 
generally, for the better ; and tbe motives for 
changing it will be the same, iu character, with those 
which have operated towards rendering It what it is. 
Whatever is new, or whatever, though old, has an 
inadequate verbal representative, demands, and at 
last obtains, its appropriate expression. There are, 
besides, neoteriams occasioned by alteration in the 
import of words already existing. Neoterisms of 
this stamp fall under four classes ; and each of these 
classes would provide matter for a long disquisition. 
Here, however, they must be despatched very 
briefly, as must the point of the riddance of excres- 
cences, just spoken of, and which presents itself for 
prior attention. 

A word becomes superfluous, when another word, 
whatever its merit in comparison, has irretrievably 
usurped its ancient rights. Of words which, to all 
appearance, have been needlessly ousted from our 
language, certain very old ones are among the most 
interesting. Such are again^aiv for contradictmt, 
buntnesi for hernin, deuUaking iav participation, dear- 
Korih ioT precioiiiifieshhood for incarnation, girdledead 
for waist, inicit for conscience, onlight for illuminate, 
OiUUng for external, outtake for except, ouiipendtng for 
departure, shrifi/ather for confemor, thremess for 
trinity, uniciitingneaa for ignorance, u-anehope for (/c- 
apair, mtieord for teBtimony} 

I. Ab contributory to the production of neoteriams, 
some expressions lay down their old senses altogether, 
Qnd acquire new ones. Examples are seen in by and 
bij, ' immediately afterwards ' ; carnai/e, ' burthen ' ; 
conversation, ' behaviour ' ; desirous, ' desirable ' ; 
futile, ' loquacious ' ; general, ' pertaining to all ' ; 
ignore, ' not to know ' ; kindly, ' natural ' ; prevent, 
'anticipate'; rdigioniel,' 'bigot'; mttri/, 'interest'. 

II, Mult.ivocal expressions drop a sense, to convey 
whicli a new expression, where required, is often con- 
trived, or borrowed ; or they are dealt with by such 
simple processes as those to which we owe nnlir and aii- 
Uqne* In addition to other meanings, nd once signified 
' actuate ' ; artificial, ' devised with skill ', ' ingeni- 
oob'; cheapen, 'ask the price of ; cieility, 'civiliza- 

hine, batechingUke fax projrithm, footfait for eapti'tie, geldhiuid tot 
iarrtmmt, Imdmgiiki for ductUt, lotman for abialiition, umlsadit/ for 
immerlal, m^fiUinglike for intatiahie, tmfuUmeUng far impcr/eetien, 
viedbnah for adulterer, yearningliki for dairuiU. 

Han; of their fellows dropped out of use, it maybe, in conneqaence, 
partly, of tbe obsoletuig of tbnir bases; mgnnHidttaddltnim {nrfaimd' 
ulim, vHdergangiHg for kuMilialiM, UHroniagHMa for dctolation, uh- 
tkoliiiglike hi nntnduraiU, ivUAerwin for adversary. 

For rMdier intelligibility, I bare modErnizod sucb olemcntB of (bene 
I ancient words as beve living reprtaentBtives. Tbna, btnecehinglilii a 
\ for backanHli, limmia ia for Ittaeif, taanehBpa is fnr KsnAape, &c, &e. 

' The only aenee tbis word now boa, ' pnrtiran of a religion,' is 
strangely confonnded with the older sense, by Dr. WcbsltT's editon, 
and ia not reeognized at all by Dr. Johnson. See, (or it, Ilonry Mnrp. 
Mi/ittr!/n/Godi<im>, p. 520; M^ilfrs of Imquil^.^y. 5SS,5i2: Bp. 
Warburton, A Sukelioii, &c., p. 384. 

80 our famitg has risen aboTa the dispsraging signification nl 

* Add bstide and beiida, tarn and iarue, (Mm™ and caution, etalin 
and ffo(4(jr, tohi'w and eoarte, dlesrtt and divert, fiiur aTiA^mrrr./aul 
and fowl, AiiHwwe and liMman, least and lent, mr'trir and tuMnirt, ner 
Etnd art, tea and w», ilaid and ilai/ed, nlory and ilortij, then and than, 
wat/e and waM, 

tion ' ; collodion, ' inference ' ; commoiUfy, ' commo- 
diousiieaa ' ; complexion, ' temperament ', ' idiuayn- 
croay ' ; desirable, ' regrettable ' ; dreadful, ' in fear ' ; 
loathsome, ' affected with nausea ', ' squeamish ', 
' queasy ' ; meanli/, ' moderately ' ; respective, ' tes- 
tifying respect', 'respectful'; icUhout, 'imleaa'. ' 
Utilize is fast antiquating imjprore, in the sense of 
' turn to account '. Dialectic and suspicious would, 
each, advantageously be eased of an acceptation, by 
the adoption of dialectal' and suspecfahle.^ 

' /I'lpoWflifcuaedlo moan 'unbearable'; itiAaiiVrti/i", 'nninbahitablo', 
as it still means in Frentli ; wlnalabU, 'inewmWfi'; imvaligable, 
' unseiirchable '. These fnr specimenB. 

" My fi™ wilB have I fouly miaspeut. " This quaint bit o£ penit*ne8 
IB from QGnty (he Eighth's Primer. 

' It ia used by Mr. Henry U'Hrien, in The Round TuiBera of Iitland, 
pp, 121, 128,213, 2i%, (81. 

* Kichardwin has this word in his Claruia Hatlaiee, Vol. 6, p. 93. 
Henry Mare bu tmtiupeeiable. Mgitery of BodlincH (cd. 166D], p. 

Siupicablt—\n\t not in the Latin aense o{ euepieaiiiit, ' cnnjeet- 

ural ',— Odours in Henry More, Myslmy of aodli«cis, pp. 121, 139. 

Atp, 151, ii Hapieahiiily. 

I Sutpeetfiil, in the sttbjeetiTe senae, ia used by HoweU. in Dodom'i 

Orave. pp. 21, 26. S6. Probably, we are to take it from the old sub- 

' atantive aaiipeci, ' suipicion '. 

The word irUimphiml illnatmtea instructively bow propriety in lun- 
Konge msy depend on the development of lingual resources. Beside* 
' its prBient senae. it would hafe to bear the burthen of trmmpAal, t» 
well, but fur tho btler word's being available. Formerly, it was, 
indeed, often pat for triumphal, notwithstanding the osBerlion of Dr. 
Weh«ter'» oditnts, that such uac ia " rare '". A few references for it, aa 
sn eraplojed. folbjw. Sir Thomas Eljot, The Oovenmur (1531}. fol. 
188 (ed. lasO) : Tht Imagt of GimenanM (16«), fol. 104. Sic Jolin 
Haywncde, TAe Finu Fart of the Lift and Reigne of King Hmrie tUt 
nil (ISflfl), p. 71. Philemon Holland, Ttit Cj/rapadia (lfi32), p. 
70, Lilhgow. r*» TJir-jK ffiiMs™, See. (1632). p. 367. Henry Earl 
alMoamoMh.Adrertimmmliifri'mTxn'iinm (IMG), pp. 34,166,250- 
^ Hamaa L'Eatrange, TAt Ailianee of Diriiit Offtu (.1653'^, ^ij. a^. 

Ill, So-called Bynonyms are desynonymized.' 

218. G!uiniU,£Mrtj.,&o. (1676), lV.,p.43. Ratace'Wnipole.SUIiirie 
Doubts (fii. 17UB), p. 36. ThtJBE refarences ni%ht he increased ten/olfl. 

Dr. Johnsoa quotes passa^ which make mention ol " a trinmphal 
car", and of "AtiiHmp/iaHt car". Theugh, of cnuree, thejr ure one 
and the same, he defincE the first ob " used in celehratiog lictorj' " ; 
tbe second, as " calebrating a victory." 

Vfe have, in irhat is now regarded as the only right use of eenltmpt- 
iiie, another illustration nf the point just nbore adrerted to. Thi* 
word, in paaaing, Shakespeare, Do Foe, Jeremy Collier, Biehardaon, 
Btcree, Gibbon, and many irriten bcudca, hare emplojed in the 
sense of ' conCemptaoiia '. A reel original, amlempUbiha, has furnished 
OS with eontimptihle : hut we have had tii imagine cmiitviptunmt, in 
ocdur to frame eonifaipiuoHt. Lstia rerbs actiie we have large); 
turned into verbs nenter, and, to some extent, nenters into actives ; and 
anttrnptuBut might hare bi^en dispensed with, if we had agreed to 
make eo«templibh serve a donhle purpose, after the iineligible pre- 
cedent ol pmirobilii, 'penetrable' and 'penetrating', 'A coh- 
tfiHpliile estimate ' would, in that case, have been both obj^liTe and 
snl^'ectiTe; it would have dennted 'that which deiervM contempt ' 
and ' that which expreaaa contempt ". Scspicaih and lacnn, in general 
eonneiinns, are objective; and yet, from poverty, we have wrenched 
them, in 'a despieahle opinion', 'a tiuuin opinion', &c., into a sub- 
jective aease. Sirailarly,;iQ our penury, we talk of 'a row (H™;j(i*o com- 
plaint ', and also of ' a emuHtnpdve person '. So, too, miniilt qimlifles 

; I have ventured, 
■e,— an eipreaeion 
to bo not only un- 

I ' particles '. 
in prints — as in Tht Fall Mall OaiHte, end elsewhere 
like 'nii'nufi'on fnTcstigations ', which seems to me lo 
exoeptionable, but much needed. 

In lnng:uag:eB of great ductility, eqnivocals like those just referred to 
are rarely found. Suoh a language is that of the ancient Hindus; and 
I once moved my Pandit to inexpressible hewildorment, by propnning to 
tranilftte 'Uamtd book' literally into Sanskrit. Again, though the 
Bomans laid 'inio^* homo', 'iHtotnis dictum', to mean ^ inaoltnt 
remark '. would have been nnintelligihle to them; and, tn our own 
phraae.wehavometaphorically transferred to a thing a property which, 
originaUy, appertained restrictively to the mind. For it does not 
appearthati'iHo/miwaaevcr used, by us, to denote ' unusual '.'slranga', 
and, from the too common tendency to consider anything new as 
intrusive and objectionable, passed, as applied to external objects, tii 
its presenl acceptation. 

' Professor Crete's lUtpenfieafe is preferable to Coleridge's dciym/nr/- 
iHiis. Bee The Juunml of Fhihlogn, Vol. 4 (1872), ik d3. 


To form an idea of the extent to which our lan- 
guage has been deaynonymized, one has only to 
compare together our words derived, mediately, or 
immediately, from the Latin, nnd those which they 
nt first represented. Of these pairs there are hun- 
di-eds upon hundreds ; and yet of not a single pair 
are the members strictly identical in import. Take, 
for esample, acid and aour, cordial nnd hearlij, crime 
and guilt, dieine and godlike, jmriti/e and youthful, 
luciil and bright, mi»erable and unhappy, ponderous 
and tmghtg, portion and share, quantity and rfca/, 
auffioienl and enough. Where, moreover, two words, 
of which one is a material corruption of the other, 
are taken from a foreign source, we find them very 
fnr from being synonyms. Cure ' and care, engine and 
gill, paralysis and pahij, penitence and penance, phan- 
tasy and fancy, piety and pity, are instances in point, 

IV. Univocal terms take on a plurality of sig- 

Among the various blemishes which may disfigure 
a language, none, abstractedly considered, is more 
unphiloaophical than multivocals ; and with these, 
as almost any page of the dictionary demonstrates, 
English is already crowded." As to a language whose 

I Mon sUte ray reuonB (or disliking tbo terra syHonym. Its derivB- 
Uvea ure, of oouree, as objcctionahle aa itself. 

' lis original aenu is atill rutiined in the eiprsseion 'mrt at souli'. 

' Ainong tliMC whiuh havu sprung up in recent times arc Iho verba 
bfM, bund, hraektt, tit-tificatii, taal, niyiuAi-, gntiii, ouliini, ivpplmtfnt, 
nMnhomt, utiind; and the sabalantivtie effiuent, bathe, eBTtal, cUmb, 
tamnliMtnl, prriodwal, remmtd, mial, 

Ap'-late was nnce » rarl), oi well as n aubalnntiie and udjpctivn ; 
monage wiia (orworly uMii for managcmmt; impHhint, fur impiiUr, 
HuaiD peoplfl were, of oW, fxmiiiHg rioli, and oxWa -wctb mlvtme 

character and method of developmeTit have acquired 
stability, we haye, however, little practical concern 
with those principles which, if the visioiiary scheme 
of coUstnicting a new language were in agitation, 
would be deemed imperative. These high matters 
we may well leave to the consideration of Bishop 
Willdns, when, with the aid of P&Jiini and Priseian, 
he shall be commissioned to elaborate a lingua Para- 
disiaca. Returning to this world, of all the purts of 
speech recognized by grammarians, there is scarcely 
any which, as relates to some word or other, we have 
not burthened with a function additional to its ori- 
ginal one. Our verbs that began with being sub- 
stantives or adjectives, and our substantives that 
began with being adjectives or verbs, to proceed 
no further, may be reckoned by thousands ; and tbey 
will go on accumiiliiting. But, whether due to tro- 
pology, or to whatever other cause, multivocals,' 
as conducing to brevity and expressiveness, are un- 
wisely condemned, or deprecated, except where they 
entail ambiguity." 

poor. A fair woman was o fair ; nnil tho world Bwnnned wilh rx- 
hsuaganle, imptTliuenU, imUlicatea, inimnblet, punies, reti/iont, and 
renilulet, now eilincl. 

To gite an id«u of a multifocal is all that I hava here oBBsjed. 

' These arc of Ihreo sorts. I. Polysemants, whera there ia identity 
of form in th« eifmbots of [irinisrj aigniflcations and their derivatiTUB ; 
as (a) kiml, ca/t, mtt, enl, hit, presents, preterites, nnd partifliplu ; 
a< (i) live, aabstttntive and verb, or itt, adjeotivB, wlverb, and aub- 
stantivoi and as (n) poil, ,tai/r, the aubstitntiTes. II. Uomographe, 
identioal to the eye ; rb Jam, tare, dun, fair. Jilt, grate, hail, A«j(, 
Uad, light, laic, nail, maUh. mean, nnjilrrj/, pale, palUl, mlt, in thdr 
vurions senses. III. Eornophoncs, identical to the ear only; <" lif 
nnd /lie, air and hci>; all and awl, allar and oftei', bail and hale, ban 
und btar, bt and Ue. 

' £iigeitt and oecurrent were once used where we use, in a concrele 


The cliief criteria by which to test a new expres- 
iion, with reference to its legitimacy, and, inclusively, 
with reference to the likelihood of its being adopted 
i'or general or special use, shall now be tentatively 

First of all, a new word'onght to supply an ante- 
cedent blank; or else, on'the score of exactness, 
perspicuity, brevity, or euphony, it ought to be an 
improvement on a word already existing. Many a 
new word has been repudiated, at first sight, aa 
being synonymous with one in received use, and as 

sense, ciifimai and aceurrence. If, while udopting- Iho latter, but rg 
abstracts, wa had retained the former, we Bhould, certainly, not hnve 
I lone am'vis. 

Instend of oilr good old mcinnrhe, Mr. Do Quinccy Bgain Bnd again 
—Ma his Worhi, Vol. 1, p. 41 ; Vol. S, p. 227 1 Vol. 6, p. 235, &.e. 
c, — BubsiitnleB memoria/io!, a word nlrcudv iBgitimately and uscfiiUjf 
I pieoccnpied. 

By the by. this wnni, in its cnrrflnt sense, was scouted, early in onr 
I century, as an AiaericniibDi. 

And just OS blameworthy as Mr. Be Quincey's mimeriaJia is his 

iltgradatiim, for "gradation of a g;radfition' ; as deemupauHd means 

' compound of s compound '. See Mb tFortu, Vol. 9, p. 288. In thip, 

bowevar, ha bad been anticipnted bv Coleridge, Siogyaphi'i Littrm'ia 

I ^'ol. a, Ch. 9. 

" It took the regnlar muikeleer two or three minutes tn alter Ms 

iiiiuiie weapon into a weapon with which he could encounter an 

I iinamy IjBnd to hand." So writes Lord MacBuUy, in his Sif'ery, 

L Chaptw 13, with illusion to the old-fashioned bnyonat, which was 

• serewed inside the barrel of a musket. 

A jareliD, a thing > to Ito sent ', is' a minnle weapon ; snd a inuakct, 
« thinR 'which sends', ia here designated by the same nppellatiTe. 
I If Lord HaraiilBj had precedent tor celling a musket mimUt, it is as 
I good as nnknown ; and, besides, oup signiUcation is qaite enough for 
■n adjective. A elub, or a dnim-stiok, is not pnUiitile; the air 
is not I'n/latili ; and a hangman, in nbatcTer sense a peniire, is not a 
imuile, minister of justice. Frnjeetili, the adjective, even if it ha» 
the two meauings given it by tbo Dictionaries, is no proper model for 

being, therefore, superfluous.^ But what we have 
long and loosely called synonyms - are now under- 
stood to be, with trifling exceptions, pseudo-syno- 
nyms, by which are meant vocables approximating 
in import, but not equipollent or interchangeable. 
When galranism, ozone, and cMoro/orm were dis- 
covered, and when loeomoihea and stereoscopes were 
invented, it was necessary to have names for them. 
CuU ia a term which, as we value exactness, we can 
ill do without, seeing bow completely religion ' has 
lost ita original signification. Cidlily, formerly the 

' T^calion is apprtciahl^ diatingaiahahle from plwt, xal, till, &a. ; 
and locate — long before which we had dithtatr', — is, therefore, not to 
be eAidciuned tix surplnssge. In the tarae wny we may defend advtaU, 
eompite, Herrati, and hundreds more of our modemiBms. 

Nor is gratffalnai jusOy liable to demur-, it being no more the 
BBme as gralitHif, than fartfulHcsi ia the same as can, or than fiawt- 
altHM is the tattle as fraud ; also compBre /tumiiaieti and imarmm 
-with huiniUty and tincerity. Tet Mr. Bkcldcy, at p. 183 of hii 
Word Gvmip, instances it among " words for which eqniralents already 
exiat." The four authontiea for it quoted bf Dr. Johnson and Arch- 
deacon Tudd did not tbink eo. To those aathorities I mn; add Tart- 
(m'» /mm, &e. (ed. Mr. J. 0. Hailiwell), p. 78 : LodowioV Carlatl, 
l%t Dmrviag Farorilt {16!B), Acta 2 lind 6 : Jamca Hnywnrd, I%» 
Bmtith'd Virgin (1635), p. 111: Bichard Tiekoll, The Private Omvi- 
tpondcnct of Sarid Oarrick, &c.,yo\. 2, p. 302: Miss Bumey, OwiVut, 
Book 10, Ch. 2 : Mr. Thackeray, Eamond (cd. 18S2), YoL 1, p. 241. 

* The exaPt ttehnicality ii homaoiemanfa. Synonym, only that it 
is rooted at flrroly as arleiy, we might aduentageoasly part with. In 
the aKepted senaa of 'vford exactly oonsignilicative with another 
•word", it stands for whjit we vetj rarely bftve lo do with. Farther, 
in Graok, besides that auviwiia aeldmn means 'homsocemMilB', 
(ninuvUfiDc. 'uuivncal', is, generally, opposed to ifiwi'v^DC, 'equivo- 
oal'. Agsia, avvativpa are, ocdinarilT, things, not the verbal signs 
of things. 

> The errnneoiuneu of our Dictionaries, in their ei pin nations of 
rf/iffiDH, AS used in thi< English of oar Kev Teetamvnl, woald be 
smaxing, if anytiiing in any of those works coiild amaxe one. For 
(wrcct information on Die aenae of reUginn, see Arohbtshop Trenoh's 
S^HiM^ma of tAf Xfm Teitament. 

Bubstantive of both ciril and ckilize, — the latter 'of 
wliicli it waa not likely to suggest, except by help of 
its context,' — was judiciously rdieved of one of its 
meanings, by cmlization. Financial, internaUonal, 
noticeable, and pretentious enable us to dispense with 
periphrases. Ug&ome,* for iigli/, is a good sample of 
words which have been dismissed from our language, 
because of their offensiveness to the ear. 

Secondly, a new word should obey some analogy ; 
and, the less" recondite the analogy, the better. 
Shakespeare uses imiippressive, for inmj>pr6mhk ; 
and both he and Milton, with Brathwait " between, use 
unexpresniee, for unexpremble. Dekker,' Slassinger,* 
Howell," and Foote,'Tiave suburbtan ; Warton, saburb- 

' There ur« muny irorda iBsltad of which, though no Eucb plea can 
be urged uguiost liiem, uthers hove reuUeaelj been employed. I 
name a few of the nwdli™ Bubatitutca. Sr^l. 'Willinni Taylor, ITit 
Mmilhly Magasim, Yd. 67 (1821J, p. 50%. DHaitial. Id., The Aii- 
ntial Sninii, VoL 4 (1806), p. 116. OUaiual. Id., ibid., Vol. 1 (1803), 
p. 363. Jietaif'al, Id., iUd., Vol. 2 (1804), p. 631; Vol. 5 (IB07), p. 
301. Cow/oriMBM. SoutbfiT, Worii of WUUbm Cowpa; Vol. 2, p. 
lis : Mr. Hawthorne, Our'oid Sanu (Boston ed. of 13B4), p. 233. 
Horsce 'WnlpoU hta ilntCh and grinilh. 

Epilomulvr, lucdby Mr. U. F. Clinton and Flofessoc Samuel Lee, 
thuugh reyillatly Bvolved, — aa wa haye agncopaie ftom H/ncope, and 
etiUivatar Jruai tvltkale, — is not needed. And no more do we require 
eauUHmlor, dedamatnr, ixaminatBr, pirfietionator, and vattmtor, 
wLiicbi with nmn; kindred duplicatea, are found in boolis. 

• This and ngtoineiicu are fevourite words with Biahop Lfttimer. 
Btabbea h)u th« ttjll more bideona ugglcaome. The Aaatiimie afAbuiei 
(1SS5), pp. 67, 226 (ed. lB3i>). Instead of ugly, va hiuJ, fur a long 
while, mgtg. 

^ T/ie MHgl'iih Oenlliman, p. 204. Fuller has e-xpream'iv, for 'ex- 
pressible ', Oaod T&oaghU, Ulc. (ud. 1B30), p, ISl. 

• A Kaig'ita Conjwiug, p. 66: Tlit Head Tearmi (IGOB), aig. C 

• Tht CUy Madam, Act 3, Scene 1 ; Act 4, Sc<^ue 1. 

• UedoMl't Oravi, p. 43. 
' T/u Minor, Aai I. 


ial. Steele and Addison could write rhinocerical} 
Mr. T)e Quincey,' like a few authors before him,' has 
)yod metamorphlse* instead of metamorphose. 

' Tke Taller, No. 260. Ekiiu 

. laa. jiiim. 

role or rhiaonenl w 

lo will dn perfecllj. 

D old t 

.. Tht 
if tha 

■ubstanti™. See Bob Jonaon, Timber, ad fia. : Edward Terry, A 
Veyagt In Eail-India (1655), p. 109, 

» IFor/a, Tol. 8, p. 106. 

s ChettlB. SiHdktirU J>reami {1SB2), p. 43 (ed. 1841). Chriatofer 
Sjiam, A Bachelors Bltuing, &c. (1644), p. 67. Henry Earl of Mon- 
moath, AdveHiumtnltfrom FariiaitM (16S6), p. 212. 

' Epilomkt, us an Englisli formative, is anossaikble : ond it hHi 
a resl basii in epitome. Nor are tha amali/ami^ of Riubard Fmnclii 
and the n-apuria ot Prof. H. H. Wilson and Mr. Isnas Taylor, though 
uiineeded, formed against rule. Ae to metamarphiie, however, it ia nut 
built up on any Greek word, naturalized or unnatuvHlized ; and, fur- 
tliar, it preBnppoaes tbo derivativa /wTo/ioppij, which, in default of the 
verb iiipfu.ia impossible. There being a verb fiap^im, ittTunop^aais 
is quite regular. 

Our medtianrphatt we tnok from the French tnHamorphoMr ; and 
vre might have had the same verb, if we hnd hud, like tha Prenob, the 
sabetantive, mitatnarplioae. Compaie phraae and paraphrnae, euhetan- 
tives andTerbe : and Jamea Hayward, in The BanUh'd Virgin (133S), 
pp. 226, 22S, has pareni&taed and parenihesing, based on the antutan- 
tival pm-inthem. When we wanted verba eorreaponding to aphereiit, 
apatheotie, emphaii; hypostatif, kypothaii, parenuient., periphraeia, 
nffttopHsj and gifiitkeiiM, we made apherejiizey apotheosae, etflphasiza^. 
hj/peitaiiu, hj/palhetize, parentbtaiie, periphrtuite, aynopiia, and 
lyHtheaiie, bU which I have Man in aotnal use. The regular lerb of 
mefisvirphoaii would be melamorphoiiu. 

Like mclainorphiMe tae the very recent anaslomoit and diagmet, from 
the French ifauaitomomr and dia^Hoier, The French eubatantivea are 
tmaiiimoM and dingiioae ; ■aura, anasliimasi! and diaijnmi) ; and our 
verbs ought to be ananlomatize and diagiieeise. Nona but prufeaBors of 
leeohcraft require these verbs ; and. with them, an eitra syllable or two 
is atwayi welcome, particularly if it contributes to darken counsel. 

This note on what the Germans uall word-building I am tempted 
to prolong a little. And first 1 will remark on two words of much 
more common occurrence than any of those preriously spoken ofL 
ThsBB are sarilyiie and par*lgae, the latter of which is very modem 
with na. Oil tiia French suhatantires tnalyae and paialyiie were based 
the Terbs anali/ur and paralyter ; and from them we made our vDrhs. 
Oar analpeie and jib ro^ym would have yielded analysis aaAparatyfiie. 

Dr. Noah WebBter, as many are aware, would have 
had us syatemize our language, no matter at whut cost 
of enigmising it ; and, if we.had heeded his bidding, 

If our sutHtaotiTeB hud been aiialgK — whicli, inilsed, Henry Store usvs 
in his Myalny of Iniquity, p. 276, — and pamiyat, the verba might 
vreU llnre bad the same fucm. 

Hence it nppeare huw unetymolngicul it is tn write a»aly:c anil 
para/yn, Tlleac mie-icripta luuk na if ilescendunU of avaXi;{iii Slid 
nipaKii^ui, whiuh are natliing; nnil, as 1 hare ahovn, aa little hare 
aiiaigm and paralgns to do with ivaMaa and irapnXucrbi, faCures of 
Avakiiiu and jropoXtuj, und, therefore, not words to begot othen, 

Anailomow and dimjiuiti, spoken of ahure, remind me of axia!, 
tu/i'/tlafiai', and uitgusal. Aa& tlion Ihere is dyaanabir, with tho 
nvnimtiai of tbe mailiemnticiiuiti, — for t)io Ititter of which, Ur. Di; 
Quincey, in 7^ Lugie of Pulitieal JStmomy [ed. 1841), pp. ii., 128, 
iBudflLly aubatitnlea tho right formation, — slavishly copied from tlir 
French, for dyiuiHiemeltr and HuinBHoii'il. The lime hns lon^ past fni' 
inch eyncapationa and tompreBsions aa gave on arialitt, goremai; jit- 
Afit, and prostor, from areitbatinta, yuhtritator, p^duffoffapg, and pt'o-^ 
euralar. See, for more enob shortening, pp. 162, 163, lupra. 

TKhnetayy, (or -termiaobgy ', ahould also b« mentioned, as an 
ignorant Gallicism which scemn to be ereeping into nse, eepecially 
under the patrnoage of Suotuhmen. WilliGm Taylor ahould have 
known better than to misemploy it; for so ha did, in 1799. See 
Memoir, &c.,-by Mr. Eobberd, Vol. 1, p. 230. 

Sippoilanomia ia tbe title of a work, by Mr. Bntcy Clarli, published 
in I«29, on tbe horu'ifoBl. 

It is a pity to aee theteobnicaliliesot theso-calledlibBraipnifesBions 
dlatlgured by foreigiiisms. Our t'Cienttals, rinee tbey will neuterize, 
would dnd their aocaunt in entertaining a few eonsolting pbilologiitB. 

It is very unsafe to aeeept reuent Fronch words of ulussicnl eitmt- 
tion, without eiaminin^ tbem closely. Bibtiophite ought to mean, 
regularly, 'loved by hooks '. Jlibli-phiUtt, suggested by it, is just as 
bad, And no better is tozophilitc, nbich has been in use since 1812, 
at least. Aecham's ToxophiUa would, probably, haw been taken, by 
an Bucicnt, for tomethiug totally different from what is intended by it, 

In a I'ecent quarrel lietireen two French newepaper-edilora, one of 
tbe cumbabinta, with design to annihilate tbe journal of his antagonist 
by n singte withering epithet, denounced it as hydreprllrt. The poor 
man's studies had been neglected, as regarded hydrophobe, to the 
wrong hiilf of wbieb be unCurtunutely helped himself, towards devising 
new compound, 

our bands woiild have been restrained from sfigmiz- 
iiiff and atiathnnizing^ him as a pragmic dogmkt iu 
matters gramntic. On tbe monstrosities which our 
penny -a-line re, once under way for plain-sailing, 
engender daily, I spare to dilate. It is, bowever, 
manifest enough, that the sncerdacraeg of iruatirorth- 
lens benerolisis and p/iilosophohists wbo would serve as 
our emancipint'i' from tbe bondage of coining words 
according to rule, bave never been confined to the 
brood of epbemeral scribblers, any more than to mole- 
eyed philological sciolists.' But, as Fuller puts it, 

' Ths Eubstanlive anathtmiehig is actually osed by Tnjlor, tbe 
Watar-poet. See liig Workt (ed. 1630), Vol. 2, p. 303. 

But wonis juBt as illugiiimato ean tin had, in any nuinber, foi the 
saekiiig. Ignemy. Shnltespoure. Imilirabl^, Colly Ciblier, Tkt 
Cartlttt Butbdnd, Aot 5. Ottimdity. Aaron Hill, Jl'orlt (ed. 17S3), 
Vol. 1, p. iSS. Ilbutrieily. Miss Tiilhat, Miii Carta-'i Itllmv ta 
Mill Taliot, &e., Yul. 2, p. 376 : Miss Carter, Zrtln-t Iu Un. Mon- 
tagu, Vol. 2, pp. SI, 360. Squirre/ltm. Mr. Euskiti, Fori Clavigx-a, 
Latter IB, p. 4. Gray has miful-vaii; Horace WBlpola, gloBmlh; 
Mrs. Thrule, <u(i'M(irkf / ; Cowg<ir,godiil!i-ii!iai; Sydney Smitb,iy»f«£- 
ieai ; Lady Rostt^r Stanhope, piimoiiti/. But who does not know 
acores of such ntalfonuations P 

AAniltiblri, we are told by Archdeacon Todd, is " the proper ortho- 
graphy, instead of ndmiWibU" ! It is lamenUiblo lo diacover, tliat 
leiici^rapheis are just as fallible as the rest of miuikind. 

' In ImokE of recent data, I have njet with [ill tbe five abnormitiw 
grouped in this senlBnoe. 

> Ur. Isnae Taylor noins, ham impart, the lawless impartetimi, in 
which Dr. WebBler'a editors, almost of cuuiae, find nothing to oenaure. 
Tilorpboloeically considered, eitbi-t' imparliamt or impaniiian is the 
right word, ImpertalKH would be paralleled by definatiaH, for dtfiiii- 
tien. The bases of the correct words are, respectively, impaHit- and 

Among the peculiar words of Mr. Isaac Taylor, I may mention the 
mibatantiveg iakon. dtfiuiim, itiburtt, mtUpeak, ouUpfnd; the atljeo- 
tires aeelitanlt, acctivitnut, appliuiU, eemmuniotmbit, tdiicationablt, 
Kyptnentught, imrmt. irUrgrate, tterfU; and the verba active lnvnl, 
(ntcrgraln, »KtapA»r, mimiiii. And these he uses in prose. 


" I liave transgressed already. Two instancca had 
been sufficient ; aa Noah preserved but two of all 
unclean creatures. The rest might be lost without 
losse, and safely be drowned in oblivion." ' 

" The studiers of our older literature ", aaya Wil- 
liam Taylor,' "must often have been led to observe, 
that words analogically ibrmed, uncouth as theymight 
at first appear, have, mostly, attained an eventual and 
lasting popularity ; but that anomalous expressions, 
however welcome and current for a time, cannot be 
kept in circulation even by the efforts of writers the 
most deaeVvedly valued." Bather, it should be said, 
of euphonious vocables which conform to analogy, 
and of those which transgress it, the former usually 
fare better than the latter, in obtaining penuanent 
favour. Perhaps a quarter as many words as there 
are in Johnson's Dictionarj/, all of them duly analo- 
gical fabrications, were proposed during the fifteenth, 
Bfr^f fTifli, and seventeenth centuries, to perish 
HKwt as soon aa they appeared ; and Taylor himself 

^HR ITewfnaii, in his niacunsiaiu and Argummts (1872), p. 267, 
tpeui of " amvinliml oluquEDce," meDning ' eloquence suited to n 
oonrenticle '. How dons he get esmtnticalis, and not eanvitilieularii, 
from eonnmlieulum f 

One of the latest crentiona of pretentioui eciolum vhich I hais 
noticed is diamondiferBtu, a term applied to certain tracts of cauntry 
in South Africn. AdBtnantiferDta, eC^niologically correct, would nsrer 
answer: but all except pednnta or affectationistg noidd be tntitlied 
with diBmead-prodiKitiff. Givilkadf is a monster uldn to diaininti!- 
ifmut. Oicieaitndt maybe, to many, self-eipknalory ; but one might 
almuBt be pardoned for soppoaing' civili:ade to be gometbing to drink. 
To the multitudo it must be oa va^^uely suggestive as Sarwkrit wu to 
the genllcmau who hoped he was right in understanding it to be a 
•pedes of alligator. 

' Thi Eiilorii of (fe Uoly Warrt, Book 6, Ch. 10. 

> The Monthly MagaiiHe, Vol. 1 1 (1801), p. SOS. 
I ^ 

was the patriarch of a numerous cognate brood, 
■which have not survived their originator.' On the 
other hand, we have abundance of un analogical 
mintages which cuBtom hag long sanctioned, and 
which we ahull, in all likelihood, go on tolerating, 
albeit, as Bob Acres says of common oaths, " nothing 
but their antiquity makes them roapeetable." ' They 
meet us, in fact, at every turn. 

Scarcely more tolerable than words which offend 
against all analogy are those to understand which 
we are wantonly sent to travel beyond the limits of 
our extant vocabulary. 

Lord BoKngbroke uses ariilize ; ' but, in order to 
Bee what it means, we have to bethink ourselves that 
the Latins might, possibly, 'have made arlilis &oni 
ors, as they made geniiUs from gens. 

Southey, with others * who have written since the 
days of the great French Revolution, makes mention 
of philomphUts and 2^^iloso}}/nsin;^ and many, no 

' Tide miprn, p. 151, note ''. 

' Did Sheridan steal tljis piece of wit ? At all evenly, in a work 
whieli ho waa, no qupstion, aoqnaintMi with, we read of "aome harsh 
expressions . . . which are becomo venerable only bf their antiquity." 
GmtBB, TheSpirilaat Qaixtle, Vol. 2, p. 128. 

' Florio, 09 quoted by Archdeacon Todd, has artlie, which, for 
' make artificial', ia indefensible. 

• TAilotnphiil. Coleridge, Literary Remaiiw (1836), Vol. I, p. 298. 
■Wordsworth, Caneaming t&s Se/uliBiu, &k. (180B), p. 174. Fhilo- 
mphu'B. Dr. Newman, Zuta and Oaiii (ed. 184S), p. 6S; Leelmin 
en tSt Baift and Nalvm nf Uaivn'til!/ ^ducalion (ed. 1862), Preface, 
p. iiii. 

' FhilotopAdt. Emtty. Sx., Vol. 1, pp. 148, 323 : CoUuqaiin, &t., 
Vul. 2. p. 271. PkihKophiiim. Ema^i, &c.. Vol. 1, p, IBS. FMloii^ 
phittieal. Hid., Vol. 1, p. 80: Lift of H'etkij (ed. 1864), Vol. 2, p. 191. 
Tha two Si's! wordi were Anglicized from piihnphitte and phiiata- 



doubt, have guessed tvmiaa what is thereby intended.' 
On the whole, it would even be better to speak oi' 
pkilmophasters and pkiloaophastry. 

" The shadowy exhibition of a regal bancjiiet in the 
desert draws out and stimulates the sense of its utter 

phiaint. The Fi'eiiali liave alvaya applied tlicm cualcmptuoualy ; and 
BO their Eaglisli rL'preaenlatiyes Imve alwaja been appliwl. 

' The Greek 'AttuuZui luid. the Latin patriam belong to a cl]iis of 
vorda in nhiuh nolhing diBpara^ag is implied by their endings ; and 
tltfl ethioal neutrality of our fAHoiophize v quite tegiilur. The French 
equivulont of our verb is pMletapher. 

In Greek, aa sdiftaita and ao^arqc nere denied from uo^lCoi, tlis 
cnnnlerpart nf a votdiikt pAiloiopAiici' should precede the fluuuterparta 
of words like p/iihsaphuini aai philoiophMe. Whiohaver of their 
worda llie French deiised first, they had no vurrant from analogy, in 
giying- them, as they gave tbem, invidiDus aigniiicBtioaa ; for auch they 
bear, as does nMogiume, domparod with ncuhgie. Unly a 'sliatii 
pbiliuapber ', & philmophiite, — or patron of 'fulse philosophy', phih- 
taphitmr, — is mid to piilmophiur. 

Dt. Webater, bis editors, and Dr. Worcester, all err in taktn; 
pkikaophitnt from ^'Aoc and vii^isfia : these peraons not being awaro 
that their compoaition is imposaiblc. To arriTe at fiKoao^ariui, a de- 
rivatire, ve ahould have to aasojne ^iXoaa^ilw ; and the Greeks had 
no anch verb. Further, us I have aaid already, we got our phthni- 
phiim Irom piilotopkUiiu, whicli does not owu its detractive accepta- 
tion tu its seeDiing- cuoneiioa with f^himm. liiheMiriea piiiloKphimu, 
phiimephUte, and philamphim; to a Frenchman, the laet, in contrast 
to \m pUtoiioplKr, ia a key to the twa flrat. 

, The lesicDgraphecs juat nuined, atarting with an nnscholaatic etj- 
melogy, di'fino phdoiophinn by "love of fallacioua argiiinenta", 
" aophiatry ", &<:. Southey and other well-infurmud wTittra cortainly 
do not employ the term in that sonae. However, since none bnt a 
French scholar will b« likely to use it as the French use it, and since, 
etymologically, it baa nothing to do with mpMun, by reminding of 
which it ia likely to mislead, it iajustthc sortof word to be avotdedal- 
togvther. Piiloiaphiim, irwo needed it, ought, with reference taphi- 
luKipklse, — which is as dilferent from pAihcnphiicr as poet ia from 
pactaslar, — to be allied to phitomphg and pMktBphtme. And so piilo- 
tnphitt would signify ' philosopher ' ; aa it does with Putl«nhain, in 
Th* Arte of Efglitk Fa»tie,f.6. Compare (iiVojopAi»(, for 'jnggler', 
inalMi) of which, Oaule might optinnally havemudiHod jcn^dno^oc into 
'w. Site Ylvi-fnti'Tia, sig. I 4 r. 


solitude and remotion from men'and cities." So dis- 
courses Mr. De Quincey/ who, nevertheless, de- 
nounces Bentley's putid and negoce as " lawless 
pedantries", and as "filth".* Not only must re- 
motion suggest, to the ordinary reader, * repeated 
motion', or else 'backward motion', but, besides 
being neither actual English nor, it is to be hoped, 
potential, for ' removedness ' or * sequestration '/ it 
is not even, in that sense, a true Latinism.* 

Miss Cobbe writes of "having constated the pe- 
culiar doctrines of Christ.^'* The learned lady 

1 Works J Vol. 6, p. 321. The word remotion occurs also in VoL 3, 
p. 183 ; and in Vol. 8, p. 62. 

2 Works, Vol. 6, p. 176. It is absurd thus to revile words without 
reference to their age. As to putidy it found acceptance with Barrow, 
Works, VoL 1, pp. 191, 208 ; and with Cowley, The Davideis (ed. 
1687), p. 28, where we read of " the putid officiousness of some gpram- 
roarians." And Mr. De Quincey might easily have ascertained that 
the word is used by Henry More and Bp. Jeremy Taylor. 

' The evidence of the Dictionaries does not affect this position. 
And their evidence I can supplement. 

Mabbe writes ; " fearing lest they might cause some remotion or 
alteration in her body." The Rogue (ed. 1623), Part 1, p. 19. 

" In the second [Essay], he aggravates the sense of sorrow, the" 
misery of this life, in respect of sin, the infelicity of it in her remotion 
from Sion." Kichard Brathwait, Essays upon the Five Seftses (1626), 
p. V. (in Archaiea, Vol. 2). 

<' Salvation .... doth, in the Hebrew language, properly signifie a 
deliverance from, or remotion of, all sorts of inconvenience." Barrow, 
Works, Vol. 1, p. 165. In this instance, remotion is remotio. 

* Mr. De Quincey — see his Works, Vol. 9, p. 271, foot-note, — uses 
symhology. Ideology is bad enough ; but this is worse. Symbololofy 
would be correct. Symhologie I have somewhere met with in French 
or German. The privilege of introducing, or countenancing, words of 
the stamp of symbology, should be restricted to professionals. Vide 
supra, p. 174, note *. 

> Studies New and Old, p. 9. Spenser in vain experimented with 
renversedy for * turned upside down ' ; and Jeremy Collier would have 
Anglicized a modification of renverser, for ' overthrow '. 


means * ascertained ' ; but her Gallic constate, if con- 
strued at all, is sure to be construed, by any but a 
French scholar, into * state with '. 

In a passage quoted by Mr. Blackley,^ we find 
Philistinism qualified as deducated, a term which the 
reverend gentleman is pleased to hold up for admir- 
ation. The word, we are considerately informed, 

*' But what do you think of those who appear in defence of immoral- 
ity, endeavour to blast the credit of vertue, and t'enverae the notions of 
good and evil?" Essays upon Several Moral Subjects (ed. 1705), 
Part 3, pp. 50, 51. Also see p. 252 of the same Part, and Part 2, 
p. 11. 

And compare Donne's reenverse, ** And by such fiction, that Eng- 
lish priest Bridgewater, which cals himselfe Aquipontanus, overturn- 
ing and re-enversing his name with his conscience, may be beleeved, 
when he saies," &c. Fseudo-martyr (1610), p. 274. 

If rencounter never fairly became English, there was still less hope 
for renverse. 

Not much to their credit, English doctors and lawyers have tried to 
naturalize the French viahle^ * likely to live ', from vie, a corruption of 
vita. Who, at first sight, would not suppose that viable must be con- 
nected with via? Vivable would have been much better; or, if it 
were not dark enough, there is vitable, which does not lack the support 
of analogy. With the factitious vivabilis and vitabilis compare stabilis 
and veniabilis. The genuine Latin vitabilis, from vitOf we have not 
thought fit to adopt. 

"No produce ever maintains a consistent rate of produetihility'^ 
Mr. John Euskin, Unto This Last, p. 53, foot-note. 

Why the politicaster's produetibility ? Frodueible does not mean 
f productive ' ; and, therefore, there is no call for the assumed adjective 
produetible ; though productibilis would be as regular as divisibilis. 
But the objection which I woidd here emphasize is, the liability of 
produetible to be deemed an English formative, — ^like merchantable, 
seasonable, serviceable, — to signify * suited for a product *, or the like. 

And just as bad is Mr. J. S. Mill's irreduetibility. " But M. Comte's 
puerile predilection for prime numbers almost passes belief. His 
reason is, that they are the type of irreduetibility : each of them is a. 
kind of ultimate arithmetical fact." Auguste Comte and Fositivism, 
p. 196. 

» Jrord Gossip, p. 180. 


signifies " miatlirection of education." ' To the pro- 
poser of dciiucatecl we owe, by the way, the felonious 
iinsom, by which jargon he would designate words 
formed onomatoposically. The initiated are aware 
that this cryptograph is mangled Latin ; but, to the 
outer world, it must seem to be, if not Patagonian, 
cabbalistic, and own brother to ahmcadabra, abra- 
cii/rin, and shemhamjihora»h. 

And here it is obvious to remark, that a new word, 
if its relationship, as regards etymology and mean- 
ing, to one already free of the language, is at once 
perceptible, generally becomes English much faster 
than it would become so without those advantages.' 
Compare, with respect to the rapidity and degree 
of their naturalization, aualogne, custodian, enechpe, 
grade, mdmtyial, marine, with avuncular, cuHbre, 
campestrian, circenmn, .condliar, connoiaaeur, dilet- 
tante, dincipular, domical, improvise, lacustrine, leniicu- 
lar, mirage,' profile, promenade, reconnoitre, riparian, 
mute, spectacular, trait.* 

' It would not be more than half as bod lo coin reilil, tn menn 
' give out again,' ' edit OTer.' 

' Ona IB not sarprieed that tiipertherg and aurqiiKlry never became 
firmlf rooted in tba language. 

' Mr. J, Q, Whittier Iiub, in his Snovi-iound ; 

" The mirage loomed noross her woj." 

Here the BcanEion reqnirea thitt we pronounru the nord as n (nMhec. 
It is EotioeaHfl, that Americans are more prone than Englishmen to 
oonfer od foreign worde the full lights of natnrnliEation at oDce, ruiher 
Ihun by degrees. 

* There is much to commend in the spirit of Southoy'a vipva, at to 
taking tfrms from abroad, und as to lh« way wc nhoiild uac tbenj.nhen 
we linre taken them, 

" I have no objootion to Anglioino a word from any Itrnguos*! when 
we bare no equivalent for it, and wonld, therefore, write munagtrg 
and iiairetyj but I iave n very great _obitet\oB te Me writton Eotjlieli 

NBOTEBlsnc 0AS0K8. 

In the third place, a new word should be euphoni- 
ous. And the inbred feeling of us who ubo English is, 

from tit Leltert d/ 

interlardEd with (oraigTi phrnaes." SelcHiai 
Jiniert Southi^, Vol. 3, p. 333. 

Cgnsonantlj to liu prim^iplee, Saatho]' wrote millioaiit, insteiul of 
tHi'Kiwuii™, out misspeiling of the Fronch milliotmaire. The Uuarta-ly 
SaiUui, Tol. tS (1831), ]j. 429. How he must have aaoseated Cole- 
ridge's pofew^alt.' 

Landor makes Home Tooke >ay : " If we mnat vse such words bi 
rcrorie, wbj not oblige tlivm to confiirm with their prcdeceesorE, 
travetly uud gaieii/, which should have the y inataad of the i / When 
we, following CoH'luf, write piudarigug, we are kughed at ; but no- 
hodj laughs at pUtnrcfqiie nnd antique, which are egonllf reducible to 
onler." It'oria, Vol. 1, p. IM. 

The latter BentuDce of this paasaga it based on no priociplu what- 

Glanvill, in hia Seeptit Scieafifiea, p. lAfi, has meyelnpady. Cole- 
ridge and Mr. Du Qiiincej' write dyfju^uy. 

Akin M the ambition which actuates inch Epelliitgs is that which 
would lessen our depondenco, as to worda, on foreign laiigusgea. Fut> 
tenhlni, at p. 191, lulls ns that " Master Secretary Wilson ■' proposed 
v>it-eraft, for logit. yentiigt.n^'aUx fooliih-Jtre, \a»\«BAi>\ ignit fatma. 
William Taylor auggesCed tpaeh-Uirt, as a substitute for phibilagy. 
Tilt Mantkli/ Mayaaine, Vol. 13 (1802), p. 13. Leia happy is hil 
finguaoiiiui, to serre the purpose of linsuiHie, The Mmithlg Eevieic, 
Vol. 73 (18H), p, 499. And leas happy still is bis body-ipirit, for 
those who object to eapi-it de corpt. Ibid., Vol. 13 {1794), p. 30. 

The following passage is by Thomas Edwards, author of The Caoom 
of Oi-UkUm, a work which was long, and not undeservedly, popular. 

" I am not for borrowing of the French any words which we can 
fiiirlyderiTe from the Latin, or from our own stock; fur which reason, 
I write honor, mperim; &c.,— without taking any notice of the French 
termination -euc,— and goueriier, aa we form de/tnder." Cinrciiponi- 
mei of Samml ElcAnrdiatii, VoL 3, p. 63. 

Edwnrda is speaking of the forms of our words ; and be thus inti- 
roetm rules which, from Gnt to last, have been largely, but most 
Mpriciously, applied ; the first, to the effect of assimilating the Lotin- 
iitio vocublcs of our language to their ancient originals, and the second, 
to tha elfect of methodizing our spelling BRer English analogies. 
At present, the genealogy of our words, as dcdacil>le from thmr sp- 
penranec, only realizes extreme confusion ; and we shuU do wisely, 
if. instead of discontinuing the reformation which has been carried m 
far, we go on and complete it. It i) not, ftu\)a^J\B 'Cnu.\. -«b j\i^ vm 


that a word should not be very long,^ any more than 
very harsh.' Hence our shortenings, in utterance, of 
Michilimackinac and Winnipiseogee, and the British 
contractions of Auchinleck, Beauchamp, Cavendish, 
Cholmondeley, Cirencester, Colquhoun, Lereson, Mqjori- 
hanks, and Pontefract,^ Much as we might require an 

f^et back to superiour, or to governour. When the latter was giTen up, 
its successor should have been ffovemei\ as we substituted defender for 
defendour ; gowem and defend being our yerbs. So Dr. Johnson writes 
visiter, in the place of the old viettour, 

Everybodj writes effigg, etdogy^ lancet, parley, volley ; and why 
should we consent to write programme and toilette ? 

CoUaborateur is an excellent word, which neither ' co^labourer ' nor 
' fellow-workman ' defines adequately. Many haye felt the need of 
it ; but the right form, for us, is collaborator. 

Liter ator, modified from litterateur ^ is much nearer being Anglicized. 
This word, but not in the sense attached to it by Burke, we haye long- 
desiderated ; and the countenance it has received from Southey, Lander, 
Lockhart, Mr. De Quincey, and Mr. Carlyle, has already availed ta 
take off something of its strangeness of aspect. The singular of 
literati has had but few favourers ; the substantive literate is pre- 
occupied ; and literatOy used by Hughes, in The Spectator, No. 53, and 
by Cowper, — see his Workt, Vol. 6, p. 266, — never had the least 
prospect of being adopted. Considering;^ how little we tie onrselves to 
the limits imposed on words by classical usage, — as witness our civil, 
consul^ vcnA. pagan, — ^it is nothing if we make our literatore oommensur- 
ate with the Koman literati, 

^ Facilitate we have no scruples about ; but diffieilitate has knocked 
for admittance, without being listened to. Nor, for their length, can we 
readily endure Soutbey's revivals, jM)««t&«7tto/« and impoasibilitate. See 
The Qmrterly Review, Vol. 39 (1829), p. 134 ; and Selections fi-om the 
Letter Sy &c., Vol. 4, p. 16S. Coleridge has itnpossibilification, 

3 Notions of euphony are not the same all the world over. I once 
asked a Pandit, a professor of poetry, what he considered to be the 
most melodious word in Sanskrit. His reply was slakshnm. And he 
was not jesting. 

* The reduction of JSrighthelmstone to Brighton is attributed to 
George IV. My English home, Marlesfo)'d, is vulgarly called Malsa ; 
and, among the neighbouring parishes, Bergholt, Brandeston, Chars- 
field, Hacheston, Sudbome, and Thrandeston are known, by the com* 
men people, as Batfle, Bransion, Chasfle, Eayaon, Subbon, and Trau-* 


adjective of appendix, aa appcndical, there would 
have been ao chance for Bentham's appendixiovs,^ or 
for William Taylor's append ica/ori/,^ even if they had 
been formed agreeably to analogy. Doubtless, it 
was, in many cases, chiefly owing to their cnmbroua- 
ness, that so many of our early English compounds 
and derivatives were superseded by substitutes from 
the Latin. Numerous are the words like amatormw, 
arbiirariowi, curta!,^ magistral icnl,* obscenous, opacous, 

' See Bcnlham'8 Worlci, Vol, 8, p. 236. Having to do with an 
QncOTnipted Latin vord, Btuttiam should have etarttd with appendic-, 
(or his biiaa, Appimdieioui woald, in fonn, reaoinbie >in(i<u'ow*, — i( 
Jtiiieiaiu nm from judex, instead of Judicium ; — hut ita -«iu, as muEt 
gencrallf anBwitria<' la -etua, would still ha out of place. The Bn&- 
logj- of mriane, fiom varix, would yield apptiidicoa, which, too, 
n^presents -(am. The force of -anus, -oun, is often miBunderBtood. Mr. 
Isaiu Tnjlor, not sittiBfled with the existing acdivawi, uses aeeliviCmu, 
which, since it is not intundod to nivau 'uhouuding in acclivities', 
is worse than a mere luperflility. 

■ The Annual SiBiea, Vol. fi (ISDS), p. 231. Judiculoriui &ie*lial 
come directly ftom j'ltdtx ; und appaiidiealtiiy would dumand some word 
intermediate to itself and appindix, as BppmMealor. 

* I mean the adjective ; und tbi« I would refer, differently from Dr. 
Wehster's editors, to eurtalii, a factitious elongation of tttrtut. Fur- 
ther, bam our old ailjirctiie, perhaps, originated the verh now written 
etirtail. To eiplnin tiiHail hy a concretion of cart laiUer seems to 
me worse than (or-feiohed. For when was curt tailUr ever used 
tor laitUr aiurt f Our old Terb was curtail. Sue Thomas Caapion 
(1S02), In Aneiml Critinal Eciai/i, &a.. Vol. 2, p. 166: Thonies 
Jamss, A TrtatiK of the CorruptieH of Scripture, &c. (1612), Tart 2, 
p. 69 : HeyUn, Eeclaia Vitdiiala <lfi57), Part I, p. 132. 

The adjectire eurCal is older than Milton. " In fmit-timo, we bad 
lame soure ebsrries, three sowre plummea, one or two little apri- 
cockB, halfe a pound of flgges, and now and then a wbole pound, 
according to the number of those that sate at tshje, but in that 
minced and eurtall manner, that there was none of tts so nimhle- 
flnji^r'd that wee could oomo to Tyeit the second time." Mabbe, T/ia 
Sogue (ed, 1B23), Prat 2, p. 274. 

In CHrtal-axe, we hare a mere corruption of eoutelai, euilnu. 

* For Ihis word, see Burthogge, Caata Oti {\^\h\,\.\h'>>. K.v&\v 


ordioiloxnl, pi-oh'j-ioiis, proporiioiiahh',^ and ivbustioiis, 
which we have exohungad for fewer syllables. Who, 
if he can help it, will ubb canlinalUial, castremian, 
or Htaneutieal ? Or who will now write artHioeratical, 
charactenslical, ermtical ? Comolate, emcocate, deno- 
iate, deslinnie,* deicrm'mate, exritafe, exholaie, eruliafe, 
impedite,^ modificale, occaswru/fe, ruinale, and apeclficaie 
have gone the way of cariUation, contmtation, design- 
ment, dk'juisvment, project-men/, and rlaitment. Circutn' 
fomneoun beggars have disnppearod along with ster- 
coraceous breezes, auheenlaneom eggs, and things 
antccedaneoua and siipervaeaneom. The old-fashioned 
trUicnl are now only tr-ite ; ivlitidaries have given 
place to vohmleers ; atrabihtrioiis peniteniiaries are, in 
our time, less miserable, by four syllables, than 
they used to be ; dcgiogrnphera, hutoriographei-i, and 
i(;fere>idaries have shrunk into ekgisfs, historians, and 
referees ; and raktndinariam * are fast succumbing 
before invalids} No doubt, too, we should have had, 

is uwd bj Godwin, in An Enquirff, £d. (ed. 1793), p. 766. Hr. 
Judntll qmites Mrs. MauBulay fur it. 

' Mr, Do Quincoy is, for a modern, rather peculiar, in Me prefer- 
ence !ar pnporlioHaliU to fiiiipoi'li'mnl, 

* Detore itfinre BOoms to have got bio vngtie, I find injury its«d aa a 
vgrb, Ljrlj, EHpItHBi (1676-80), p. ICO (ed. 1868). So the verb 
dtiliny apparently preceded OaUnt. ChetlU, Kitidkarli Dftomt 
(tfi92). p. 68 (ed, 18*1) ; Gsalo, nvi'-fiavrJa, p. 348. Compare ;>Ai- 
hinp\ft Iho verb, ns prcoediit); phibnopbai. Dunne, Pi»ndB-iaartyr 
(IBID], p. 313; BiMKanatat, p. 46. Barron trial phiUfsphal*. 
Wiiria, Vol. 1, p. 173. And sn did Crquhart and others. 

' Onute, nrc-pavricr. pp. 113, 142. 

' It is odd that pafafmio,— whence faJ^fMrfiiinri'iu,— at flrst the ana- 
l(f lie of our noiT inililferont Acallk, should have come, even in Cioero'i 
time, tu menu ' illness '. 

' Wa have kept ieipifalitfi, — though its bate hajt disnppcuvd, — in 
preference to eoiiiing the oumhrolu lutpiUiiUtg. For the a^JMtiio 


as stable contributions to our vocabulary, all,^ cii, 
p/eiiipo, pos, and vet, if there had been as popular a 
demand ibr the apocopation of altitiules, citizen, ptem- 
polentiarij, posUiee, and veicrt'iiarmi,^ as there waa ■ 
for docking cabriolet, incognito, and mobile, and fgr 
beheading eautei-tiiig and Ojjorto." 

Moreover, our aversion to dissonance has often 
proved to be stronger than our care for analogy.* 

/•Mpilal, tee Philemon noUand, Cynip^dia (1832), p. 121; Fuller, 
7-A. Ajipcal, Sea. (1G59), Pan 2, p. 96. 

' In tbe next chuptei I xpeaL of this nbliroiiution. 

• The Homntia thcmaelTes would not abide what was, probubly, the 
Tull r<>rm, vehcteriiiariia. Zalrina, in tike munnGT, v\U rDduuud fiom 

> V/^ixnix aterling im& port, — the win o. 

' A striking illuitmCion of Ibu is seen where, in order to obtaia 
certain Jeniinine eubstaniiTes fiom masuulines, we add a termination, 
instead of sohsliltiting one. Hmttts, jioetm, tlitphrilesf ,&':., iii: havij 
uo feeling agunet, — and Chupman, Milton, and Dnrdvn had none 
Ngainit ha-ocii; FuHbti nonv a/g>a.ait, patrtarehca ; aiid nichardaon, 
none against rivaUtt, — their mnaculino hoses having immuvabla 
l«rnunatianB. Again, u la arehanaa, arehna would hoie outraged 
DDphony; or else we should havv had it; us we have "''iiVrcHi/uuntf- 
rru,ligriu; and I hnvecollectedinslanoDBo(iutfar«M,rfiinorivH, ojt/m-' 
m, Tiforituma, rmmj/iTtD, and lattrperui ,- with attrreu, ehanlriu, 
min/Brlren, eormnatiiirei; fW^roiderftt, kdrbearea, imtiUivm, rninii- 
trtti, p/iiloKphtit, porteeti, leriuentmi, virilrMl, &c. &c, Au modified 
from words in -or, I have met with eanduatrtu, am^iurtM, dirtelrm, 
(loilrtAM, ofainu, pnetptrm, ipielatrfut, to. jco. But it is vary differ- 
ent, when wo annox -«i to -or'. Talarn; like tutifu, lius been in 
print ; but neitliGr word has taken root. To tltduna and IrailarHt, 
which (fceucbere and there, we generally prefer tleetrai and Iraitrm; 
and wu nevei say aetorta, jjut actren. Thomas Nasb has ivctarui; 
but Ben Jonson. nttriu ; Miss Carter and Mr. Charles Eingslvy, piv- 
/miortii. 3fuj/iinat and priomi there is nn Idp fur. Aiillurn* 
remains. A svpamte substantive bearing its ngnillcatioa stems to he 
now indispensable: though we ore itill intisfied with remnla tpontan. 
And here, as in muyureii and priona, we must put up with an nau- 
miily, onless we auuord nur favnui to aMl>r™ii. This harsh ei- 
prPHion— with which contrast Btatliwait's inalriieliii, in T/if EiistitK 
Gattttman, kc.,^. 43, — is used by James Baywa^t^uiTlK BunisK^ 


Our adverbs matching adjectives in -b!e end in -bii/, 
— as ab/i/i not aUdij, — to fonn wliich we compressed 
-hkh/ into one syllable. Holilij, jollihj, loicUly, sillily, 
and the like, we barely endure ; we have given up 
idkli/ ; ^ and we will have nothing to do with the 
equally regular dailily, hourUty, mouthtily, JceekHly, 
yearlihj, and a great number of similar formations. 
In preference to using them, we make the adverbs 
the same as the adjectives." Fidurely, tally, and 
smally, once common, we revolt at,' substituting 
periphrases therefor ; and contrarily has almost been 
driven outbyco/i/n/riwwe. Longadverbs of the compar- 
ative and superlative degrees, asjiercelier and wiseliest, 
once very frequent both in prose and in verse, have 
gone out of vogue, — chiefly because some of them 

Virgin (1635), p. 1S7; and Dr. Johnson quotes Fanshawe for it. 
Authorets, I acarvelf need renlHrk, U no novelt}'. 

We are told, by Fultsr, ot Qaeen EliEaheth ; " She could not woU 
digest tile affeoted OTer-elcgimcy of euch as prayed for ber by tbe 
titla of 'De/mdreu of tbe Failb', and not Ibe • Defender ' ." Tht 
Holy Slate, &e., p. 296. 

What, then, oould Queen^Bess bate thought of the pioua topo- 
graphor, John Norden, who taught bis generation tn pray for ber as 
"our aoTeraigne Lady and Oovernis" ! See A Penaive Mant Prat-' 
tiie (1684), fol, 6 r. 

' It was of frequent oocnrrence doirn to 16SU, and, no doabC, later, 
Sir Tboraaa Elyot bos iieUn. 

Lamaitahlitly is used by John Korden, in A Sinful! Maiu Salat* 
(ed. 19S5], foL 13 v. 

' The once common adiepbs/fltAeriTy./i^'fnrf/i/, godly, liveli/, malher- 
ij/, onlerly, &c., formally identical with adjectiree, have gone out of 
nee; Bj>i ne aov laj iH a fatAerli/ way, &a, 

Bsadloiigly baa the authority of Donne, Mabbe, &c. Latimer, 
Puttenham, and many others have abmeli). With these adverbs base 
dieappeared anytrli/, hungeriy, tmtipeetly, ttithly, &c. &o. 

■ Yet we do not object to mlety. Far faulty, tiiitilcly, and uiAoily, 
ire otten find, in old books, fanly. tubing, and wlutly. And they bna 
n>/fi. See, far otlior such oontractioaai nolB ' ia Uie neit paje. 


Ibnd the car,— to such a degree as now to be ac- 
counted, with an exception or two,^ if not afl'ected, 
poetic licences ; and the congeners of hksseder, lying- 
est,* and belovedest^ which were none too harsh for 
our forefathers,* are now all but universally banished. 
Nor do we stop here. The idea conveyed by dijfi- 
cidthj is one which we constantly have occasion to 
express; and yet this word, though it must, for 
centuries, have occurred to almost every one that 
has written or spoken English, and though it must 
have been printed hundreds of times, can hardly ho 
said to belong to our language.' Its fortunes would 

' Earliir nnd tariicst nro among tlic most familini. 
' ShakeBpaare has thia word. Dekkec has v.tather-biaUi'ut. See 
Enighli Can/uHng (1S07), p. 23 (cd. 1842). 

1 Words of tbis stamp are very generally aliimnBd ty onr contera- 
iTDrieB. An eireption is Been in tliat pbcnomenou of civilizaCian and 
lumiuiity, Hr. Tbumos Corlyle. 

And yet Ihey rebelled at profisieneii and pnmenat, instead of 
cli we fiod, in many a bool: uf the sixteenth and BeTenteeatli ceat- 
contempl of etymological conaiderBliona, pro/anat and ptonmi. 
for JlHCHtu, once was eitremGly commnn ; and I have found 
rfineti and diriiuiw. Ben Jonson has, in vene, emnplcga for 
Bennjiumt aai FletiAei, paral/eU'i foi pamlletlim ; and 
'fatneiM, fur JamnMui, was allowed for metre. InBtunces, in old 
hwita, of MMffi'nj courtiora, earring favour, lnrring one's plcBsure, and 
uinriii0 Jews, sj-a not infreqaent. Mntining was not entirely abol- 
ished It hundred years ago. 

' Here follow a few references for diffieiilllj/. Raphe liobynson, 
kTrnnslation of Urapia (ISSl), p. 99 (ed. ISeS]. John Eaton, Tin 
iMonejf-cotnie of Irti Juitifieaiion, ka. (1642), To the Eoader. T/ie 
yifatnrall and EipirimenlaU Siilary of Windt, &e. (16fi3), pp. 212, 
■ 851. Hamon L'Eatrange, Tin Seign nf King Charlei («d. 1656), pp. t, 
333. Glsnrill, SnpiU Seimtifiea (1668), pp. 6, 80 : Stii^ Tuum tfau 
Sil{l66i}, pp. IS, 27, 28, &fl.: Siatgt, &c. (1676), II.,p. 46. Barrow, 
HV*» (ed. 1683-09), Vol. 1, p. 7. Ow-ay, T^ ChtaCt of Smpin 
(1677), AM 2, ScBBB 1. Jeromj Collier, J&»oyi vpeti Siveral Xu-al 
SMijVcto, Part 1 (ed. 1703). p. 204; Part 2 (ed. 1702), pp. 136, 166; 
Part 3 (ed. 1705). p, lil ; Part 4 (ed. 172fi), p. 177. Bentk^, Watkx, 

have been very different, had it been as smooth to 
the tongue as the Italian difficilmeiUe, or the French 
difficilement,' or our old uneaik. 

Vol 2, p, 31. Addison, Tha Spectator, No. 171. Fielding, TAc Life 
ami Sfath of Tom Thmab tht Gi'iat, Pretaoo, Dr. Johnson, Li/f of 
thi Sins of Fnaiia : Th« Fabe Alarm (1770) : liller io Mr,. 
Thmti, Sept. 30, 1773. Biahop Dnrd, Moral and Folitieal Bialegiut 
{fid. 1760), p. 18B. Cowper, The ChnuBiiicur, No. 138. Bouthey, 
Tke Annual Review, Tol. S (180S), p. 622 : Colloguia, £c. (ed. 1831), 
VoL 2, pp. 117, 311: TAt Doctor {monotome ed.), p. fi94. And 
Goldsmith hiw tlie word somuwhere in his Animated Nature. 

Slime of tDj' readers mnj wonder irhy I than heap up rererencei. 
Well, sometiine* it is fur nna reason, and sometinies it n for another. 
TuVb the yery word juet dosputched. Not long ago, on my spealiinK 
nf it, in conversatbli with a very learned echoUr, in much the same 
toi-ms that I have Employed in the text, my collocutor very podlively 
queried it* ever having got into print. Tct very likelj' he had aeon it 
dozens of times. 

Memory is a poor ttiinR, at hest; and alas fnr the man that puts 
hii tmst in it ! In my Eecfiil ErempliJIcBtioiii of F^iUf Fhilalmjy, I 
have used the eipresiion to happen oh something. One of my English 
Clitics, on seeing this, pounced upon me with indignation, and lec- 
tured me severely for prasoming to write about English, while still 
capable of so diegusting an Americanism. My friends in the United 
States will know whether the expression be used there ; 1, for my port, 
do not know, having quite forgotten. But whet I do know ii, that I 
hear it used in East Anglia, by the people about me, every day; and 
I have chawjed on it in a good variety of boola of difforent ages. Of 
these I name a few, with their aathors. Sir Thomas More, Apolagy 
(1B33), (oL 6. Harvey, Jfe™'j Supirtrogation, p. 186. Henry Potter, 
The Two Angry Women, Ac, p. 91. Camden, Semuini (ed. 1671), p. 
41. Heywood, An Apalofffffor Aetort (1613), io The Somira Traett 
(2lld ed.), Vol. 3, p. 592. Brathwait, The Lira of All the Boman 
Snpurors, p- 1S4. Henry Earl of Monmouth, Somiilug and Tarquin 
(1637), p. 289, The Comical Miatiir^ of Francion (1666), Book *, p. 
20. Heylin, A Full Jtelaliou, &o. (1656), p. 266. Milton, F}-oii 
WiirU (Bohn's ed.), Vol. fi, p. ISO. Translation of U CurdinaUemo, 
Sx. (1970), p. 267. Aloiander Pope, The GNnnliaii. No. 4. De Pop, 
OiplaiTi SiHgletw (ed. 1840), p. 3^7, Bonlhey, The Doeter (1-vol. 
ed.), p, 021, Seppm into. Dryden, An Eveains'i Lore, Ep. Dcd. 
Mm. Ceutlivre, The Si^'jbody, Acl I, Scene 1. JiimramuK, katS. 
• The adjective pnviial, as denoting contrast with totality, \uim long 
had commcm yogMi ; but the ocearrence of its adcerb has greatly in- 


Many are the words which, though nine persona 
out of every ten use them, are positive blemishea to 

crensed within the lust Imndrod jears. Paiiialty, for 'not totnllj-', 
' only in port', was, in some eonneiiionB, goud English to 8ir Tbomaa 
Brovne ; and, from tlie eduonted aanse of euphony wbicli distinguiihea 
modern ears, it has been well-nigh completely reiucdtEted. Tlien: 
arc eases in which parity, if enbutiluted for it, would nlfect many 
perBons of nice perwptions much after the manner of a wrong note in 
music. Let the rBader Mat ths tenahlenesa of this nodon by the an- 

" Bui, secondly, partinlly as we may, nr perhaps mnat, comprehcnil 
this aliliject, in common with all sabjects wbiub nlatu alrictly and 
Bot«ly to the nature of uur future life," &o. Palej, Surmtn 18. 

" Thp second [assertion] imputes the evil to a cause in itatlf iaevit- 
ablo, and whieh hu only incidentally and partially operated in pro- 
ducing it." Southcy, EtMj/n Xiirat and FiiRlical, Vol. 1, p. 331, 

"The inward principle deTclopa in some degree, hut pertiaBy niiU 
unequally: issuing in an inconsistent, or inchoate, or badly propur- 
tioned, creed and polity." Dr. Newman, Mnaya Crilicat and Mit-^ 
UrieaC, Vol. 1, p. 334. 

" Shatespeare did perfectly what .JUchylus did parliaUy." Mr. 
Buskin, Lteturet on Arehileclure and I'ainlitig, p. ISI. 

A few references here follow. Miss Burner, Ceeilia {\1SS), Book 1, 
Oh. I ; Book 8, Ch. 1. Ursdale Pries, An Eiiay on the Pictm-iagw, 
4e., pp. 2!, 63, 207, 267. Charles Lamb, ZrtUn, Vol. S, p. 263. 
Dr. Arnold, IiUrodivtoiij Lectures on ModeiTi SUtanj (od. 184E), pp. 
29, 3B, 1S3, Br. John firncv, Hnywarile') Am\itli ef Quren MUs»bflh. 
p. 41, foot-nots. Lnndor, Thi La»l Fruit eff an Old Trtt. pp. 142, 
294. Mr. De Quincey, Worki, Vol 1, p. 69 ; Vol, 16, p. 163, Dr. 
Kewman, Esmy on EeeUsiaitieal Hiraeln, p. 34 : Apologia pro Vila 
£u0,pp. SI. 413: Eanyt Critical and Biitofical, Vol. l,pp. 11,34, 3a: 
Vol. 2, p. Ifl2 : Micvitieni and ArgummtK on Farioiu Hukjecli, pp. 
117, 273. Mr. John B'lskin, Th> sevm Lampi of Anhitietan, p. 
Z5: UtilB Thit J.<al {HHi), p. 16S: Tht Qnmtof the Air (1860), 
pp. OS, n& : Flirt Clavigeiv, Latter 2, p, II ; Letter 11), p. 16 ; Let- 
ter 14, p. 20 1 Letter 23, p. 1 : SeMtnt mat Liliei [ed. 1871), pp. 8, 
90: Muntfa Fulr,ri> (cd. 1872), pp. 63, 116; Th Engle'e JX«t 
{1872), pp. 23, 175: Una and Ti>(i (cd, 1872), p. 33. 

" PartittHy is often oseil, and by educated people, for partly. Even 
Hr. Swinburne sars. in hu iut«rusting, but somawhat strained and 
OTerwrought, book on William Bbke ; ' If this view of the poem be 
wholly or partinlly correct.' But parliaUy, the adverb of pariiat, 
means ' with nnjust or unrvasouuble bias*. A Tiew cauuut be lio^ 

our tongue. Old or new, if not ineradicably estab- 
lished, or if not exchangeable for others that comport 
with analogy, and are just as intelligible and eupho- 
nious, we should give them the go-by. To learn 
what to avoid, a heedful study of the best writers is, 
though not all in all, indispensable, and will continue 
to be so, pending the appearance of lexicographers 
much in advance of those who have hitherto volun- 
teered to enlighten us. As to choice of words, new 
or old, while, among writers of the first class, none 
are wild neoterists, there are conservatives of every 
degree of conservatism. Of these, some set their 
faces, regardless of expedience, against everything 

emTtet aai partial. TVlioii rniytliing 19 done in pa>t, it is partly, not 
Bartially, done. Both words aro from una root ; but to onnrusB the 
two ii to depriva ub of thij una of one." Mr. B. G. Wliite, WuTd» and 
thdr Dies, p. U3. 

On the one band, ve bnye the historical fact, known to STorjbody, 
that partial ligniflea not only ' prejudiced '. bot ' not total ', &C., Kb 
when we ipesk of >a}iai-fin' eclipse of the moon'; and, on the olber 
hand, we have Mr. White's implied denial of this fucL Further, 
Mr. White unalyaai ^'partially correct", m applied to a Tiew, into 
"correct and partial'". By hia peculiar logic, hia own new, in the 
pmaent instance, if'v?hiiUy wrong ', .is " lefonj and m/iole'. Aa to 
the danger of confusion from the inultitoOBlneBS of pnrlinl and par- 
tially, it ia, ordinarily, about as great aa that which attaches to fast, 
when we lay 'he stands /ml ' and 'he mas fait.' 

NoUiing could he more whimsical and artificial than the notions of 
enphony inculcated by T.indor; as witness his rule about An»and Aaf*. 
Again, he makes Johnson say ; "I do not wiUingly write m-eitailiih 
or re-edify. The better word for the one would be rfitttilii>>, if reUort 
and re_flx are inadequata ; and, for the otiier, reeoHstrvcl. It is bad 
enough ta be affected; but it is intolerable to be at once affected and 
uncouth." Worki, Voi. 1, p. 169. 

1 find, however, that Johnson writes; "Cape Breton, therefore, 
was restored ; and tlia French were re-ctlatiliihed in America, with 
equal power and jreal*r spirit, having lost nothing, by the war, which 
thoy had before gained." Qlatrvatieni ct the Slali of Affairt in 
JfDCCLVL, adfiima. 

neot?:ristic canons. 193 

in the least novel ; but others, more wisely, conform, 
in their phraseology, to the temper of the times. 
Popularity, however, or even celebrity, is no guaran- 
ty of skill in neoterizing, with reference to need, 
analogicalness, or harmony.^ From the best writers 

1 Mr. Eichard Grant White, in the new edition of his Words and 
Their Uses, has u fresh chapter, entitled Jus et Norma Loqueiidi. And 
there I find, regarding several expressions of recent appearance, argu- 
ments and judgments which I cannot but decline. 

As to Mr. J. R. Lowell's undisprivacied, we read : "It is English, 
because its meaning is clear, and its formation normal. Its meaning is 
* has not been robbed of privacy \ ;. and it is as correctly formed as 
undisturbed.*' But, if it be clear, why stop to define it ? Further : 
" No man who felt in him any mastery of language would be likely to 
hesitate a moment over such a word." The meaning, as the context 
explains, is * hesitate to use the word.* But a word, to be thoroughly 
acceptable, should provoke no more demur, on the part of others, than 
is felt by its author or adopter. A long exposition of the process by 
which the illuminated rise from privacy to widisprivacied follows; 
though, if the latter be sufficiently self-explanatory to justify itself, 
the illuminated should have no advantage whatever, as regards it, over 
the uuilluminated ; and, finally, any one who doubts about the matter 
is relegated to the regions of natural stupidity, by the cruel verdict : 
*' All this comes at once, by intuition, to men who are masterful in 
language, or ready and true in its apprehension." It is not inspiriting 
to see an instructor on so very lofty a pedestal. 

Acutely conscious what commiserable objects I consent to be ranked 
with, for my hesitation at undisprivacied, I do not only hesitate at it, 
but protest against it, explicitly and emphatically. The question be- 
fore us is, in the main, yet by no means altogether, a question of taste ; 
and such is my instinct, blunt or otherwise, that I venture to challefige 
ninety and nine out of any hundi'ed Englishmen, to avow, as concerns 
widisprivaciedj their concurrence with me. Nor do I doubt, for a 
moment, that Mr. White, if ho had met with the word in the pages of 
any writer whom he did not particularly fancy, would have held it up, 
iind out at the very finger's end of pure and polished taste, for indig- 
nation and abhorrence. 

*' A finer example of the introduction of a sound, good, new, and 
purely English word could not bo found than in the following passage : 
.... 'Again, to a starving person we would tel vlOccDMi^s^Wc,\vws^ss^.^- 
j)atliical]7, such amuW quantities o£ food as >NO\]iVd enhuncjcr , \V ^\»\. 



we may, with proper care, gather ideas of the multi- 
form considerations which control the right selection 

almost starve, a hearty person *. . . . Enhunger . . . has as robust an 
English constitution as any word in the Bible or in Shakespeare." 

With respect to its construction, enhunger must be referred to en 
and the verb active hunger, which has long been obsolete. Regularly, 
too, an -en' verb of Anglo-Saxon base should terminate in "en ; and 
en -\- hyngran would yield enhungerny with which compare enhearten, 
enlighten. And what would enhungerny enhunger, or hehunger signify, 
analogically ? Why, ' sharpen hunger *, * make hungry ', for which we 
already have appetize. Hence it is superfluous. To denote, as it 
denotes in the passage quoted, * leave hungry,' it is simply a barbarism. 
Starve, as there used, in ^^ starve a hearty person ", for * leave starved ', 
is, also, a bai*barism ; and " would first administer," for * should *, &c., 
is still another barbarism. Mr. "White is unfortunate in the neoterisms 
and neoterists selected by him for commendation. 

Besurrectionized, he tells us, " is bad enough ; worse, if possible, than 
its fovcTMiLiiQVy resurrected.^^ Both these words I have treated of in my 
Jiecent Exemplifieations of False Philology, p. 73, note 1, and have 
shown, that, however one may dislike them, they are legitimate forma- 
tions. As to resurrectionize, we make substantives in -ist, as we want 
them, and from all manner of bases ; and, though they ought, by a 
classical rule of evolution, to be preceded by verbs in -ize, when we 
have once got them, or even substantives in -ism, or of other teimina- 
tions, inverting this rule, we freely develop such verbs out of them. 
Hence, from resurrectionist, resurrectionize. Similarly, we have the 
old melancholize, used by Coleridge ; physiognomize, used by Southey ;. 
colloquize, used by Southey and Miss Charlotte Bronte ; Mr. De 
Qaincey's ventriloquize; Mr. Isaac Taylor's religionize; Mr. Charles- 
Kingsley's misanthropize ; and the diplomatize, excursionize, optimize, 
and pessimize of The Saturday Hevieiv. If it be contended, that 
resurrectionize was formed from resurrection, without the historical in- 
tervention of restvrrectionist, parallels to it offer in Coleridge's objec- 
tionize, and in The Saturday Review's fractionize and processionize. 
Substantives of other endings than -ist and -ion have served as bases 
of annalize, antistrophize, balladize, biographize, canalize, capitalize, 
censor ize^ churchivardenize, cojicubinizs, conservatize, cottonizCy demo- 
cratizCy dissenterize, energize, formularize, formulize, hybridize, mono- 
tonize, ohjcctize, pauperize, pedantize, phantomize, pulpitize^ sensize, 
skeletonize, sororize, sultanize, summarize, testimonialize^ typographizc, 
for every one of which verbs I could furnish respectable authority. Mr. 
White writes, too, as if quite certain that resurrectionize is of later 
birtli than rf.fN}TfcL On what grounds? &o\vl\ie>j Mst^ resnvrcc<io«« 



expressions more or less familiar to us. Words 
and meanings actually new to us stand, as regui-ds 

ict as long ago as 1HD4. See the Sekcliotu trom bU letters, Veil. ], p, 

"And what are the mimotiured llepublicans doing, but eeelcing to 
perpetuate, in the Southern States, the social nuisance of cbua-distinr- 
tiiins ? " Hating copied this passage from some nnnamed newspaper, 
which, for ite philological sins, is branded with the aame epithet that 
it gives to "els*! -distinctions ", Mr, While puts on his terrible blaelt 
cap, and proceeds to pasa sentence on winiamered, aa being " an eiecra- 
hle compound " and a " hideous verb." Kb;, forgetful of due jndicial 
impasBiiity, he wflies emollonal, and screama, in a paroiysm of agony : 
" By what process did a man who has been able to coiam'and the right 
to nsa a pen in the leading columns of a first-rate jaumal, reach that 
depth of degmdation in language, compared to which cant ia classical, 
and slang elegant P " Bo the process what it may, Iha critii; seems to 
hate had personal eipertence of aoniething rery like it, baffling as be 
finds its analysis. 

Misnomered, as I shall show, is not entirely a honor; and, as to 
age, our very great-grandparenta luiew it, as witness Bichardsun's 
Panula (ed. 1811), Vol. *, p, 121. 

To diampioa tnhniimeied ia not in the least my intention. And yet, 
seeing that life obtrudes opoa us so many real provocatives of righteous 
wrath, it is bslilly s thing to rave about, and shrieli at. afler Mr. 
"White's fasfaion. The word is not wanted ; and there, summnrily. ia 
an end. As lo make, it is absolutoly faultless. From aome ancient 
substantive for name was derived an ancient verb for iiAinc ; and, 
from the latter, the verb manaiiu, which we have not chosen to turn 
into a popular substantive. The substantive (ni'sHomn- was dealt 
with, by the author of miimomerid, exactly as Some one, ages ngo. 
dealt with an ancestor of the substantive nami ; and, in creating his 
nnminil lerh, he did ea, towards enriching our language, we do con- 
stantly. He alao seems to have preferred a IHiller .bodied word than 
mittuisied, — just as Mr. White, in his new chapter, prefers iiiipi- 
CHnimity to povSTty ; — and, under the impulse of taste about On the 
level of our castigatoc's, he realized his option. 

Mr. White's summing up is as follows: "Now again it is to be 
observed, that rauTraitioniad and mutunnind ars not outcasts because 
they lacl: the sanction of usage, or the authority of eminent writers. 
They are no newer, nor lesa sanotionBd by use, good or bad, rude or 
cultured, than undvipriracUi, or tireettd, or mhimjej'ed ; no stranger. 
I« the common oar, than vitapmied. But the hitter are sound and 
koBlthy growths ; the former are fungi, nionstroua acd. ^liC'X^v.'i.;^ 


their eligibility, on an independent basis. Those 
which are ehgible must, without reservation, supply 

A wiitermuet heenvialilv confldrnt of hisnwn percei)ti»c iiierranoy. 
thus to BBt Dp, nith st^nmful air Rnd catliedra] dognrntism, his indivi- 
diul arereinUHnd upptobatiun, as oriteriH fnr thsdEcisioiiBoF hia feUow- 
bein^. And Btippnse thnt » man honesilj Ijnita it imposaible to like 
ind to dislike cnnf^irniablT with tha ukiises of & aelf-utecttrd antocrrtt : 
whiit than P With twautiful oonBistencj, he is pitilasaly admonishBd of 
bii prGsumptudusn^sa, ahoutd he think of cnnnting himulf among 
thoae who feel in them "xny mnaterj of lan|^8£e." 

After a faw more worda, I ahull drop Mr. White fnr the present. 
Prom Tht Knight't Tnie ho quiitus, in hia riev chnpter, the expressiuii 
" iat&t listen and ertho and see ", and then sayj ; " Now, for auoh a 
use of tol/i, the ' nuthority', that is, the example, of Chiiucer can be nf 
no more weig-ht than that of an anonymona adTertiaoment in a newa- 
piper. Etjrinulogy and usage, including that of ChBucer himself in 
other pasBiLg«<i, make the meaning of bolA ' two taken together ' ; and 
itia impoasible that the same word Dan mean ■ two ' and ' three'. IF 
fifty pHSBages ouuM be produoed from the vrorlis of Chnuoer, Spenser, 
Shakiapeare, and Milton, in which ioih waa applied to three objecta, 
such a use uf it by othei'a might be eicneod, but it could not be joati- 
fiod. The caae is extreme, but, therefore, of value : it brings tha 
point out aharply ; and by aiicib examples a point tu bo estitbliabed bus 
ita beat illuatration. And there it ia ; bolJt, used by one of our greatest 
poel^ to mean 'three taken together'." 

This comment, I submit, butrayi an absence of the most ordinatj- 
degree of acumen. For its fundamental error consl'^ts in confounding 
the Eonjnnction iolh with the pronoun ImlA ; words as different, in 
Dutuce, aa et and nmlia. In ' Paul and Peter and Philip were iaih 
there ', which nobody aaya, both {amio) ia made to mean ' three ' ; but 
nnt so in 'Solh [it) Paul and Peter and Philip ware tbare'. • Bulh 
Paul, Peter, and Philip', thoogh the ooramn after ' Paul ' ia a sub- 
stitute for and, ia objectionable, because little supported by uaage. 
Juat such an eipresat[)ii I find fault with in Dr. Johnson. See p. 20(1. 

Not are parallels wanting aubversive of the principle on which Mr. 
Whits aieerts it Co be "impoiiiible that the same word can mean 'two ' 
and 'three'." jinyand bohj, which, hy virtue of their parentage from 
and ni lit, ' one ' and ' nut one ', originall; required a singular 
i, hare Ion; been allowed to take a plural reib. " If anjf of yon 
Uek wisdom, let Mm ask of Ood." " JVoin an to bo had." The first 
npreaalon ia obsolete ; the second, in comparison of origin, ia modem. 
Aug baviug lost ita eiclnsiTply dngulair denotati.m, we should nnw 
M/ ']{ any Bill of fou', Sai,, whieh, in old Euglieh, would be 


deiiJerata ; and, while doing so, they must fulfil the 
i-uTiditious which it ia reasonable to impoae on de- 
siderata. We live in days when our language ia the 
subject of daily and daring innovations. Revolu- 
tionism in all ihinga is, indeed, the spirit of our age; 
and this chapter will not have been written in vain, 
if it shall but serve as a. contribution, however meagre, 
towards teaching the art, in the domain of speech, of 
revolutionizing after precedent. 

pleonastin. To a aligbtlj different purport, we also any r ' II' ang of 
yoil ball wisdnm, lut l/iem ask of God ', wUicli was not old Engluli. 
And we aaj, alsii, anp man auil any nuit. Aiy, origiimll; iatcnding it 
single peraun, hus, tbias, vume to be a substitutu for kd iudefluile [iId- 
taSiVf of peraona, as well. Over and sbovu usiige we huvc, tUereioTe, 
uimlugj, ia support of "AeMrkevcn and ertlie aad see'', and of Cob- 

" He prayclh well, wbo InTcth well 
Both mim and bird und besst." 

Our (orefDthers thought good to ^tcnd the use of the conjunctioa 
*d(A, while they left the use of the pronoun ii>(A,froni which it sprang, 
unexUinded. But the coiijuuctiun bus undergone no uxtfndon, us con- 
I'ema iu eenm and tsitential lanotioa. Unauled, it nerer even eoupled ; 
hut, as It may help to cuunect two rhiDgs, so it niay help tu Hgj;lG- 
gato a dozen. It is liolh with and tbot joins two tbinga ; and, if a 
third thing is to be added, how osn the IcBKliiDg be cfft-cted betUr 
than by auoiher and .' Eit&ir, Khfther, and neither, the conjunu- 
tionii, contribute, in like manner to buth, hut yet only contribute, to 
the linking iuto a group nny number Of constituents. And they, too, 
cuno from pronouns which do not contemplate more than a duality. 

Mr. White, in a. letter to Tkt Xca York Ttimi of June 7, 1873. 
wntee : '' 1 have observed aiity two inslaucui of the use of iaih in re- 
ference to three individuola." Why, there vi"Biith mongrel, puppy, 
whi^lp, and hound," ka,, in Goldsmith's fumous elegy; and thero is 
" both my duetiu and uumo and propretie," in Udall's Sulph Jlaiitcr 
Daiitn; Act 5, Sc. 1. "Only two instances" of ioth , . and . . 
and . . 1 Who ihiit knows English eiitieolly can doubt tliat our ap- 
proved nutbora, if acurchi^d. would yield two thousand instHncea I 

The BDcond edition of Mr. Whiw's book did nut reach me till just as 
T was sending niy siith chspter to the press. Otherwisi', I shoidd, ill 

earlier pages of this rolume, bave noticed winv al t\a wwusw^k. 



Ut ail lie foliia prono 

I'rima, cadunt, its vorborum vetUB inleril stas, 

£t, juveDuia lilu, Sorcot modo Data vigntitquQ. 

In order to exact ideas of current English, it ia 
neceBsary to take acconnt, as of the late accessions to 
it, ao, and primarily, of ita defalcations from the speech 
of our recent predecessors. If, as Mr. Marsh most 
nnaccountably asserts,' " scarcely a word that John- 
son^ and his contemporaries would have used haa 

' Leclurei on lie Englich Zasguagi, p. 1!7. 

* Johnson I siiall not ortpn quote in the cneuing pag^s, nnd for the 
rsaaon, [hat, though bia imitaloni nere nanieroua, for from being cha- 
rMteriatic, as a writer, of the ago in which he lired, lie traa signalij 
an innorator. Of absolnte ooinages his diotioa presents, perhaps, nu- 
thin;; ; though 1 Buepect it would cost a long search to find prooedent 
fur the Bubstantive dwiadie ; and the same sunnise may be entertained 
touching his use of riiiile, prejudiet, vnexetpHosalitg, and unidiat. As 
to his words, it is ohieQj bj his fondneaa fur ponderous Tocablea of 
Latin dentation that he is distiogniahed from moat of his educated 
cunteniporanea. His htyle haa been well described in a passage which 
I take from a somewhat obsoare BOnrce, " The wiitiogs of Addjaon 
nnd Dr. Johnaon have often been compared. One of the chief paints 
of DonCrast in thtir style liea, I apprehend, in the sn^y and natural 
reourrenoo, in the former, of the verb ; and the artificial prepood- 
erancB giien, in the latter, to the noun. Since Dr. Johnson'a time, 
the suhetantiie has been gaining giound ; the iuflnitiTe mood, the 
gerund, and the compound participle hare been, in the aame pro- 
portion, suppressed, in many wurVa of whii^h the cunipositiun ia highly 
oluborate. As far as unstudied writings can be expieaaed in set phtaioB, 
the usurpation haa extended even to these." Anglicus. in The Auialit 
I Jeaitia/ and Monthlji Stgitttr, JH., Tol. 6 (IBIS), p. 439. 


iecome obsolete," I Lave begun a chapter for whicb 
pthere are no distinctive contents available. As to 

Aulhor la Johnson vaa of a dictionnry and a( D. gtammar of utir 

\ Itnguage, his viewa of giammaticiil pmpriuly, as be practically ei- 

emplifieil thiim, wen:, un many poiuts, unsettled, or worse. Tbis, and 

roucli beaides, will plainly eauugti be ovidenced by the subjoined 

" NiilAer search tiof labour are necessary." TAa Idlsr, No. 41. 

I Thus he ordinarily eonatrUDU nHther . . ner ; but be also writes, 
tnore like s modeni : 
" I «aanat furbeur Id mention, that neither reason ner revelation 
Ani'u you la hope," £c. Letter to Mr. Jama MlpAituloH, Sept. 26, 
" Ignotnnoe or dulneaa have, indeed, no power of affording delight ; 
but tbej never give diBgust, aicept whtn they aisume the dignity of 
luiowledge, or ape the sprightltneBS nf wit," TAe Samiler, No. 179. 
i Alao see T/it Idler, No. 87. 

" Saeli of these histories eoniain facte," ke. Dedication to Tht 
Eeangelieal Sietor;/, &c, 

, " I found some boobs on a shelf, among which «■«■* a volume or 

^^knore at ' Prideanx's Connectbn '." A Jom-iuy, &<)., Anoch. 
^^^K " The namber of printers «vre small." An Emay on the Origin and 
^^^^Smportaiiee of Small TtbcIh unit Fagitiae Piicei. 
^^H " The second person may tell the secret to tha third, apon the sama 
^^Mrinciple Of he received it from the first." The Hambler, No. 13. 
^^^Er " Its memory is continaed for the same reason ai its vehvmence waa 
^^Pu llrst promoted." liiil., No. 40. 

^^f " If traveUen were to doscribu the moat luboured pcirfannan<^es of 

] art with the same cnldnesa as they survey them, all expectations of 

happiness from change of place would uease.'' The Idler, No. SD. 

" Ha mingled in cursory eonversation with the same BleadinesB of 
attention us olbora apply to a locture." Lift of Saua^i. 

" Other men reeei'e dignity from dreaa ; but mj booby looks always 
more meanlg for his finery." The Liter, No. 95. 

" The b»»ittty remarlu bow frightfully lUe looks." The Samiler, 
No. 193. 

"The learned, the jndicinna, the pious Bovrhaaru relates, that he 
never saw a.criminnl dragged to vieuution, without asking bimsvlf, 
' Who knows whether this man is not less culpabla than lae .' ' " The 
j Bamhitr, No. 114. 

ire discernment than him, in finding out the 
jtidlcnJouB, nor a more ingenious manner of showing it to otliers." A 
H the Griik Comedy. 


such conteuts for it, however, I fiDd myaelf enibur- 
Tussed by superabundance of material, ratber than 

" Manj uf tbe bli;aEing8 imJvorEully desired nra verjt fruqtlentlj' 
wanted; becaHae moat men, wlien tliey slionlii Uboiir, euutent tbem- 
xUe» tommplain," &.a. T/it Sami/tr, Ma. ITS. Also see No. 5. 

" Capable to give ns ahado." Preface to Shakespeare. " PenuBling 
lo deiii/ the ubai^e," Life of Walltr. 

" Bein<t now receiTed, as a nit, nmoiig the wits, he paid hia onntilbn- 
tiuna to Uternrj' ondertakidgs, and assieled both Che Tatler, Spectator, 
end Quardiaa," Lifeof Rughen. 

Une should nut object to ■ bath tlie Tutler, and the Spectator, and the 
Guardian '. 

" The solace ariaing from this consideratiun seBms, indeed,- the wtak- 
tut of all etheri, and is, perhnpa, ncier properly appliud, but in cubis 
where there is no phice for rcfleetioaa of mora apeedy and pleasing elli- 
«wy." Thi Sandler, No. 62. 

" I Mt/adtd to have tortilen about Easraa." Zelter lo Mrs. Thrale, 

Sept. n, 1773. 

"Tluire waa once a design, hinted at by Oldiaworth, to hare made 
him uaeful." Life of Edmund Smith. 

" Eteri/ man who lalaed himself upon the graces at hia person, or 
the elegance of bis address, croaded aioHt me ; and wit *and splendour 
L'Unlnnded for mj notice." TUi Sambler, No, 130. 

"The comparison of Ait [Milton's] iiumlxirs with Choie who have 
enl^tated the same manner of writiag, will shew," && Hid., No, 91). 

" Davenant was, perhaps, at this time, liis favourite author, though 
' Gondibert" «eter (^cbts to hare been popular." Life of Dryden. 

"He that conveys knowledge by more pleasing ways m]iy rerj 
properly be loved as a bunefactor ; and he that supplies life with inno- 
cenl amusement toill he ea-tainly cartesed as a pleasing companion " 
The Idler, No. 86. 

"There is no tree /or «( Aw shelter or timber." A Journey, &c., 

" This fraud Bould only be eoimterarted by an edition pqcally cheap 
tnd mote commodious." Life if Tope. 

>' But words an only hard to those who do not understand tliera." 
T&i Jiler, No. 70. 

Johnson has many eeotences like the two last. In the next, " only 
iy " is tor ' by merely '. 

" Cnddies arc so abundant, at some times of the year, that Ihey are 
CBnght like nhitebaSt in the Thames, oiilii by dipping a basket and 
drawing it back.'' A Journey, &u., Talitkor in Sky. 

"Soverer inferior to the heroes who were bom tn better ages, he 


by deficiency ; and the reader will be enabled to 
judge, i'rom the particulars about to be set forth, 

might still be gicot amoDg his conteinpuruiieit, nirh the hope ot' gron- 
iUK BVery daj grealar, ill the dmindle of ppBtsritj." iife nf JUtilaii. 

" 1 kaow that grent regard will be had to your opininn of an vitidon. 
(if Shftkespeara. 1 desire, thereftire, to secure an honeat prejuiiK in 
my fmuiir, liy s«ooring yout sutTnigB," &0. Thi Piieate Carrenpondeuci 
9/ llajiid OarrUk, &c.. Vol. 1, p. 183. 

" The rocipiocal civility of authors i« one of the moat riiible Kenea 
in the fiirue of life." Li/i af Sir Thmrni Brawni. 

" A few wild hlaoders and riniblt ahsurditios .... may, for a time, 
(tilniBh fully with laughter," &x:, Sidiimary, Preface. 

'■ Tho aeriouB aud ritibli part " of a play. Life -if Drj/dcn. 

JtitiUe ii thus used by Chnrlea Maakliu, Lwc d la Mode, Act 1, 

'.oBi-axf, there ace maiiy true 
\e liim but thiougli a grate." 

" U he carries the eealpiug-knifo aoi 
Srilone tliat will ueTer be porEuaded tt 
The Jiiltr, No. 40. 

" These observations ore to he considered not as vKtxetptiotmhtji con* 
slant, hut as containiug general and pcedoiniiiant truth." linJaK la 

The right word is itivarieUy., or aiaaliiUlij, or, to use a niodem- 
ism. iiiKXwptiona!(g. Huvtevor, in Euprl'a Ze^iaij/riipAui Neuloyira 
Uallica (18U1), "Ajouter un article ezerpUaimil i unelui" isrendtred 
"To oAi tm exofptignaSU article to a law," AndMr, Huikin writfs: 
■• How few of UH hovB any bruins or souls worth speaking of, or fit to 
trust to ; that bdiig the, alas ! almost wiexctplioHailt lot of human, 
creatures." Fori Ciansa-a, Letter 7, p. 9, 

" We amuse ourseKes with Hiiiilsal sounds." Thi Sambtrr, No. 

" Wenry of the drudgery of pronouncing anideai sounds," Life ef 

'• He deliglited to tread upon the brink of mtaning, wliore light and 
liarkneas begin to mingle : to approach the preeipice nf shsui'dity, and 
hover over the abyss uf wideal vacancy." Zi/e a/iltyi&n. 

Since iileal does not mean 'containing ideas', vnidral cannot 
mean ' toid of idem ', ■ idealess '. 

" All forcignen remark, that the knowledge of the eommon people 
of Kngland is gnattr than that of any other vti/^ar." The Jillur, 
No. 7. 

" Fainting is so nearly allied to poetry, that it camwl be u-imderei, 
at those who hnve so muoli esteemed the one hove poiii an cqiuil 
rcgiird to the other," AitAccouvt of tht Karkiiui LitiTovij. 

B seems to hure had, 


whether there waa uot a close analogy, here and 
there, between the language of our grandparents' and 

Here follow a LatiniHm, a Gallicum, and a Scattirisia. 

" Drydeii bad been more accoatomcd to bosiilitlea than thai BUDb 
onemiea should Imak hia quiet." Life of Prim 

"What be bad of humnrom or pasaionate 1 
not from nature, but from other poela." Lifa of Bry/hn. 

" Tbey wbo read his characl«r will not much condemn SacharisHa, 
that she did not descend fiom her rank la bu embraces," &c. Zi/c iif 

'■ The dilficuUiea through whirh this worlt has alniggled into light, 
and the delajs with which onr hopes have been long niootEd, natnraily 
lead the mind to the lonsideralinn of the common fate of pQSlhumuM 
amponlioiu." The Idler, No. 64. 

Hon can a compoiititui date after its author's death ^ 

"He expired, . . . having eiij'aytd, by tbo benefit of hia rogimffu, a 
Iohr and healthy life, and a gentle and e«sj death." Life a/ Morin. 

Thia eitraordinai; person not only enjoyed his death, but first died 
and then expired. 

So Gibbon has : " Of the nineteen tyrants who started up under the 
reign of Gallienus, there was not one who er-Jmjcd a life of peace, or ft 
natural death." 

The expression 'enJot/tiaA health' has often been ridiculed. But 
even the French, with all Ibeir mucb-yauiited logieal inatinet, aome- 
times commit analogous blunders. See Le Sedresseur (1866), b; M. 
F. G. de Dnmast, p. es. Exception is there taken to " Les coniiner- 
^anti chinoisyDuiMffll d'une aasez isamiaiae repjttatiim" and to " Hoa 
tAcejouit d'une Ixki-inauvaix eant^." , 

But Johnson by no means stands alone, among writers of fame, for 
perpetration of bulls. 

" The poor man bos been afflicted with the inoet lasting iit of the 
gout he ever underwent birfore." Shenet^ne, Lelteri, Ho, 8S. 

How can a fit of gout be its own antecedent Y 

" It was the most beautiful scene uf animal enjoyment that I ecor 
beheld, or ever ahall behold." Southey, CaUiiqaiet, £c., Vol. 1, p. 

An experience referred to the future is here included among oiperi- 
enees declaredly past. 

I raturtl to Johnson presently, where I apeak of arcbaiama. 

' Of the books, &c., quoted in this chapter, there are very few, if 
Snj-, which were not written, or revised, subneijucntly to 1760. Thii 
fact I atat^, lest my younger readers sboold niisintErpret my title. My 
own graad/athera both died in 1809; and everything that is hero 


ova. qbakdfAthzrs' English. 

■ their full-bottomed caxons and ramelliea, their ruffs 
and petenlaira, and their spinets and minuets. 

Peraonal peculiarities of vocabulary, whether 
archaisms or coinages/ though their presence in the 

adduced must hava bcon fuuilki' bi tUem. Tlii^jr vtera not, to be Buie, 
Engli»hmBQ by birtb. — not were tbeir tfltbers before tbem, since tbe 
time of Elizabeth or Jamea I.,^ — but, as Dr. Johniion phruBes it, " New 
Englinb". However, tbe great-grftndliitberH ot ray younger readera, 
and mj ovn grandfithers, differed but little, as tu literature and 
■peech, from their fellow-eubiecto aoross the Ocean, I4n one who has 
explored their libraries has to be told, tliat, whether PuritauB, Anabaptists, 
Quakers, or Churchmen, they used to get over the latest publications of 
the day, fresh and IVesh, and deTour them, just as thuir descendants haie 
been doing e>er iince. That tbey nudeistood them, and that, iutheii 
' language, thuy kept up with the times, it would be needless to iiiBisC. 

The quotations immediately to follow might easily be amplified ten- 
fold; and I have forgone the accumnlntion □> more, simply to ke«p 
down the she oF the book. Some of the tonus which they eiempllFy 
are ([uitB obsolete everywhere ; othera have become loCBlisms ; and 
others, agun, however widely cnrrent, have lost mare or less of their 
former respectability. Nut one uf them, in short, at present holds the 
place wbioli it held a hundred years agn. Several of them, though 
now unknown, 1 believe, eictpt in England, are current there, among 
the vulgar, to a degree which would hardly be inferred from books. 
Such arc ail at tver, lor ' in spite of all ' ; at to-morrow, for ' to- 
morrow'; can' I tiWBy tcilh ; ineaiai, for 'in order that'; each olhtr 
time; gat Jy, for 'cheat'; ef ill men Hiad, for 'spontaneously'; 
i'n'f, for 'is not'; He, for 'lodge'; Main, tor 'very'; mori, for 
' Urge quantity'; iiesr, for 'stingy'; pal upon, for 'deceive'; un- 
S'in, for ' ungainly ' ; that day viae a Mtontk, tut ' that day month ', 
or ' a month after that day '. As to chamber, lit/, and a few other 
word^ though Americans may be surprised to see them here, they have 
been introduced advisedly. 

In the foot-notes, I have given, not uufrcquenlly, references, and even 
lupplementBry exlrsebi, in proof that the expressions exemplified in 
the body of the page do not belong eiclueivirly to the latter half of the 
lost oentnry, but are of earlier origin, or have since then been used 

' As 10 archaisms, Dr. Johns'in's are as instructive as those of any 
one else. I transcribe a few of them. 

By this abiiiplion pOBterily lost more instruction than delight." 
Zifi 0/ a,u,by. 

lit Sylfha and Qnomes act, at t\te tuikv a^W* \»«,-\x^a\E,-«\is^ 

pliraaeology of the days here contemplated demands 
recognition, are, as not being charaoteriatic, only of 

crfu! ]>hiinlora5 perform on the stormy ocean, 
' . well tnowa not to have teen formed i^ the 
r Drj'den." 

more t*mfie andnmrp 
Uf the Held u£ batlle," 

" The person 
nii^est model." Hid. 

" Tbe concluBJon a loo eiidentlj modelled jy (hut o 

" It [pent] 18 like wood charkai for tlie smith." A Joanieg, &c., 
Oiitig in Sky. 

" He emmnunitated himself tlu^ugh a very wide extent of acqiuiint- 
ance." Life of Garth, 

" We muy reflfioanbl)' oonjeoture, that .... their eainpoaarei 

were pastoral hymns," &c. Thi BaaJiter, Ko. 36. 

JolinsoD, in his Life uf MiUan, ases toiiipoture for ' composing '. 

"So oertoin is it, that eorreetion it the tonohstone of writing." 
IliiKi-talioH on thi Greek Cotatdy. 

'' The church of El){in .... was . . . eulTered to ililayiilate, by 
deliberate robbery and frigid indifference." ji Joitrnnj, &c., £lgin. 
Also see the Life of Dyer. 

'■ Thie Essay uiTorda an egr/glai's instance of the prednminanae of 
gi'siiu, the da/zling spleudotu of imagery, and the seductive powers of 
L'loqiienoe." Life of Fope. 

"Far l^e greater part of human miDde nerer enifeaiiDKr their own 
iinpruTement." Letter ta Mri. ThraU, Aug. 6, 1775. Also see the 
Life d/ Walltr. 

" I did not observe that the oommon greens were wanting, and sup- 
poee, that, by chousing an advantageous expoiicioii, they can raise all 
the more hardy teculent plants." A Joiimei/, &c., Ostig in Sky. 

" This is one of the few books which acleotion uf sentiment and 
elegance ot diction have been able to priserve, though written upon a 
eubject^ux and Imnsitory." Life of Sprat, 

"A hundred /uH-egg; new-laid, were sold, in the islands, for a 
penny." A Juiimty, ka,, Lochhuy. 

" If proper colonels were once appointed, and the drums ordered to 
beat for female volunteers, oar regiments would soon be filled, without 
the reproach or cruelty of an iinprefi." The Idln, No. S. 

" On the sincerity and punotuality of this confession I am willing to 
depend for all (he future regard of mankind, ud cannot but indulge 
sonio hopes, that they whom my oifcnce has alienated from mo may, by 
this instance of ingenuity and repentance, be propitiated and lecon- 
riled." A Letter la the Serirend Mr. Douglas. 

"It all attempts to innovate the constitutional or habitual chicaoter 

[ subordinate importance, with reference to the subject 
[ uuder conaideration. 

L have reollj proceeded from publio spiriE," &ii. The Saml>hr,lXo. 179. 
I " At her luisuru huurs, she Itiokt goQse-egga, airs the wool-room, and 
[ turns the cheeae." Ibid., No 138. 

" Our guides told M, that the horses conld not traTel all day without 
St or jHial," &c- A jQmiity, &c,, Anoeh. 

" Thej were made, at once, iniupporiablf insolent, and might, per- 
I linps, ban becamu irresistibly powerful. Lad not their niovMniiiuux 
\ tnenfia been scattvred in the uir, with the ignomiit profusion of uiS' 
t MDUstomed opulence." Thought m Ike Late TrUMaMom, Sm. 

" Mountninoua treafinres" is for ' treasures conl^ed in muuntains.' 

" Soma have tontured to coadeinn mankind 0/ unirerEiil 

I 'ingrrttitude." T/u Rambler, Ko. 146. 

" The chief desire of him that aiamtnU an author is to ikvv,'' &c. 
I PreffUi to Shaktsptan. 

In modern English, on it required after the Tcrh cammeMt. 
" That [barn] . . . was bo «intrisBd .... as, bj perpttnul jwi^ndo", 
I to prevent the mow from heating." A Journci/, Ac, Oslig in &ky. 

" For want of a proecat of erenta, neither knowledge nor elegance 
} preserve the reader from weariness." Life uf Wial. 

" He itudied all metiiing, thea dined at a tavern, and went, after- 
wards, to Button's." Lift o/Additm. 

Goulhej has a like old idiom : " Whole Nature is amazed," &>'., 
r'i'nrf. £cc/. -Inj/., p. 456, foot-note. " jlW rfniM of Lis Ufa." Chel- 
Ue. KiniAarti Oie^ime (1692), p, 7 tfA. 1841). 

"They who grow rich bf administering physic are not to be 
nnmbered with Ihrm that i^t money by dispensing poison," Thoughla 
m the Late H-SHiaCtiana, &D. 

" It is diflicnlt even for imagination to place us in the state of tieiii 
. whose story is related," &C. Life of Cowley. 

" Dr, 'Warhnrton had a name sufficient to confer celebrity lo Ibu^e 
who could exalt Iheniselves into antflgoniata," &e. Preface to Shakr- 

Add t!lB ohaolele, or else rare, argiimenlal, rotiglabnle, extemporal, 

ituuiMplivt, milearota, muituloai, oblunil, oraeuhue, oiUlr/, prcpcif 

linH, linitlrotu, eotmt, id. &e. 

In Cuwper's Zitttrt are the (ollowinff words, many of which are 

I nsed pUyfullj: the labatAUtite* trehdeaenaitm, beaHfifcatian, eommtn- 


I tfidomfy, tvbteatarion, Ivatuiatarihip ; the adjectives itat/iorly, deedff. 

' epipovllrieal, eierilorial, txiputory, liU-aforaneonn, homoloiioui : Nnd 

tliK verbs active ilUpiriuri'ji ipintolite, paaoifg, and ra'niwsfs. 

Among preterites and participles, many whioh are 
now heard from none but the grossly ignorant, had, 
not verylongago,areputation considerably fairer than 
indifferent. Examples are seen in lloirecf,^ catchet/,'' 

Henry tfooke, in Tie Faol ef Quality, Tina many stnuige terms. 
Among iaaa are tlie suliaUntiveB hiaidkmeiit, extertiily, inlimiiy, 
jilmhiemeHt, reprobacy, aMrrick; the adjectivca adtniiaite, emnpaiiivi, 
inquiiUori/, molhtr-naifd, revimbU, yeanlmg ; the tetljB actite diietn- 
iruli, lAievi, unprinciplt ; the verba neater angiiiah, domaticBti, obtrtide ; 
eapCiint iot'-aneti'tporlBtitiot ' weight ',/Baifiie for '■pio\a\i\i',dtfial 
for ' defeated ', avervnlue for ' eloeed in value ', gusrter for ' esplore ', 

I certainly speak within hoanda, in eatimaling at tliree thousand the 
expreasions which I have collected, like those derived from Cnwper and 
Brooke, ventored by nritem belonging U> the period of our lanirun^ 
here in view, the period of the reoaBcenoe which began during the last 
fifty years of the eighteenth century. 

' Colman and Thornton, Tlie Ommiiitur, No. 66. 

" They were puff 'd up with a wind wlijeh hlovieii some f^oj to man- 
kind." Banow, Jfwi. (ed. 1683—1692), Vol. 1, p. 207. 
"At last he from the table rose; 
He picked bis teeth, and bhiesd iiia noae." 

Sir John Vanbrugh, Emp, Aet 2. 

AIbo eee The Cruel AiaauU of Godi Fmi i^imflTj.m Old BBllad; 
Stc. (1840), p. 31: Sir Thomas Urqubart. Tranalation iif EaUlai* 
(ed. 1694), Vol. 2, p. laB ; De Foe, Mull Flandei'i (ed. 18M),p.271; 
The PidiUeat Sitlory of tU Bivii (ed. 1840), p. 92. 

< " The friar cnteltiii eagerly at her request of hia adviee," &c. 
Horaee Walpole, The CaitU ef Otranio, Chapter 4. Also see Hittarie 
Loubtt, Ac, p. 100. 

Hawkesworlh, The Adventurer, Nos. S, 8, 88, 91. Colman, The 
Cemediei of Terenee, &o. (ed. 1810}, p. 397: Tie Deuce ii in Sim, Act 
2, Scene 1. Henry Hrooke, Anlnny atid Cleopativ, Act 1, Scene 4. 

" Urate. Do you lolerale aitched ? 

"Johnion. Sir, I was leached belter." 

Landor, Warii, Vol. 1, p. 153. 

In Johnaon'a Grammar we read, however: 

"Fight, teaeh, retuh, nek, beaeeeh, ealeh, biii/, bring, think, work. 
lalAx jevght, taught, raughl, lauyht, betaughl, caught, bought, brought, 
theufhl, wrought. 

"But a great many of these retain likewise the regular form ; as 
ttathid, reaehtd, braeeehed, catehed, worked," 

Teaehtd I do not think I have mot with often. Wlien about to 


ahined* slit/ed,^ throiced* and in begun, ^ 
broke,' enl,* rid,' rode" run," spoke," 


trnnecribe the rollowing rude rimes, I noticed tbut Or. JohnEUU ^ail 
quoted part of theatania: 

" Aa huswives are teaeked, in sUad of a olocke, 

How winter night pusaeth, bj crowing uf ooclio, 
So, here, by the plaueCa, si [arre as I due. 
Some lessons I leave for the husbandniaiu ahire." 
Thomas Tusser, Fiet Bimdreth Faiiiiet uf Good Embandrit, £e. 
(1573), Ch. M. Bt. ], 

' " Mr. liliiukwell hii« nsither dipged in the ruins of snj domoliahed 
tity, nor," &o. Dr. Johnson, Rtcism of ' Memoirt 0/ the Court (if 
Mig»'tU' '. 

* " Their learning, at best, was auch sa conld only have lAi'niv/ in dark 
tiraei." Bishop Lowth, Sinmoiu and Other Scmaius, p. 166. 

' " The docliritiea grew more precipitous, and the sand tlidtd from 
beneath my feet." Dr. Johnson, The Viiioa of Theodore. 

AUo SCO Godwin, An Enquiry, &e. {ed, 1793), p. 363. 

"The metitllic surfaces were lUdid back." Lord I.yllon, TIk 
Coming Jiaee (3th ed., 1872), p. 20G. 

* " I bad rather Major G. Ihrauied away his money than somebody 
else." Gray, mria (ed. Mitford, 1858), Vol. 3, p. 282. 

"The Pastorells orrrthi-ined in Franca." roller^ The Hislorie of 
the Saly Warn (ed. 1S47], A Chronologteall Table, under A.D. 1260. 
' " I shall Bniih wh"re yon begun, with ray apology." Gray, The 
CorrapottdenK of Gray and Mmon (od. 1855), p. 355. Also see p. 
455. I^ce, further, Miss Carter, Lelttri to Miu Talbot, &c.. Vol. 3, pp. 
273, 317. 

" In with yonr »rt ! Proceed as jou brgtai ' 
Why dwindle to a cruet from a tun ? " 

ColmHn, Epiilte to the Piiat. 

* " He informed me that he had heeptke ordinary chairs for oommon 
uiu." &o. Johnaon, The Rambltr, No. 200. 

Alao sec Cnlmun, Prolate t« Tit« Capnehin: Lord Camden (1774), 
in Tht Friealt Corretjumdeitee of David Oarn'ek, Ac., Vol. 2, p. 2. 

' JobnsoQ, Tht Samiler, Nos. 1, 59, IIB. Goldamiih, The Viear 
of Wakefield, Ch. 10. Cowpor (1783). b'eri.. Vol. 15, p. 133, 
Dredale Prio!, An Eimy on the Fietnrt>que, la., p. 201, Mrs. 
Inelibnld, The Child af Nature, Aet 1, Seeno 1. " An iinirolv horee." 
Cumberlanil, The Naltml Son, Act 4. 

" ■' Under this easy go»erament, the flt»t generationa of men breathed 
the tragrance of perpetual spring, eal the fruits," &c. Juhn&on, T/ie 
Ittmiler, f 

" Nutei Id Uu ui 


writ,' wrofe,^ for began, bespoken, bi-o/cen, ate, rod<\ 
ridden, rail, spoken, wrote, leritten.^ And no leas in- 
elegant scema to ub, in the preaent day, the mis- 
) of numbers in rjoit was, which once was 

[n tliis < 


I josterday." Churlea Jlscklin. 

' " I rid my ni 
Love d U Modi, Act 2, 8cl^^e 1. 

1" " Having rode." Miaa Burtiej", EivUiia (ed. 1779), Vol. 2, Ch. 2 : 
' Bouthey, Lifi of mtlty [ed. 18B4 ), Vol. 2, p. 20. 

" Gray, Vurii, Vol. 3. p. 1. GoldsDiitli, Tht Vimr of Wah/JItU, 
Ch. 6. Mi^B Bamej, CicUln. Boolf 6. Ch. 4. Mrs. Onivley, Mare 
Waj/a Than Onr, Act 4: Who'i Ihi Dupe?, Acll, Scene 1. Mth. 
InchbHlil, ThcMiduIgM Hour, Act 3, Scene 1. Gi\i\>oo, Miirellaiitoui 
Worhi (ed. IBli), Vol. B, p. 2BB. 

" MUb BuWfly, CMille, Book 4, Ch. 3. 

' " I writ in Urma more prBeeiog, Ijnt wilhont efFeot." JohnBon, 
TAe Rambhr, So. 171, 

"He vril, and hunted, nnd drepalched ambaseadnr?" &c Id. 
(1766), ^11 IntfBdmli'M to Ihe PritUiral State of Oirat flnM.n 

And BO Arthur Murphv. in The Frivati Conetpmdriioe of Sat id 
Gnrrick. tc. Vol, 1, p. 619. 

"Hoia a happj man who ten* that letter." Miss Bnmcj, Oetlur, 
Book 1, Ch. 10, 

Writ WUB ntod lor willsa, also. " Is it yon who haTe ant this' 
Gen. Conwny, Fillm Apptaraiiat, Act 4, Also see Miss Carter (1789), 
Letltri to Mrs. Montagu, Vol. 3, p. 314, and oft*n. 

» •' Thay were wrote without communication," Dr. Johnson, Dedi. 
cation to The Ernngtlicai Sinlori/, fte, 

" r liops ynn liave mrole to him tho state of your mind." Edmund 
BOrke (1797), Tfa Epittolaiy Comepnndena if Barke and Dr. 
Fnnfh LaureHce, p. 128. Also see CBrre^ponUnee, &e., Vol. S, 
p. 130. 

Sterne. (Toj-ii (ed. 1819), Vol, 4, p. 3B7. Gray, The Vorrmpond- 
nm of Omy and Mato» (ed. 1866), pp. 331, 397. 430, &o. Genrpu 
Colman, Tirra Filiia, No. 3 ; Prologue to The Chapter of Aei'i- 
dente. William Cowper, Work), Vol. 6, p. 38; Vol. 15, p. 20. 
Cnmt>erhtnd, The Natwnl Son, Aot 1. Miss Hannah More, in The 
JVifo'e Oorrtipandmiie of David Garriek, &c., Vol.|2, p. 228. 

I itup, only hecaose it seems needleaa t« go on. Gray has ehent. fur 
.ahauit ; Miss CRrler, drove, tor drivm ; Mre. Inchb«ld, firieok, (or 
■n ; Mias Carter, ihtiok, for i Ja^ ; William Cowper, " I bad 
I " ,- Mis. Inchbald, ilole, for italitt ; &e. Ac. &c. 

widely sanctioned by persons of tke highest educa- 

In the passages which I shall now quote, uses of 
prepositions and conjunctions, obsolete in our time, 
will be conspicuously observable. A much larger 
exhibition than will be found of worn-out substan- 
tives, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs, would easily be 
feasible, and has purposely been forgone ; woi'da 
belonging to these parts of speech being, in all ages, 
laid aside, as they are devised, with a readiness which 
cannot be predicated of employments of particles. It 
remains to be added, concerning those exemplifica- 
tions of disused idioms which are adduced, that there 
is scarcely one of thera but was chosen from at least 
a dozen, extracted from the writings of as many 
different authors. 

" I must tell you, sir, that I believe you '11 not make a 
better husband than a friend." * 

" Oh for a shame ! Would you throw that away upou 
a brute, which is due to your fellow-creatures ? " ' 

" A draft upon my neighbour was to me the same as 

' "As I told you, when ^u mm hen;" &o. Cowper (1780), Worii, 
ToL 1, p, 1(1. AW so, Vol. l3, pp. 33, 31, «G, 08, 

"Ton icoj prevenWdby," &c. Bishop Shipley (1780), in Manoirt 
of Sir Wiliimii JofUt, p. 194. 

" I im MTiy yeu teat dtHppointcd of going to Tallombrosa." 
Honce Walpole {1791), in /ourna/i and Corrapondtna sf JHUt Serty. 
Vol. 1, p. 367. 

Also see Dr. Hewltesworth, in TAc Private On-respondetiei of Dacid 
Oarrick, £c., Vol. 1, p. G3G : Mus Carter (178fi}, LelUri to Mit. 
Jfimlaffu, Vol. 3, p, 258, and olbm: Cnmberland, TAt Natural Son, 

■ Gen. ConwBj, Fain Appiaraiwtt, Act £, Scene 2. 

> Cumberland, Tht Naturul £m. Act 1. 

money; for I was sufficiently convinced of liia afnliiy." 

" I have seen a huge oatli quivering on the pale lip of 
a reigning toast for half an hour togetlior, and an uplifted 
eye accusing the goda for the loss of an inld trick." * 

"The first puhlic-houae, .... having heen a well-accu*- 
iomed inn," &c.* 

" I admire where a fellow of his low rank should acquire 
such a nobleness and dignity of sentiment." ' 

"All these qualities agree just as well to the oak, 
t^;aiust which he contends ; nod he actually attributea 
them to the very oak, in the next section."' 

" I do believe the two Pretenders had, privately, agreed 
the matter beforehand." ' 

" I dare say you . . . had your boots stuffed with all 
and all manner of unlawful wares and merchandises." 

" He would not stay with me, all aa ever I could sa 

" That will make no great diti'erence ; for I shall be 
able to prove my right to it, all one." ^ 

I GoIdBinilh, T/u Vicar of Wakefield, Ch. H, 

' Murphy, Tht Way to Kup Bim, Act 3. Ami so Southej. 
"Tha Romanista aecaie the ProWatantu lot thoir indiireremre." TJii 
Qaarlerli, Reciiw, Vol, 1 (ISUO), p. 193. 

' Gravta, Tie Spintml Quixote (fli 1820), VoL 2, p. 61. 

* Henry Brooltc, Tie Female OJ^r, Act I, Scena 13. 

Admire, neuter and ocliie, has been used, in tlio bcdsd it here hcnra, 
even in our centarf. 

" Nor ii it to be admired, that eome of the prieste themaelvea were 
among the most EeaJoua of Cho converts." Southey, Tht Quarterly 
Retieie, Vol. 43 (1830}, p. 13. 

" U, Alphoneo de BeauFhamp makes the wall ten feet, without ap- 
pasring to admire the leap." Id., ibid.. Vol. 15 (1816). p. 46. 

» Bp. Lowlh, Iiaiah (ed. 177S), Not.'B, p. 16. ' Fit ■ is iutanded. 

• Gray, Wtirki, Vol. 4, p. 4B. A little before GrBj, Guy wrote; 
" I have alTairB with my brother btlow ; so agree the matter between 
jourselveB." Tie Uitlriiacd Wife, Act 2, Scene 7. 

1 CowpM, Work; Vol. 15, p. 4. 

■ Mias Bumey, Evelina (ed. 177B), Vol. 2, letter IS. "All thai 
attrl oonldsay" occurB in Eiohardson. Pamela, Yt>). 1, p. 265,- Vol. 
j^ p, 123. ' Miss Bumoy, £viliiin. Vol. 2, L«tt«r 13. 

'■ 'T is idl alunij of you that I am tlius liaunteiJ." ' 
" 1 'm, in. talk, a pedant musical ; 
In fine tcmis I lug intruaicol ; 
Slap bravuras, alt, the rage about, 
Haydn, Mara, opera, stage about."' 
" I have certainly knoeked up my little roan gelding, in 
tliis damned wild-goose chace of three score miles an end." * 
"A child naturally goes on all four;* and we know 
how difficult a matter it is to set him an end, or to keep 
liim so."* 

' Hpiirj Brooke, TAi Fool 0/ QwilUn (ed. 1792). Vol. S. p. 88. 
SnTnelimes, all aloiiff with wos uaed, farmerlj. Faote, The Devil upon 
Tico Slick!, Ant 2; Tht Maid of Bath, Act 1. 

For long of, in the same aetise, see Glanvill, Sttpiii Seimtijica (ed. 
1663), p. 103. 

• JoLn O-Kesffe, The Uighlvnd Reel, Act 2, Siifno 2. All is meil 
for ' altitudes ', that U in say, ' heroics ', 01 the like, by Ridntrdson; 
in Clariita Earloim (ed. 1811), Vol. 3, p. Sfl, and Vol. 6, p. 145. In 
the mme woik, Vol 5, p. 2:12, we rend : '■ From the nature of thgit 
conversation, there wan no room fur altilmlei." 

' Colman, The JcahiH H'ffe, Aet 2, Scene I, "Fiva and twenty 
milei an end." Colman and ThumMn, The CoBiioi'uear, No. 106. 
Also see Richardson, Clm-ism Sariova, Vol. 7. p. 220. 

" Wush aheepe for Ihe better, where walor doth ntnne ; 
And let him goe clenety, and drie in the ennne : 
Then ehare him, and epnre not, at two duiee an esi; 
The Booner, the better bis corps will ivmend." 
Thomas Tuaafir, FUt lluiidrelh Foiulet, &a„ Cb. 42, at. 1. 
' For '■upon all/uiir", see the Bishop of Kiln.ore, in jlbel Rtdr- 
rii'UM, p. 74 : Jeremy Collier, Ths Emperor Mama Antoniiiai hii 
Vonvtnalian, &c., p, 2S7. 

> Bp. nome, Olla P-drUa, No. 23. " My novice shall start, ho, 
anil hit hnire stand an end.'' "With her haire sn end," Dekker, 
SiiUre-maelil (1002). eig. E 3 r and G 3 r. "Your hair etaada up 
an end." Lodowick Carlell, The Bcitiving Farorke (1B2S), Act 2. 
" Standing an cud." Bickerslaffe, Lote in n VUlege. Act 2, Scene 3. 
Robert Baker, in his Btmartt on the Enyliah Lunyuage, 4c. (ed. 
t77fl), p. 114, aaya, of "stand an end" : "Thoa people pronounce 
and, moiit cnnnnonlj, write." 

At p, S3, Bnker eoiidemna <HmI an eti^, meaning 'for the most 
part', UBcd by Warbuiton. This cxpreasioti I find in 6p. SaadBuo^ 


" My lady Isabella is of anotherguess mould than you 
take her for." ' 

" The rewards, also, are, at pnblic scLooIb, as well 
chosen, and as approprialKd, as the pimishmenta." * 

" Your lordship is so condescending to offer to enter it 
along with me." * 

"As had as your veraea 'were, they are yours."* 

" But, before pnmBhment, he was to be heard at to- 
morrow." ' 

—SennB«i (ed. 1681), Vol. I, p. 6B, ami Vol. 2, p. 118,- 
in T/n Simon of Ciurch Goeimmait, &o., by Milton, A 

' Horace WalpoU, The Outh o/ Olranlo, Chapter 2. 
Goldamith, Ths Vicar of Wakejiitd, Ch. 19. 

' Colman, Fnte on Sivernl Oeean'on', &c,, Vol. 2, p. 233. 

' Burka, Conaspondmet, &c., Vol. 1, p. 313. 

Her« we miss an at. In the two next extra 

In the EU^BbBtlian era, the second as of o* soon aa was aomctimpi 
omitted. " Let that bume first ; and, lu aonn I see that on fire, I wil 
walke towards my liBenda.'" Tarltan't Jtili, &C. [ed. Mr. J. 
HflUivrell), p. 103. 

' Mason, OirrttpoiideHet of Gray and Maien, p. 341. Also set 
Sberidan, St. Fatriek'n Day, Act 2. Scene 4. 

' Bp. Warhurtoii (1763), A SeUctim from Vnpubliihrd Fapcri, io. 


I, there is an at now 

I. 22S. 

. the 1 

PripBllev, writing ii 
sold Bi this day." 
1826). p, 86. 

In hooka of the sixteenth and sercntaenth oentnriei, 'at then' 
occurs, not unfreciuenlly, for ' then '. 

" This Braailiun king, being arrived, was brought up to London, 
and preseoted to King Heary 8, lying aa then at Whitehat!," Hak- 
layt,Vol. 1 (1589), p. 620. 

" Because, qnoth be. I saw them n> t):en to endure both pnines 
and perils willingly; but now I perceive they can beare prosperity 
wisfllv and with moderation." Philemon Holland, Cyrupadia (1632), 
p. 191. 

■*My greatest pastinie oi then was to read the feats of chiraldry." 
"1 tu then was very iJendar." Tht Camicat Hillary of Frandon 
(18S3), Boole 3, pp. 73, 74. 

OUR grandfathers' bkqltsh. 


" It 13 a rale with me to 

ne civility as it ia made." ' 

"Fen Tuinds are so base 
I amend." ' 

" I must tell you, my Harry, said 
mighty good boy."* 

"The two lirst liEes of the following book seei 
I ascertain, the true meaning of the conolusion of this." * 

" A numbar of external succeasea, also, assisted to per- 

ieive every offer with the 

that perseverance cannot 

Jioio you are a 

L to 

Compare oui ' oi jet ' : ' nobud; haa como lu yet '. The old ' nhen 
■u 'i ofWn writwn as one word, ib knuwn to every una. 

" I bare been sbipirrecked three tiiiiea ; und oacc, ai now, I vas 
tbe onl)' man wbo escaped." Eev. Cbatles Xingalej, Tim Yeara jtyo 
(«L 1857), Vol. 1, p. 113. 

Tbe coiileit bIiowg Iliit "oi noir" here meaiu 'on tbe preaent 

In other eomtTUCtioai, too, « was once used vhece we use it no 

longor. " IrenieLU, the Apostle'a uholer but ones remuTed, — lu v\o 

was uholer to I'oljcarpus, the echoler of St. John,— tnalces menuon 

of the Apoitles' Creoit", &c. Aihwell, Hilei Jpottilica (16S3).p. 76. 

> Mm Muko, TAt £amtler. Ho. 10. Also see Sterne, Ti-ulnim 

' Skii«d^, Vol. 4, Ch. 19. 

"It will be read with u much plcamre et it was represented." 
I Bp. Warliurton (1762], in Tht Frivalf GirmpandtHce of David Gar- 
riek, £o.. Vol. 1, p. Ml. 

And Bomuwhul uniilarlj wiitea Coleridge, who often is verycnrelora. 

" It is uked in whut seuse I use these woriis. 1 answer : in the 

tome sense ai tlie terniB are employed, wlii'n we tefer to Euclid far 

I the ulem^DtB of the scieDce of geometry," He. Cliurch and Stale, kc. 

I H- 1839), p. SSI. 

~ '", nioce rcprehensibly. Lord Mooaulay, on one ocoiuion, makes 
I ai atajid fur ' as that with whk-h ' . 

" The Mug took the money of France, to assist him in tbe cnterpriaa 

I which he meditiit«d a^inst the liberty of hb subjecte, with as little 

scruple ai Frederic of Fnissis, or Alexander of Uussia, acvopted oui 

■obsidiis in time of war." EKtag an HaWtm't CantlilatioHai SuUry. 

» tioldsmilb, Tht Viear of Wakefield, Cb. 27. 

• Henrj Brooke, The Fool of Qualilg, Vol. 1. p. 9S. 

* Cowper, Odjfite^, note ou the lost line ol Buuk 11. Also see Bp. 
jljiwth, Juiah (ed. 1778), Notes, p. 6. 


8uade ns, in those days, that felicity was to be attained 
and ascertained upon earth." ^ 

" like Pannegiano, he endeavours at grace and grandeur 
of manner," &c.2 

" You shall have them at fall. I have committed them 
to paper, for the instruction of future ages." ^ 

"I ... live in constant expectation of hearing some- 
thing worse, and, at the long run, am seldom disap- 
pointed." * 

"Whatever attention and volition are then imposed 
upon us, as it were at unawares, are but faint resemblances 
of our operations in the same kind, when awake." * 

" Does not the substitution of one manufacture or in- 
dustry for another require time I Does it not require time 
for an individual, thrust out of one avocation^ \xi gain 
admittance to another ] "* 

* Henry Brooke, The Fool of Quality, Vol. 2, p. 6. 

In these two passages, the senses of ascertain are, respectively, * de- 
termine ' and * make certain of *, as contrasted with the present sense 
of the word, * find out as determined or certain.' 

2 Sir Joshua Reynolds, Literary Works (ed. 1819), Vol. 2, p. 194. 

3 John Wilkes, The North Briton, No. 24. " They shifted full 
upon their shields, and stood so as they might hehold the wall at full." 
Philemon Holland, Cyrupadia (1632), p. 166. 

4 Cowper, Works, Vol. 6, p. 289. 

» Godwin, An Enquiry, &c. (ed. 1793), p. 868. 

• Id., The Enquirer, p. 196. Also see pp. 166, 188, 239. This 
use of avocation^ for * vocation *, however common, has seldom had the 
sanction of good writers. Yet others than Godwin have trespassed 
into it. 

" I did not think that any avocation or employment, however import- 
ant, could have so much engrossed me." Richardson, Oorrespondenee, 
Vol. 5, p. 64. 

** Oh ! people of our avocation differ in respect to conscience.*' 
Mrs. Inchhald, Next-door Neighbours, Act 2, Scene 1. 

Sydney Smith writes of **the ancient avocation oi picking pockets." 
Works (1-vol. ed.), p. 27. 

Lord Lytton, in using it, stands pretty nearly alone, I suspect, among 
very recent writers of any celebrity. See The Coming Race (6th ed., 

" I cannot wonder that my ivifa 
Took this so ill. Women are passionate, 

1872), p. 195. It is no more gond English tbaa bi« " cD«ni»iiwi' to 
eiist," It p. 13B nt the eanie work. 

Mr. Bouchar denies that this substantive is used in the ringiilar num- 
ber ; and Archdeacon Todd produces no initnnce of auob a use. It it 
emplofcd in the singalar, tn its proper sense, h; Hej'Un. 

" It seems, then, only as an atocatioii, as they direrted bishops and 
the rest in ordera from doing the worlt of their Yocation." Tht Eit- 
tory of Epiieopaty (1667), I'att 2, p. 21. 

Fur like instanoes, «ia Dr. William TwUsb (1636), in Mede's 
Workh[eA. 1664), p. 1037: Steele, Tkt Guardian, IS'o. 51: Aaron 
HiU, ffVi. (ed. 1763), Vol. 2, p. 228 : Johnson, Tht lUmiltr, Nos. 
8. 27 : The Idler, No. 3. 

The plural, avacBliuni, very annmnlouelj, inverts, in most cases, the 
accepted sigoificatioa of the aingulni. 

On the one band, for example, Colman and Thornton, in Tht Con- 
miiMHr, No. 70, uae it for ' irapodimenta '. And so does tile loutnBd 
Miss Carter. 

" My answer to yoar letter is sufficiently fiipeditioua, but wanld have 
been still mure so, if I had nut been interruptud by the headache end 
many other nnpleasant avoeatitiii." Letteri to Mia Tribal, &c., Vol. 
4, p. 117. Also ace Cowper, JForkt, Vol. 2, pp, 29, IBfi ; Vol. 6, p. 83. 
On the other band, it was long ago UEed, sometimeB, to denote ' pur- 
suits '■ ' duties ' ; and such is, I think, almost uxcluBively, its madcin 

" Making abatement tor his military acoealiot", and late applying 
himself to study, scarce anyone is to be ptcCerred before him for gener- 
ality of human learning." Fulior, TAn lioli/ Slati, 4c., p. 72. 

J, C. Scalii^r is here spolcen of ; and the duties of a soldier couGti- 
tuted his ealliog, UU he gave them up For literature. 

" The youth must have more violent pleasures to employ his time ; 
tbe man loves the hurry of an active life, ilevoted tn the pursnita of 
wealth or amhition; aod, lastly, old age, having lost its capacity for 
these avoealKHe, becomes its own insupportable burthen." Grove, 
The SfKilator, No. 623. 

"I am now grown old in the avoeatiani of the gown," Bishop 
WarbiirtoB (1721), Trscit by Wm-burliM, &c., p. 15, 

"Wlion his other more momentous atacatiriM of pedantry and 
pedagogueismwill give him an interval from liiswmlh and cnnlenliim,'' 
tc. De Foe, The Faliticai JlielaiTf of the Ltril (ed. 1340), p, 23a. 

" There are profeBMona, among the men, no mDre fnyourable to tliesa 
■tuiliea than the common avmaliom of women." Bicburdson, Sir 


Aod can't away with such aETnjuts &3 these." 

Charltt Grandiim, Vol. 6, pp. 393, 391. Also «ee Corrirpondmct. 
Vol. 6, p. 127. 

"It seemd detcrmioeil, bj the genera] Buffrage of maciltind, tbat 
■orron ii, to n certain point, InuilablD, as the offspring uf lore, or, at 
least, pardonable, as the effect of weakness ; but tbat it oug;bt not to 
be Buffered to increase by induigBuce, bat must giTB way, after a slated 
time, to social dnties and the cuuimon avacatioia o! life." Johiuon, Th» 
JUmiIrr, No. j7. 

" Mr. Btiggs, bowsvflr, hag the entire nmnagement of jour fortune ; 
my many OTOfttfioHj obliging toe to decline so laborious a trust." Miss 
Bumey, Gwi/io (1782), Book 2, Ch. 10. 

" And a schoolbpy is, perhaps, more qualified even for suoh an appren- 
ticeship, as well as for the more liunourable and hszardouB amcalioHi 
of the anny or oaTy. than a young gentleman bred in a private family." 
Colman, Pi-^e on Seimral Occaiioaa, lea.. Vol. 2, p. 2o2. 

" Or, if you are not arerse to the task, and your avocalimit will 
allow you to undertake it," &e. Cowper, ITorUt, Vol. i, p. 79. And 
tee his Prafaco lo the Iliad. 

" The largest portion of each year was dcTotod to his profe^iunal 
dnttes and studies ; and nil the time that could be saved from these 
important avocalioiit waa dedicated io the cultiiation of scipoce and 
literature." Lord Teignmouth, l^emoiri . ... of Sir fCStiani Jotwi 
(ed. 1806), pp. 287, 288. 

Also aee Thomiia Taylor, The Commenlaria of Proctus (1792), Vol. 
1. p. zixiiL I omit references to Edward Moore, I'aley, Uodwin, 
Wordsworth, &e. ftc. 

Such is Soutbey's vM ot the word, and again and agoin, as in TAt 
Qvartcrly Review, Vol. 2 (1B09), p. R8 ; Vol. 34 (1829), p. 307 ; Vol. 
87 (1828), p. ZS : QiwperU Worki, Vol. 2, p. 12. 

** In a few hnura, above thirty thoufand men left hia standard, nnd 
relumed to their ordinary atoeatieta." Lord Macaulay, Etiag on 
Warren Smting: 

Also see Mr. \i'iitia,Li!eliiresosA.rchiteelHTtandFBiiiling,f. ItD; 
Aratra Pmltlici (ed. 1872), p. 1. 

Dr. Worcester, though he says that avocation "is eometimes im- 
properly used in the sense of ' vocation ', a profession, or regular pur- 
snit," deCnes by it ttnphj/mtni and engiigemcnl. Dr. Webster's 
Editors lay down that omwoiiou, for 'vocation', "is very improper" ; 
■nd jet thoy give, as synonyms of mgagement, " BiDcation, bosineaa, 
nnployment, occupation." On the sense of atocatioat, above treated 
of, they are silent. 

Culman, Tht Camediaa of Ta-eiice, 4e., p. 328. 


" I have been, three days ago, bad again with a spitting 
of blood." ' 

" This ia some conspiracy, I suppose, to bam, to chouee 
me out of my money."^ 

" It was uU a bain, madam, a scene we thought proper 
to act." * 

" And I promise you she shan't lie to seek for the 

" Her mother chose that name for her, said he, because 
she should not be called by her own." ^ 

" I am, at least, very unwilling to esteem ' John Gil- 
pin ' as belter wor/h than all the rest that I have written." * 

" I was blitodeil, indeed, but to no purpose."' 

" Mr. Sterling will never get rid of Blackl'riars, always 
taste of the borachio" &c.* 

" Give me leave to wind up the bottom of my loose 
thoughts on conversation," &c.* 

' Sterne, Icftrri, No. 106. Also seo Miea Curler, Lelleti (o Mri. 
JConfi^M, Vul. I, p. 209. 
" Foote, T?ii Caaneri, Aot 3, Seene 1. 

* Murphy, T/u Way M Keep Sim, Aot 4. 

* Faott, tlu Maid o/ Balh, 4ot 3. Also aee HichardBon, Sir Ciarlu 
Oi'aadiium, Vol. 1, ^ 257 : Cumberlanil, Thi Sutural Saa, Act 3. 

» mcliardaan, Paiwla (ed. 1811), Vol. 2, p. 361. Seeauu hare 
DieaaB ' in order that '■ Alao sen Colmaii and ThoruCun, TAe Connah- 
vm; No. B7 : Hra. IneUbald, A'exl-dmir Nefighbaun, Aet 2, Soona 1. 
For a modem instance, gee Mr. Cliurlaa Keaile, Fut Younelf in Hit 
I'hue [ad. 1870), Vol. 1, p. 49, For an old one, see Dektor, Thi 
Dead Tearme (1308], fol. 4 T. 

* Coirpar, Woris, Vol. Ifi, p. 1B2. CompBra theold " faWsrehelip." 
In Vol. 16, p. 16, CowpBT hue "littlp worth", fur -worth litHa '. 

' Id., ibid.. Vol. e, p. 60, Also loe Johnion. Lift of Srydtn : 
Cnmbertand, Thi Natural Soa, Act 6 : SjAaej Smith, Warii (1-rol. 
ed,), p, 63!. 

* Colmun nnd Gurriek, Tlii ClaniieAtim Marriagf, Act 2, Scene 1. 

" MUBt Bach borraehof as you tula upon you to lilily a Tnul of 
etico? " DrjdeD, An EMning'i Lore, Apt 3, 
» Culmnn, Tin Gentltmmi, No. 6. See BcntUy, Worii, Vol. 3, p. 
7 : Charlei Dibdin, 7»< JJuirtir, Act 1, Seene \. 


" If it had come to an oath, I don't think he would 
have bounced, neither ; hut, in common occurrences, there 
is no repeating after him." ^ 

" I 'U he her bridemaidy and, hefore she has been your 
wife six hours, give her more longings for laces, diamonds, 
feathers, and fops, than can he gratified in six years." ^ 

" I now know the town too well to he ever its 
bubble," 3 

" And so here I am bubbled and choused out of my 

" I '11 write to my Lady Conquest, to know the truth 
about that giri that was here but now." ^ 
. " Buxoniy which means only * obedient ', is now made, 
in femiliar phrases, to stand for * wanton *." * 

^ Foote, The Liar, Act 2, Scene I. Also see Colman, Epilogue to 
A Friend in Need is a Friend Indeed : John O'Keeffe, The Fanner, 
Act 1, Scene 2. In the silence of the Dictionaiies, I had better add, 
that bounce here signifies * lie '. 

* Mrs. Cowley, More Ways than One^ Act 1. Also see Foote, The 
Commissary, Act 3 : Miss Burney, Cecilia, Book 4, Ch. 7. Now we 
say bridesmaid. Contrariwise, instead of owx poor-box, the old expres- 
sion was poor's box. See Goldsmith, The Vicar of Wakejield, Ch. 4. 

' Foote, The Minor, Act 3, Scene 2. 

♦ Murphy, The Citizen, Act 2, Scene 1. 

• Id., All in the Wrong, Act 1, Scene 1. Also see Colman, 
Frose on Several Occasions, &c.. Vol. 2, p. 265. This use is old. See 
Mabbe, The Rogue (1623), Part 1, p. 24S: Milton, Prose Works 
(Bohn's ed.), Vol. 1, p. 412. 

" He who but now was little less than an angel of light shall be 
painted in the blackest colours, for a slip of the tongue," &c. Hazlitt, 
Characteristics (ed. 1837), p. 25. 

• Johnson, The Flan of an English Dictionary. Buxom had long 
had ' wanton ' for one of its meanings. 

•* Make much of every buxome girl. 
Which needs but little courting ; 
Her value is above the pearl, 
Thdt takes delight in sporting." 
Sir George Etherege, The Comical Revenge, Act 2, Scene 3. 


"Wlien they came stiU nearer, the eaiiking of some 
Spanish, geese, the gobhling of turkeys," &o.' 

" It does not institute a niaguifieent auction of finance, 
where captivated provinces come to general ransom, by 
bidding against each other," &c.* 

" I . . . can think of nothing, and wish for nothing, but 
laugh, gig, humour, fun, pun, conundrum, eaii-iwitchet, and 
Catherine Clive."' 

" Adjoining to your eliamher .... is a very decent room, 
in which your own maid might repose herself to her wish." * 

" At laat, a eliapman approached, and, after he bad a 
good while examined the horse round," &c.' 

" We find ourselves ahaost inextricably involved in a 
bloody and chargeable civil war." * 

" Your faithfid lover is, probably, cheapening a hunter." ' 

" Matter I Why, I am invited to dinner on barbecue, 
and tho villains have foigot my bottle of ehian." * 

" Here the company stared ; as it was well known that 
he never bad but one brother, who died of the chin-cough." ' 

■ GrsTea, T/ie Spiritual Quixi/ii,\o\. I. p. 168. Also eeo Sbeaatone, 
Zetf«rt, No. U. 

> Burke, SpiKh on GmeilialfBH tiiUA jimffiiea. 

' (iairick, FHvitle CoivtipBndtnei, Sec, Vul. 2, p. 29S. Abo tee 
Hu9 Cartar, Iflliri la Misa Taliol, Ac, Vul. 1, p. Ilfi. 

Tbia turm, for 'absucd question ', is atill heard now and then. 

• Cowpcr. Wori; Vgl. 6, p, 278, Also see Qoldnnith, Tit Viear ef 
WatijUid, Ch. lU. 

• Goldsmith, The rii<ar of Wakefield, Ch. U. 

' fiurke, Correfmdatm, Vol. 2, p. 122, Also gee Miss Barney, 
Cecilia, Book 2, Ch. 1. 

' Ciilmui, The JealuM Wife, Aot % Scene 3. Also ue Miss Bar- 
nejr, CKilia, Book 1. Ch. i. 

' Foote, Th4 Patron, Act 1. " 'T ia Chian pepper, indeed. A 
liltlo will go a great way." Garriok, A Frep Mind the Curlain, Act 
1, Seeno 2. Also lee Colnmn, JVu>e on Sern-al Oeauiani. &o.. Vol. 3, 
!ia. Were the words C/iinn and Caijmnr confoundod? Colman, 
in his Prologue to The Eiut-ludiati, hai " his tamper hoi Bs Knyiit." 

' GrsTca, The Spiritual Quixote, Vol 1, ;, 3B. S>e« ^'\ju«^ 


" Here my lord and lady took eucli a chink of laugUing, 
that it was some time before they could recover." ' 

" The landlady now returned, to know if we did not 
choose a more genteel apartmeat." " 

" Now, by this good day, master Pamphilua 
Has got a chopping boy." * 

" Tour hot pakes and your eggs are good ; and that 
that 'a good is the delight of a clnirehman." ' 

" As it [Irelaud] escaped the dominion of the Eoraane, 
80 was it likewise deprived of the benefits which their 
government geuerally introduced, — order, laws, dvlUty, 
cultivation," ' 

" If you could write directly, it would be clever."' 

" We could not have been in bo clever b, place as this is, 
circumstanced as we are, this summer," ' 

Lavington, The Euthiiaiam of McthodisU and FapiiU Compani, p. 

' Hanry Brooke, The Foal of Qiialily, Vol. 1, p. 95. 

' Goldamilli, The Vicar of Wakefield, Cb. 31. " Would you oAww* 
any refreshment?" Vaole, The Eiighli, Mi2. Also see Colman, P>i>m 
D'l Several Oeeatiima, &a.. Vol. 2, pp. 4j, 249 : Miss Buisej, Cecilia, 
Ijook 4, Ch. 10. 

Tha following is from a book written onlr tha otlmr doy. " ' Du I 
(Amw anymore?' I sea, 'why, I tcanl eome more'.'' Gilii'i Trip to 
LoHdrm, p. 32, 

" Choote, to, is used by low-bred people, wilb the peculiar meaning 
of to choaae not to take what is offered. A dish otFered at tnble i> 
deolined with tbe words ' I don't choau any '." Professor M. Scheie 
de Veie, Amerieaniemi, p. 4S3. 

Tbia use of ehooie is no AmBrieanism , In defining it, ProfesHir 
Do Vere, as is not unfrequently the ease vitb him, says something very 
different from what he intends. 

' Colman, Tin Comidiei of linence, &e., p. 38. 

» Jobo O'Keeffa, The Friioafr at Large, Act 2, Scene 3. 

> Bishop Lowth, Sirmmt ami Other Semaini, p. 160. In the next 
page, the Bishop baa cirilivtlion. This was in 1773. 

' Gray, Cerreipoiidmee of Qrag and Maeon, p. 88. 

' Miss Talbot, MiM Carlir'i letter! to Miai Talbot. &e.. Vol. 3. p. 
Ifil. "Theae dteir apartments." Cowper, Wuri; Vol. 5, p. 290, 

" My adTeisariea, on all sides, are aiieh cocks of the 
game, that," &c.' 

"We'll go, brother Toby, said my father, whilst dianer 
ia coddling." ' 

" When ha perceived, in the midst of the combustion 
he had raised, that Lady Margaret was incensed," &c.^ 

" A pretty lodging we have hit upon ; the mistiesB a 
commode, and the master a - — ." * 

" Dear Biatcr, the bearer of this letter is a lady . . . 
whose case is truly compassionate, and whom I most earn- 
estly recommend to your protection," ha.'' 

H here used ty Omj and the rest, is for 'convenient', 

' Henry Brooke, Tht Foot of Qualili/, Vol, 2, p. 113. Coek af the 
gamt wu loni; uaed where we use game-totk, 
' Btems, iVijft-am Shaad'j, Vol. 7, Chapter 27. 

> Hiu Buraej, Oeitia, Book I, Ch. 2. 

' Foots, Tht Engluhman in Parii, Act I. Commodi here means 

" That 'a the old phrase for one of those eominede ladies who lend 
oat beautj, Tor hire, to young geutlemen that bare pressing occasioDs." 
Steele, Thi OmurioHi Lovert, Act 6. 

> Colman, Tht Beiict ii in Sim, Act 1, SceDe 1. 

" Tour case ia trnly a euniprmiouatc one." Id., The Siigliii STtr- 
thimt. Act 5, Soene t, 

" I am afraid neither of ua can repreaent it aa a very eompaulenate 
ease." Uiaa Talbot, Jffiii Carler'e Lttlert la Miu Tiiitet, &(s., Vol. 
2, p. 33. 

Also see Lord CheaterSeld, Thi World, No. 29. 

Besides its ordinary signidcutian, eampaaiBnitte — like the Italian 
tompauionmolt. — was thus used to mean ' of a nature to more pity '. 
A> this meaning, vrhioh it bore for a long period, is rather alighted by 
our leiicograpbera, and ia wholly overpaased by Dr. Webster and 
his editors, a few oU testimonies will not be out of place. 

■' Compaaionale eruelty." John Taylor, Worki (cd. 1630), VoL 2, 
p. ISO. 

" For, certainly, it were a very ecmpaitioniite spectacle, to aee," ftr,. 
Henry Earl of Monmouth, Adrtrtiiemmli/rom Fantamei (1656), p. 

"The cryea of the people fi)r Iba imiumerable eitortions and oppres- 

ml^^^^m CHAPTER VII. 

" He ought to be fearful of putting into the hajids of 
youth writers indulgent to the peculiaritiea of their own 
complexion, leat they should teach the humours of the 
professor, rather than the principles of the science." ' 

" No converaatiou of any kind passed between the two 
persons supposed to be mentioned, except comjAmenial 
expressions," &c' 

" The melancholy office of eondoling a loss," &c.* 

" Mr. Home, it seems, is unable to comprehend how an 
extreme want of cmuluet and discretion can consist with 
the abilities I have allowed him." * 

" They congvatulale our return, as if we had been with 
Pliipps or Banks." " 

" I am airaid it will not he easy to check the general 
passion for distinctness and conapicuiiy." ^ 

" It contributed a good deal to confirm lae in the coii- 
temptihJe idea I always entertained of Cellarius." ' 

siaas that (rere committed npon them, nnd the tears and iiain;iB>ii'D»a(< 
gcoana that were heard far the eipulsion of justice ami equity, were 
enough to have melted and wrought pity in-thfl very marhle it self." 
Tianalation of II Cardlualiiina di Santa CHesa (1670), p. 21. 

Campauionale, a Bubatnntive, for ' one who compassionato* ', is tued 
by William Wation, A Seeaeord'm, ftc. (1602), pp. 190, 268. 

> Barke, Letter to a Hemlitr of the National Ammbty. For 
eeMplfxiaHal inScomplexionalli/, employed eorrespondingty, ape Burlte'a 
Rtfitetims on the RevolHtiim in France, nnd Letter to a Mrmier, &is. 

" John Wilkes, The North Briton, No. 19. Alao see Mias Carter, 
letCert la Mia Talbot, 4c., Vol. 3, p. 188. 

' Miaa Carter, Littera l» Mrs, Mmtspv, VoL 3, p. 2*7. 

* Lelteri of Jiiiiim, No. 64. 

' Johnson, Letter to Mrs. Thrale, Not. 12, 1773. " Cangratulatinii 
her arrival." Id., Life of Walla: Also see Sir Joshua Eeynolds, 
Literary Wbrki, Vol. 1, p. 29. 

« Uvedale Price, Jn Eesmj on the Pictureigie. &o., p. 138. Alan 
see William Tajlor. The Monthly Magnxine, Vol. 6 (1708), p. o53 ; 
Tht jlmiual Betiew, Vol. 2 (180*), p. 2B3. 

' Gibbon, Mieeellmeoiu Worii, Vol, S, p. 286. Alao see his Hie- 
tory of the Decline and Fall, &c.. Chapter 61 : Gay, Achilles. Att 1 ; 
The Siitreiaed Wife, Act *, Scene 3. Referenoei lo Sir Koger 


" It goes into the world with a prancing list de toute 
la noblesse, which will being me in three hundred pounds, 
exclusive of the sale of the copi/." ' 

" You are bom a manorial serf, or a crmlian negro," 

" I am sure you did not in the least comprehend what 

L'Eatninge, Jeremy Collier, Warburlnn, Richardson, Sterna, Mrs. 
Filkingtoii, Colmua, Wilkes, GraveB, &c. &c,, might be added. 

Old instances of the niiaose of eontsntptiblt and eonlempMly are verj 

" ThDBe boies are amtuHptility thrust inl* tho renr." 

Dekkcr, The QutU Sonibook (1609), p. 136 (ed, 1812). 

See, further, the foot of p. 16S, wipra. 

This uiignse is very old, eren older than' Shakespeare, who might be 
quoted for it. " The same easia and eontemplibU opinion he held of 
es; the like also he did of God hiniselfe." Quealiani of 
rrofitable and Pleatant CiKmtrniiigi, &e. (1591), fol. 23 r. 

Instances o( eotilniipllKiii, for 'contemptible', are not unknown. 

" And, ta declare a conlcmpluause chaunge from religion to super- 
edcion ngaine, the prestes had sodainlj set up aU the aultets and 
jmagea in the cathedral] ohurche." Bbhop Bale, TAi Voeacf/ati, la. 
(1S53), in TJn Harleian jViJscJtoiy (ed. Oldys and Park, ISIO), Vol. 
8,p.4fil. AlBo«up, 4B1. For BBtiU earlier inBtanoB(lS44) in Bale, 
■oe his StbKl Warkt (1S49), p. S7. 

"Thnee abject and esatf/tpluom vickednesscs, thus demonstrated 
unto me, fashioned such a forme of obedience and feare to beware, in 
me, thai," ire. Qualioan of Fnifilaile aad Fltasant ConmntiHi/t, &c., 
iol 19 T. AUo see fol. 3 y. 

' Sterne, Lttleri, No. S5. And so, for 'copy-right,' eopi/ is used in 
the Comiml SMory of Ihmcion (lOSo), Book 6, p. 3^ by an anon- 
ymous wriler in Attl Jtiilm'ivitt (1651), p. 48; and by Johnson. 
Fout«, Cowper, and Miss Carter. This sense of the word is not in 
tho Diutionariea. Nor is that of ' size of a manuscript '. 

" Tho capy is but small, sir. 'T will make but a shilling thing." 
Thi Ewmur, of Whiit (17*3), Epilogue. 

Q^y has, further, heea awd for ' edition '. James. A TrtaCiu if 
tif Qiymptian of Seriptun, &o. (1612), Part *, p. 76. 

Also, for tlw 'original' of a tramlalion. William Webbo (ISBS), 
in AiiAnl a-ilieal Ettay; kc, Vol. 2, pp. 40, 48, SO. 

" Godwin, Aa Ettqainj, 4o., p, 472. And so WUkts, Colman, 
B. 0. Cambridge, Ac. Ac. Fur trealian, as a suhstanl.ive. see Gold- 
Qiith, r/-e Vicar of Wakrjldd, C\i. 20: R. 0. Cambridge, TAo B'oi-W, 

I meant, by your giving me answera so vary cross to the 
purpose," ' 

" The euakoldl'j husljand might put hia homa quietly in 
hia pocket, if he was not industrioualy pointed out for a 
monster." ' 

" Had I not thought him ■what I 've spoken of him, 
I would not, for his daughter's sake, have drawn 
So many trOuhlca on our family, 
Whom this old cvffnow treats so scandalously."' 

" Between ourselves, Mr. Lieutenant, the man did not 
speak much beside the eunhion of common sense." * 

" Even before it is clearly known whether the innoTa- 
tion be damageable, or not, the judge is competent to 
isaue a proUhitiou to innovate, until the point can be de- 
termined." * 

" In full day-light, the sun, as it were, decompoumis 
what had been bo happily misted together, and separates a 
striking whole into detached nnimpreasive parts." ^ 

" Had a potent enemy invaded Sodom, and a courageous 
army been required to give a brave repulse, nothing could 
have inapired the defendants with truer courage, than 
virtue and the fear of God." ' 

" The old gentleman . , . most respectfully demanded 

' Bishop Lowtli, Sermani and Qlher Remaiai, p. 414. 
' Oolnian, The Geniun, No. 14. And see Vanbrugh, 2S« l^ovoM 
Wife, A«t 4, Scene 3 ; Act 5, Scene 2, 
' Colman, The Camidiei of Ta-trtei, ±o., p. 363. 

* Henry BrooVe, The Fimale OJ^r, Act 1, Scene 13. See RiohanI 
Bernard, Teretce in Engluh (1688). pp. 70, 230 (ed. 1607) ; Hamon 
L'Estrailge, Thi Oiiervator Oiierved {IBS6), p. 36. 

" Philelphui, ia diiorse ploDea, had minsed the cuiAm, vhiclie places 
BapTiael doeth reBlore and correote, and yet Boraewhero itumhleth 
kymselle." Udall, Jpophiheffoet, £c. (1543), The Prerace of Eru- 
mui, iig. • 8 r. Also Ke fol. 313 r. 

* Bnrke. Lcitert on a Regieidi Feaee. 

' Diedale Price, An Smay on the Fietaneqtu, la., pp. 12S, 126. 
1 Bishop Lowtb, StrmoM and Other £*maiiu, p. 2S9, 

if I was any way related to the great Primrose, that cour- 
ngeoua moni^amist," Ac' 

" You may denij mo to acuompany you, but cannot hm- 
der me from following." - 

" The Portuguese, aure, will never d&ny to fulfil the 
rest of the article." * 

" You, my Lord, are not reduced to bo deploiahle a 
state of derelieiioH." * 

" They are entirely at oar devotion, and may ^x turned 
backward and forward, aa we please." * 

" She herself was so conscious of it, that, while I din- 
coursed her," &c.* 

"England ia diafaitit»hed of its forces."^ 

" We were roused from a peaceful dish of tea, by a loud 
hubbub in the street," &c.8 

" Our author would have looked upon it as an instance 
of great disingenuity in some zealot of the Church, had 
he found," Ac." 

"So dimatured are they, that they neglect their own 
fleah and blood, to liaten to accounts of your wit and 
spirit." 1" 

■ of Wakefield, Cb. 14. Also Bee Ch. 9, 10, 
mra the eabstantiro denuind, for 'queatiun', 
Ih. H. Also aoe Richardson, Famtla (ed. 

' Goldsniith, The Viea 
18. In Cb, 25 and 31, m 

> Jahnaon, Rautlaa, I 
leil). Vol l,p. 117- 

' Sheridan, Thi Iiiunna, Act 3, Scene 1. 

• LttSeri of Jmiui, Ng. 86. 

• Godwin, Tht Enquirer, p. 363, And so Goldemith, Letters of 
Jwiiut, llornoe Wslpolu, Miss Bamey, Sir William Jonos, Burke, &o. 

• Horaco Walpolo, Tht Caillt i.f Olranln, Chapter 2. 
' Bnrke, Corritpondinec, Vol. 2, p, i7. 

« BecVfonl (1787), Itals, &e.. Vol, 2, p. 70. Also see Colmnn, 
Prologue to The EMl-lndiaH. 

' Jones, of Nayland, Thtalagial and MumllaatoHi Worti, Vol. 2, 
p. 3D. And so Godviu, Southej, &c tm. 

" Mias nnnnah More, ill T/u Brivate Carmpandenee of Davtd 
Garriok, kc. Vol. 2, p. 2S4. 


"I I 

: knew hor dispense with her word but c 

" ' But I did not know your accommodations were so bad 
as Joseph tella me they are.' "T is of no consequence," 
said Edmund. 'If they were much worse, I could dispense 
tcilh them for three nights '." ^ 

" I am sure your Ladyship will dis];iense wi/h youi com- 

' Eiuhardaon, Clarissa Martoice, Vol. 7, p. 310. 
' MisB aara Reeve, The Old Etigliih Baron (ed, 1B20), pp. SO, 61. 
> Richardson, Pamela, Vol. 3, p. 34. 

In the first quotation, the sense of dispone with is ' go back from ', 
'hreak'i in the eecond, 'excuse', 'put up mth ' ; in the third, 

Like the socond quolatioti ia the following : " Adrian moved 

that his want of age for the offloe of questor might ha diapatdd with." 
Jeremy Collier, Thi Emperor Marau Antuninut his CoHveriation witJk 
EUnaelf, &e. (1701), pp. JL, li. 

The phrase diapenss aith means 'part nith', in Brathwait, .J 
BoHUitr-UetHTe (1640), p. US. In The 7W Lmcathire Lascri 
(1640), p. 235, A'ipcBM signifieB 'diapense with.' 

In the four enioing passages, dupenie and diipenie with have the 
lenses of ' allow by dispensation ' and ' grant a dispGiisatiaD to ', ra- 

" Then hrast f orths the holy father, Pope Stephen and 

djd asBoyle I'ipine, and diipenie with bira for al the othes whiche he 
had made," &c. Of the Oldi Gad and the Newt, kc. (ed. 1534), sig. G. 

" Whether the Pope, diipmiini/ all things for money, may be called 
Pope Penny-father, and, therefore, be auspcflted of cocelonaaesae ? " 
Traqfine in a Trauaa (1566), fol. 108. 

"Whether Pope Innocent the eyght, that was utterly ignonwnt and 
nnleamed, might be dispmted vjilh tn saymnsEel'" Ibid.,ia\. lOS, 

■' I abaolve yon of bread and pottage, and dispense with yon lo be 
never good for anything." Sir Thomas Urquhart, Translation of 
Babelaii (ed. 1694), Vol. 3, p. 190. 

Also gee the extract! pertaining to viilfi, at pp. 263, 204, infiv, 

Sfupnw, in the days ot Queen EUiabeth, occurs for dieptHte, 

" And yet, as light and as easie as this punishment is, it ray; be, 
and is dayly. ruspoiMif nilholl, for many; and this ia thoui;ht to he 
tbe beat kind of punishment, tu punish them by the purse." Phillip 
Stabbes, Tht AnatamU o/Abueei (1586), p. 101 (ed. 1836). 

"Easliness was ever a, fault, and very (lig^erviceahle in 
all the enterpriaea of human life." ' 

"Mr. Burcliell, on the contrary, dissuaded her with 
great arddUT ; aaill stooil neuter," ^ 

"The irregular feot in each .... represent diasyllahle 

"Why vex my spirit! Why afflict my age 

For his dUtemperature i "ttHiy rue his Bins 1 " * 
" Mrs. Delvila received her with the most distinguished 
r politeness. " * 

" It now remains, that I return to thoae more aerious 
I and important studies .... from which .... I should 
I never have dicerted, but from profession, rather than in- 
' dination." * 

" How shall I rfo to answer, as they deserve, yoar two 

i; lettera i " ' 

"I am always to be docummted by you and your 

I ■ Biihop Lowth, Strnumt and Other Stmaitu, p. SS2. 

» Goldsniith, The Viear of Wnkifltld, Cli. 13. Tha only prtsent 
meaning o( dUiuade, ' divert hy perBuasiun ', ia not j^t in the dictioo- 
aiies. " I ha>e tried what is poiisible to diuuadi Mm." Mis( 
Burney, VeeUia, Book 5, Ch. 3. We parted too lightly witli dehort, 
' try to divert bj poreuasion ', which Beuao was long borne by dtiiuedc, 
to the ousting of kihirrt, aa being supcrSuous. Diiadviu 1 name, but 
withoot reeomnitndiilg' it. 

' fliihop Lowth, Stnautu and Othtr Scmaim, p. 408. At pp. 402. 
405, triiijUablii ia on adjectite. And ao ia mauotyllabk in Cowper, 
Workt, Vol. 16. p. 320, 

' Colmnn. Tht Qtmtdiei of Termct, 4o., p. 6&. 

" Miia Bumey, C^iVi's, Book 3, Ch. 7. 

• Bp, HaHilki, An Analgiii of the Jtoman Cinil Law (ed, 179fi), 
Preface, p. S3, 

' Bichardaon, Fumtla, Vol. 3, p. 24. AUo see Vol, 1, p, 4S- -fln 
here meana 'coatnTs', 'manage'. 

' Id., Sir Ckarlei GraadiKn. Vol. 6. p, ISO, Two pages on ara 
docHHUHtalioni and dneumentiu, 

" What, yoo «e daemmnling Miss Nancy, rending ber a li'cfcuro 


" I dojihf some Httle difficulty may arise." ' 
" Mrs. Montagu is very well, and wishes you hanged, — 
a douceur which, probably, you might not expect j but, 
indeed, she expresaed it very pathetically." ^ 
" Nor sow thy dowlas on the satin 
Of their pure uncomipted Latin." ' 
" Soon after this, we were calftd to a very genteel en- 
tertainment, which was dreaged by Mr. Thomhill'a cook.'" 
" If you are dry, isn't there the crystal spring 1 " * 
" I hear his vessel ia just arrived. I durst not leave 
my house."* 

upon the pinched eoit, I wnmint ye '. " Mrs. Susanna Ctntlivre, A 
Ba!4 Stroke fat a Wife, Aot 2. 

Alao Bee De Foe, Captain Singleto-a (ed. 1840], p. 310, where doev- 
ment means • Bctool ', ' instract '. 

' Jeremy Bentbani, Worki {ed. Sir John Bowriiig), Vol. 4, p. 15. 
And Bimilarly Gray, Colman, Sheridan, Horace Walpole, Cowper, 
Cnmberlflnd, &c. &o. 

"Yon will hnve seen the papers; bat I ileail that they will not 
contain the Intest and most important news." Shelley (1320), Biiaijs, 
fie, VoL 2, p. 386. 

* MisB Carter, Lttttrs to JKiis Talbot, 4o., Tol. 3, p. 280. 

" With a good acoonnt of her health, slie writee me many doacao's, 
in wbioh you hare a great ohorfl." Lord Lyttalton (1771), in The Fri- 
M« CorrefpandnHce of David Garrick, &c.. Vol. 1, p. ^10. 

" Robert Lloyd, The North Sriton, No. 26. Add BicTteratoffe, 
Foote, Mias Carter, &u. 

* Goldsmith, The Viear n/ Wakefetd, Ch. 82. 

■ Sheridan, Tht Daenm, Act 3. Scene 6. Alao see Act 2, Scene 3. 
And sea Goldamilh, Tht Viear of Wak^ld, Ch. 17. 

> Mrs. Inchbald, The Midiiii/hl Hour. Aat 2, Scene 1. AJao see 
The Child of Kaiure, Aot 1, Scene 3; and Sheridan, Tht Dvmna, 
Aet 3, Scene 2. and Aot 3, Scene S. 

I add oD eitract from one of Sheridan's immediate predecessora. 

"Aa for the clergy, no. If I aay a word against them, I 'U ho 
■hot. I have no desire ; and, besides, if I had, 1 ditrei not, for my 
Boul, tooch upon the anhiect '" Sterne, Tristram Shandy, Vol. 3, Ch. 

But ihirat, as the present, is not peculiar to the kngaago of the 


"In short, each man's liappineas depends upon hira- 

"1b an; man virtnoue? Then lie is u traitor ; and let bun dio foT 
it, who tlurtt proBtime to be eood, when hU prince is bad." Fuller, 
The StJy Stall iihU the P.-iifane State, p. 39U. 

" But rBveread usembliea taaj mnlce more bold with Scripture than 
priTHte penona; and, tberefore, I contesal'ra w tiwotous, Ihat I durtt 
not ToUaw their eiamplo." Glannll, Lux Urientalit {ed. ieS2), p, 

" 80 tbat, if I hud no other argument but tha elyle, to delect the 
■puriousnesB of Fhslarie'a Epiatlea, I mjseir, indeed, should be salitfied 
with that alone : but I durtt not hope lo eonvince everybody else." 
Bentlej, Worki, Vol. 1, p. 81, 

Dr. Wubatur's Editors inform ua, that the pnst participle of the Terb 
neuter dart in durst. But among what barhariaus is ' I hitie not 
durat do it ' good English ? Moreover, the prelarits of the nenler dare 
hai been, optionally with dunl, dared, for two centuries and longer, 
as I could «how from scores of authors. This, (00, those Editors, Wltli 
other leiicographeis, arc not aware of. 

While dealing with the neuter dare, I may oiemplify a form, almost 
unrecogniiied by nritecH on our language, of its present and preterite, 
third person singular, often found in old books, as well as in recent. 

" But, as (or the ccrclo, be dare not, for hys erya, onjs put over hys 
nose." Sir Thomas More, A Dyalagi (ed. lo21}), fol. S t. - 
" What orchard uDrobbed oscapes ? 
Or pullet dare willu in their jet ? " 
Thoniaa Tussor, live Snadreth Painta, Ac, Ch, 62. 

"If men should not gac to lawe, one with another, the fourtiet 
would wallce up and down, jetting, by the mercer's ddore, and iTcocini; 
his silkes under his noao, wiiich now he dare not doe." Dekker, The 
Send Tiarme (1603), sjg. C 2 t. 

■■ How palu thou look'st of a auddain ! Be not afraid. 
He dare not some againo to hurt thee." 
Lodowlek Ourlell, The Detereing Favarilt (IQ2B), Act 4, 

"A pretty curr! Jlam it bile, as well as barkef" 

air William D'Ayenant, TAe Gruil BnlAer, Act 1. 

"Impudence dan not dotty," &e. Fuller, Osod Thoughte, &c, (ed, 
1830), p, fii. 

" One dare not light a large candle, except company 'e coming in." 
" You know uno dare not dibcover jou." Dryden, The Li/ing Loitr, 
Act 4. 

" Nobody dan come." Viacnunt Grimatooe, Thu Zxwyer'i For- 
tune, Act 1, 


" It ended in a compromise for a fee each other time." ^ 
'* These little embarrasses we men of intrigue are eter- 
nally subject to." ' 

" Was it for her, a girl of such an age, 
To sit at home, eacpecting till a kinsman 
Came, nobody knows whence, to marry her 1 " * 
" Let us expostulate the matter with her." * 

'^ Sir John, I understand, is removed into the country, nor dare ap- 
pear to cross me." Theophilus Cibher, The Lovers Act 3. Also see Act 2. 

*' Conversation was intended as a kind of traffic of mental com> 
modities; but nobody now dare open their badget." Cohnan, Tf^ 
Gentleman, No. 4. 

" Herod of Jewry dare not look upon you, 
When you are in displeasure." 
Henry Brooke, Antony and Cleopatra^ Act 3, Scene 2. 

*^ Not a servant dare stay in his sight ; and even the innocent chaira 
and tables, and everything that comes in his way, feels the effects of 
his fury." Id., The CJiaritable Association, Act 1, Scene 6. Also see 
The Contending Brothers, Act 2, Scene 8. 

Also see Mrs. Inchbald^ The Midnight Sour, Act 1, Scene 1 : 
James Eenney, Matrimony, Act 2, Scene 1 ; Thomas Dibdin, The 
Birth-day, Act 2, Scene 3 : John O'Keeffe, The Farmer, Act 1, Scene 
1 : George Watson, England Preserved, Act 4, Scene 2. 

*< She was silent ; for, to rouse her tyrant was more than she dare 
do." ** But she went into no trance : she dare not." Rev. Charles 
Kingsley, Two Years Ago (ed. 1867), Vol. 1, pp. 214, 215, and p. 298. 

" He dare not move." " The poor man . . , dare not come down." 
Mr. Charles Reade, Hard Cash (ed. 1863), Vol. 1, p. 298 ; Vol. 3, p. 23. 

^ Sterne, Letters, No. 71. This use of each for every, though com- 
mon in Scotland and in America, is now un-English. 

2 Richardson, Clarissa Sarlowe, Vol. 6, p. 363. 

*' What is a grote or twaine to note, 
Once in the life, for man and wife, 
To save a pound, in house or ground, 
Each other weeke } " 
Thomas Tusser, Five Hundreth Pointes, &c., Ch. 3. 
Every other while once meant * every now and then *, for which we 
once had ever now and then. See Udall, Apophthegmes, &c. (1642), fol, 
160, 235, with The Preface of Erasmus [bis), and fol. 250. 

3 Foote, T?ie Commissary, Act 2. 

* Colman, The Comedies of Terence, &c., p. 260. » Id, ibid,, p. 326. 

OUB qbahsfathers' exqlish. 

" Aye, 't was a crying sin, to let such a spirited fine 

young fellow be kicked out of iifa by a taacally little 

femret." ' 

"The areas of the Greek temples were, in like manner, 

in soma instances, floated with water." " 

" Item, a pork-pie, a boiled rabbit and aauaagea, a Jlar- 

entine, a shaking pudding," &c.* 

" Both appeared quite Jljish, and confident of victory." * 

"Master Jenkins, you have/o66ed me finely."' 

" I fancy he will not be very fotid of prolonging Ha 

" Are yoM fond of mB 
Fnr sending you that music girl 1 " ' 
" I am told, that, even in this very room, a debtor of 
his, no later than last year, died for want." ^ 

" You might have rumpled and crumpled, and doubled 

' Tin. Cowley. More Ways than One, Act 4. 8pe!t /«wrrtM, the 
won! ia used by Mies Carter anil Miss Talbot, Miu Carta' t Littari ta 
Mill TalM, Ac, Vol. 2, pp, 176, 38i. 

"'" R. P. Knight, An Accawd uf the Remaim nf thi Wm-nhip of 
Priaput, &C. (ad. 1806), p. Si. Also bee Adiiiaon, Works (ed. 1730}, 
Vol. 2. p. 28 ; ShensbioB, Ltttms, No, 32. 

> Goldaotitb, She Sloopi to Conquo', Act 2, Soeae 1. 

* Honry Brooke, The Foot of Quality, VuL 1, p. 1*3. 

" Foole, Tht KHighli, Act 2. 

' Id.. The Nabob. f^aiZ. "Nor oould I be/*»rf that they should 
tee you." Richardion, Clariaia Sarlawe, VoL 6, p. 376. "-Hmd of 
marrying." Id,, ibid.. Vol. 1, p. la. 

" Follow, and do not quit him, hut aeam/oni 
To do him little oiHooa of service." 

Olway, Tht Orphan. Act 3. 

Also see Day, The Beggar' t Opera, Aot 3 : Mrs. Incbhald, Th» 
Midnight Bow, Ant 3, Suene 1. 

' Cplmnn, The Coinediei of Trrenef, &o., p. 101. 

The /onii of Footo, tc, means ' deairuua ■ ; Colmati"s fond of sig- 
niflefl ■ pleased with'. 

•> Goldsmith, Thf riiar of Wahijield, Ch. 28. Yet we say ' died 
for wont oi bread,' &o. 

and oreaaed, and fretted and fridged the outside of them 
all to piecee," ' 

"Why, I don't know, maater. The neighboura were 
/rightful, and would not consent." ' 

" It ia no way derogatory from tho dignity of the crown, 
or the safety of the public." ^ 

" And do not you think I should behave ver;- well, if I 
was to discharge you my service 1 " * 

"You know he was to dedicate his volume of fablea 
to roe. So I gave him thirty pounds, to get my arras 
engraved, to prefix, by way of print, to the froniispiece." * 

' Stenie, Ti-iilfam Shandij. Vol. 3, CheptET i. 

' Foote, Tlu Bivil upon Two SliclU, Act 2. Also see The Co\n- 
mimanj. Act 3. 

' Jolin wakes, The North Briton, No. 35. 

* Mrs. Inehbald, Xtxt-doar Ncighbomt, Act 2, Scene 1. ' From ' 
is nneipresaed. » 

' Poote, Tha Falrm, Aot 1, Scene 1, Finnlispicfc, used of a book, 
formeTly denoted, Bs here, its ■ title-page '. Siehelet givee, as one of 
tho meanings of fjf«.- "Le commeDcement, le /riHifiapiw d'lm litre." 
Hie exemplification is : " Get autear a fait mettre son doid a la tSte de 
son lirre." 

" At the least, I am most coafident, tliat I should never suifei to 
have mj name printed in the frontiipiece, or flral leaf of the book,'' 
Ac. The Ci'Mieal HiMory of li-meion (1686), Book II, p. 12, 

Faller remarks on a epurious imprint of a cerlsiti edition of the 
Bible : " Wliat can be expected from sn lying a frerttiipice, bnt snit- 
able fakaboods, wbcrewith it aboundath ? " Mixt Conleniplaliiai, Ac., 
II., 9. 

Still older instances ere seen in Mabbe, The Hopm (1623], Part 2, 
Elogium, and p. 27. Also see Milton, Artopagitica, p. fiO (ed. l8IIS)i 
Steele, Tht Gmrdian, No. 131. 

In A IForld of Wimthri (1607), the bead of its "Epistle Dedica- 
tone" is called /roBd^yiw. HakewUl, in An Apohgie, &C. (IBZO), 
■tyloB bis title-page, in " Tho Argument " prefixed to itjfmit. 

The term /rantiipim vtiia also used— as by HowpU (1G19). in bia 
Fimiliar Letters (ed. 1713), p. 11,— of a house; and Bmthwait 
applies it to the face. " Tee worthy women, who have no other device 
but the dresse of vertne to beautHle your frmtupice," &o. The Ei\g. 
(1.4 GtntlnnaB, ftc, (ed. 16il), p. ib\. 


" Lord bless me, sir ! ivliy, there are such steams from 
aavoury pies, sucli a.fumiilte from plump partridges and 
roasting pigs, that I think I can distinguish tliem as 
easily as I know a rose from a pink, or jonquil from a 
cauliflower." ^ 

" There 's a little ragged boy at the hedge-tavem hard 
by, where I baited my garran" fie." 

"Whoever supposes that J^dy Austen's fortune is 
precarious is mistaken. I can assure you, upon the 
ground of the most circumstantial and authentic inform- 
ation, that it is both genteel and perfectly safe." ^ 

" People who keep lodgings at public places expect to 
gei hy every one who comes into tlieir purlieus."* 

"1 have contracted to physic the parish-poor by the 
great : but this must be a separate charge." * 

" Round goes the grigkin again." " 

" "Were we twenty miles nearer London, I might turn 
higgler, and servo your Honour with cauliflowers and 
broccoli at the best huiul." ' 

" But — but — you don't know — it [the pistol] may go off 
of its own head." ' 

' Robert Jephioii, Tieo Slrinffi ta your Bow, Ast 1, Swaa 3. Also 
sue GsrrUilc, A Peep it/tiad the Curtain, Act 1, 8aen« 2. 
' Cuiuherland, The Jiatui-ul Son, Aot 2. 

• Cowpar, Worki, Vol. 4, p. 133. 

' Eiobacdson, Clariita Harlavx, Vol. 5, p. 17B. Grt lnj means 
' oTerrefioh ■. 

' Faote. The Xagor of Onrratt, Act 1, Scane 1. And bo in TAe 
Snn/trupl, Act 3. Alao tto Steele, TAe Spectator, No, 22 ; Addkon, 
Hid., No. fi05: T. Monro, Otla Fcdrida, No. 3. 

" To let ontlliy harvest by great, or by day, 

Let this, by expcrienoe, leude thus the vay. 
Bi/ great wiU deceive thee, witli linking it out ; 

Kyday will despatcb, and put nil nut of dout." 
ThoTuaB Tiueer, Five Hundrilh fointti, ka., Ch. 4S, st. 8. 

• Murphy, The Citicm, Aot 1, Scone 2. Aleo see I'lionma Dibdin, 
Tlie Jev and Ike Dactur, Act 2, Scene 1. 

' Cdwper, Works, Vol. 1, p. 19fi, 

'Sheridap, ia»JiiBfl&, Acts, Scene 3. Alfiosee Adi\wsttOTii!i'i\«eiB, 


"Mrs. WilUgooee's old hind, Stephen, was just gone 
into the yard with a load of wheat." ' 

"I should be glad you would comply without a 
quarrel." ^ 

" That zeal which ill men. are always ready enough to 
exert in opposition to the faith once delivered to the 
saints." ' 

" You may imnisrge it, replied he, into the ocean, and 
it will Bland." * 

" These, therefore, have need of the strongest argunients, 
the plainest proofs, and the most eager rmportunacy, to 
convince," &c. * 

"In course, . . it must have been the owner of tha 
chestnut, and no one else, who could have played him such 
a prank with it." ^ 

TXj Tatlm-, No. 114 : Staple, ihid.. No. 188 ; Thf Si>ect«io,; No. 479. 

" He resolved .... to do nothing of hii Dicn hrad, as wo use to 
lay," &e. Hejlin, EeeUiin Viiidieata (16fi7), Part 2, pp. 354, 35B. 

" Here ia a man who aaya nothing o/ Ml own head." Mr. Matthew 
Arnold, LiifraUire mid Sogma (1878), p. 176. 

' Graves, Tlw Spiritual Quixote, Vol. 2, p. 318. 

* Mnrphy, All in tki Wrong, Act 4, Sceno 4. " Whatever he pro- 
daoea .... I sball be glad you will, at any time, lend to me." Mias 
Bumey, Cecilia, Book B, Ch. 8. " I shall bfl gUd yon will infonn me 
of it." Cumberland, The Natural San, Aot 2. In these pasasged, if 
ia omitted. 

* Jonea, of Nayland, Tkenlogieal and XfiseeHaneoiis Worii, Vol. 1, 
p. 279. " Ca^iaa was an ill man, himaelf." Bichardeon, CorreapoMd- 
tntv, Vol. 6, p. 242. "Having kept company with ill women." 
ManderiUB, TItr Fabh of tAs Bees (ed. 1724), p. 249. 

Aleo aeo Addison, Tiie Freeholder, Ho. 45. 

" Is Texas, the woid ill haa the carious signification of ' iminoral ' ; 
and ' aA iVHellow ' meana 'a man of bad habits'. " Frof. M. Schela 
De Vere, Ameriamimu, p. 493. 

Why ' ' corious " ? Ill bore this signiflcation for centnriea. 

* Bteme, SeiiUmental Journey, The Wig. Also see GraveB, The 
Bpirilaal Quixote (ed. 1S20), Vol. 2, p. 3!0. 

' Bishop Lnwth, Sermoni and Other Sjnnains, pp. 341!, 347. 

' Sterne, Tiiitram Shandy, Vol, 4, Chapter 27, Al-o ace Krlly, 



"It was file odd hamour of those days, for the women 
to pride themselves in their chastity, as well as the mfen i« 
their Taloiar," ' 

" Observation may convince ua that his power is now 
IB the wane." » 

" Ho has, sometimes, a striking line, or a shining parft- 
graph ; but, in the whole, he is warm rather than fervid, 
and shews raoro dexterity than strength." ^ 

" The first mention which I rememher to he made of 
periwigs, in our English history, is in the account of 
Prince Charies and the Duke of Buckingham's appearing 
in disguise at a hall at Paris, in their way to Madrid." ' 

" Cecilia assented, without daring to look at her, and 
followed, in trembling, up stairs." * 

" I need not instance in more particulars,"' 

" A valuable privilege is likewise indulged to graduates 
in this faculty, by the statute-law of the kingdom," &o.' 

Thi School for WiDtt, Act 2, Bofao 1 ; Mrs. Cowley, Mart Weyi thM 
Ont, Act 2. 

' Bishop Hiird, Moral and PoliUrai Dialogtiti (ed. 1760), p. 138. 
Aliio see p. 289 ; and John WillteB, The North JlrHan, Ho. 16, 

' John Wtlkss, TAt North Briton, No. ii. 

• Dr. JohnajD, Ltfs qf Addiwi. Alao aee Anon., TAs Speetator, 
No. 292 ; Horny Brookfl, Tki Fool of Quality, Vol. 2, p. Q3. 

" There aro maaj othani of the Pealms which are, in tho whole, 0( 
in part, very irregnlac in thU respect," Bishop lowth, Seraona and 
Olhcr Simaini, p. 42fi, 

* Graves, The Spiritual Quirois, Vol. 1, p. 141. "At Puns" ii 
also here notioeable. '' 3he ooncludcd he wus in the ODitain road to 
honour and profit." Miss Bumey, Cecilin, Book 3, Ch, 4. "Jh mj 
wny to London." Sir WiUinin Jones, Memoin, &c., p, 21S. 

" Mius Uumey, Ouilia, Book 6, Ch. 9. 

■ Biehop Lowth, Bermoni and Other Rfmaint, p. 230. We should 
B parliciilare '. Also b*b Jeremy Collier, A 
Short Vim. &c. {«i. 1730), p, 273 : John Wilkes, The North Briton, 
Moa. 2, B, 28. 

' Bishop HdliCnx. An Analyni, &b.. Preface, p, 11, 

" Fur his other duTiadons ftolc the art of writing. I rrsijin him to 
erilical justice, without making any other demand, ia hU fwitiui^'ivAs. 


" Dili not ynu inform, liirn 
Tlio hent of luy affiictioiisl " * 

" But, when ... we gravely talk of finding oat 

where lie inhubiis" &c.* 

[ -." Why, the purpose of both is the same, to meet com- 
pany; Hn't itl"' 

" I shall make no stay here, but intend for some of the 
Electoral Courts."* 

" In the text, we find the interchangeahle providences 
of God suited to the piety or wickedness of his people." * 

" But there is a gentleman of no good character, an 
inthnado of Mr. Lovelace, who is a constant visiter of 

" I had, indeed, the choice of being keeper of a pest- 
house; but T was fool enough to withstand the offer, 
and, all other trades failing, took into my present ser- 

that which mast be indulged to all Immaa excellence." Dr. JotiDson, 
Prc/aee to Shakespeare. 

' Colman, The Comedies of Terente, 4o., p. 170. 

' Sir JosbuB Bejnolda, Literart) WoTki, Vol. 1, p. 194. Alio see 
Eialiop Lowth, SermoBsand Olher Remaini, p. 271. 

' Foote, The Liar, Act 1, Sceoe 2. kaA eo BichBrdson, Pamela, 
Vol. 4, pp. 95, 130: Sir CAariw Ormdison, Vol. 3, p. 266. Alao lee 
Miia Bumey, EiieliHa, Vol. 1, Ch. 33 ; Vol. 2, Cli. 2 : Cecilia, Book 
1, Ch. 8; BookB, Ch. 8", Eoolt 9, Ch. 1. 

' ItiuhHrdEOD, Clarissa Barlws, Vol S, p. 3Sl. 

And so Fianok has the verb aotive iHtend, fur 'intend ta go to '. 
XortliiTH Memoirs (ed. 1694), p. 17S. 

Daigafiir lisa, likeffiee, been used for ' design to go to '. 

"Aselftoa design' d Jot ^ofXei the aame day.'' Wilson, Bumaby, 
i:Co., The Works of T. Felranias Arbiter, &c. (ed. 1710), p. 20, 

" My spirite bil me ; I am very low ; and I am designing for the 
biith, aa my but resource," Dr. Young (1767). in Correspondtnet of 
SichardsoM, Vol. 2, p. 40, 

Also see Lord LansdoBrne, Tks Sht-galUmts, Act 1 : Oe Foe, Captain 
SiagMoH (ed. 1840). p. 222. 

' Bishop Lowth, Sirmans and Oilier Semains, p, 312. 

' mchardaon, Clarissa Sarlowe, VoL 7, p. 359. 

' CambBTlaad., The Ifatural Son, Act 3. 


" I "11 on with mj jemmies. H^one of your black bags 

md jack-boots for me." ' 
" Olivia would be drawn as an Amazon, sitting upon a 
ok of flowers, dressed in a green Joseph," Ac. ' 
" Elesa me, Mr. Carmine, don't mind my shape this 

Mut ; for I 'm only in Jumps. Shall I send for my 

f his foot, may keep off the 
lome, Sir ! ' ' Ay, ay, plump 

" The fiend, with a jut a 
J«ld," &c.* 

" ' Did you fall, in going 1 
f tn the kennel '." " 

" But nothing could now exceed my confusion, upon 
Beeiug the gentleman and his lady enter." * 

" The lambs'-wool, even in the opinion of my wife, who 
[ was a connoisseur, was excellent." ^ 

" Ton must know that I have .... a good many bets 
t depending on the same hiy."^ 

" Harry let down the leaf of his hat, and drew it over 
f his eyes, to conceal his emotions."* 

" How much might she earn in a day, then, by her 

I, Tii EngtUhuian <» Paris, Act 1. 
_. mitli, Tlu VUar of If'akcfirld, Ch, 16. 
I^Rote, IJjjte, Act 1. Byyiiwpi is meant "n sort of boddico, used 
" Foots baa (oi^j/, for ' padding ', in The Kiiighu, 
|.Act 2. 

" Tight Blap, they find, oft end in hnnipB, 
And take, too lato. alua i io jwnpa." 
Colman, Fnei on Seutral Oeeaiioin, &c., Vol. 2, p. 30G. 
Alio lee John U'Keeffo, Tkt Famur, Act 2, Scene 2. 

* Miaa Barney, Cailia, Book 2, Ch. 3, » Id,, ibid.. Book 2, Ch. 9. 

• Coldamith, Tho Vitar o/ Wakefitld, Oh. 19. Ako aee Mi«g 
Bumey, Cecilia, Book 1, Ch. 7 ; Book 2, Ch. 7. 

' Goldemitb, Tlw Vicnr of WaiiJUid, Ch. 1 1 . A beverage is here 

" Colmon, TTu Qmiiii, No. 3. 

■ Henry Brooke, Thi fkiol of Qualit}/, Vol. 4, p, 210. 

" GraTis, Thri Spiritml Quixiits, Vol. 2, p, 255. Leasing here 

eaiu 'gtoanins'. 


" He was to lie that niglit at a neighbour's, to whoae 
child fae was carrying a whiatle." ^ 

" Introduced ! I 'd aa lief he introduced to Old Nick." * 

" I thought that had detected Love, that sly lurcher, 
lurking under the mask of confidential." ' 

" I was led to trouble you with these obserratioiiB, by 
a passage which, to speak in lutesiring, I met with, this 
morning, in the course of my reading." * 

" This fellow would turn rake and macaroni, if he was 
to stay here a week longer." * 

"The machine started within ft few miniitea of the 
d; the coachman smacked hia whip," Ac* 

' GoidBmith, Tht Vicar 0/ WaJuJield, Ch. 6. Also seo Misa Bur- 
nej, Cecilia, Book 7, Ch. 8. 

• Gen. Conwaj, Faiie AppeaTnncis, Act 6, Scene 1. " I haJ aa Here 
ahe had lived." Shoridan. The Dueaiia, Act 1. Scene 3. 

5 Foote, Tht Cotmers, Act 2. 

Zurclitr, the name still borne by s. species of dog. is only another 
form of luritr. Compsre riAwrcA and iiVA.jjofloi and puis. In East 
Anglifl, aptrch for birds is called aperi. In its proper Bense.pwA 
b'sB, howCTer, no etymological conneiion with, pn-eh. Vide tnfra, p. 
2*8. ' Letters of Jimira, No. 48. 

s Garriclt.Bun r™, Act I, So. I. Aleosee Misa Bnmey, Cieid'a, Book 
l,Ch.8; Books, Cb.3: Jirs-Co-n'm, JVho'al:HeI>Hpe?,AiA2,Be.2. 

" There ie, indeed, a kind of animal, neither male nor (emale, 
a thing ef the neater gender, lately started up amopget ns. It it 
called a imwarDni." Colman (1770), .^Vow on Van'aua Occajnoiu, fa., 
Vol. 2, p. 88. AiflO see Vol. 3, p. 190. 

" Sontiiej, Etprielli^i Zelf^t from EnglaHd,Vo\. 2, ff.iS,n\. Ma- 
ehinehett: meona 'coach'. Also see Colman, The Qetiiia, Noa. 3, 
B; lirrte JVd'Mj, No. 3: Misi Carter, ZsWi^rj to Mri. Mciitaga, Vol. 
1, p. 391 : Barkfl, Catrtapeiidence, Vol. 1, p, 372, 

Diligenei, also, was the name of an English coach, with those who 
called it a miahini. " I enclose a line to Johnson, to tell him, that, if, 
in the mean time, a»d while you are absent from town, another parcal 
o[ the proof should be toady for revisal, 1 wish him to send it hither 
bythe diligimef." Cowper (1781), Worii, Vol. i, pp, 103, 103. 

Siligmee was ahortened, loo. " Forlii. 1 did not come on horse- 
back, HT. AbM. In the dilly, perhaps t Tliey are 

now." Qea. Conway, Fain Appiaranefi, Act 2. 


" Tbe actions, aentimenta, conversation, of the Leroea 
and heroines of aacient days were as unnatural as the 
macltines employed to put them in motion." ' 

" A draught of ale, friend j for I 'm main dry." ' 
" Away, you malapert I Your frowardness 
Had well nigh been my ruin." ' 

" On going up Snow-Hill, I observed n pretty many 
people assembled," &c* 

" He did not matter cold nor hunger." ^ 

" This roused the tinker's choler, already provoked at 
Tngwell's amorous freedom with his doxy ; and he gave 
him a clinic in the mazui'd." * 

" In the next place, his method of stating a medium 
of aix years of war, and six years of peace, to decide 
this question, ia altogether unfair."^ 

" I have a melalline mirror, found in Herculaneum, 
which is not above three inches square." ^ 

" We shall finish this chapter with a few miscdlany 
observations." * 

' Horace Walpole, The CiatU of Otranto, Preface to tliB eecond 
Bdilion. Wb slionlcl now say inaehinery. 

' Podte, The Kmghts, Act 2. Alao SM fiickerstaffe, The Maid of 
the Mill, kct 1, Scene 1. 

' Colman, Tin Comtdiei of Tirenet, Sx., p. 195. 

* Miea Carter, £etta-t to Mia mbet, &t. Tol. 3, p. 186. " A 
prett; muHy milfa." Cumberland, Tha Xatural Sat, Act 2. "A 
pretty many yMrs." Id., ibid.. Act 2; Ths Weit Indian, Act 2, 
Scene 3. Also see Richardson, Famila, Tol. 2, p, 2S6. 

» Hsnry BnwlM, Tht Fool of Qmlils, Vol. I, p. 91. It cocura 
often in tliii work, ta in YoL 1, p. H9, &e. &c. Also lee Franclc. 
JTorthcm Memoir, (ed. 1694), p. 157 : Eichardson, C/ora.o Harlowi, 
Vol. 2. p. 65; Vol. i, pp. 171, 229; Vol. 6, p. 163: Sir Charh, 
OrandiKH, Vol. 7, p. 07. 

' GrsTCi, The Spiritual Quixote, Vol. 1, p. 164. 

' Burke, Oittrvatient m a late ' State of the Nation '. 

* Bisbop Lowth, Iteiah (ed. 1778), Notes, p. 68. Also we Dr. John- 
n, THb Rnmbkr, No. 9, 

■ Jam«B Hartia, Srttn» (ed. 1771), p. 257. 


" Aa Mr. Biirchell bad hinted to us, the day before, 
that he was making proposals of morrioge to Miss Wil- 
mot, my sou George's former mistress," &c.' 
" We must sometimes gratify the mobih." * 
" What mockado ia this to such a poor soul as I ! " ' 
" I have a mart to communicate to you on different 

" After drinking half a pint of mountain together at 
the next tavern, we finished our contract." ' 

"Don't you give yourself any trouble about their 
mutining." ' 

" When thus a mutton, statelier than the rest, 
A ram, the ewes and wethers sad addressed."' 
" The priiioessea then revealed to Hippolita their 
mutual inclination fur Theodore," ifec* 

' GoldBmith, The Vifar of Wakefiehl, Ch. 7. 

» John wakes, Tht North Mriloii. No. 24. 

' Riclianiaon, Famela, Vol. 2, p. 37- 

* Sterne, LeUem, So. 130. Add Eichardson, Pamela, Vol. I, p. 
11 : Biekerstaffe, Love in a VUlai/e, Act I, Scene fi : Sheridan, Tht 
Sicalf, Act 1, Scene 1. 

i Gnnes, Tlie! Qiiixolf, Vol. 1, p. 7. See Mm. Suaanna 
Cendivro, -d Bold Stroke for a W^e, Act 3. 

" Why, Nuraaliul!, that 's nothing. Her ladyship's wins 
All otei the TiUage runs jual like a fountaia ; 
And I heard the folks aay, everj dinh, when thej* diDe, 
Will he summing' in claret, madeira, and tHountain," 

Charlea Dibdin, The Deserter, Act 1, Scene 1. 

< Charles Johnson, Cliryaal, Vol, 3, p. 81, 

' Cowper, Wnrki, Vol. 10, p. 40. 

a Horace Walpole, Tbi Caitlt of Olraiilo, Cb. 4. 

Dr. Johnson, defining mutual bj " reciprocal, each acting in return 
or correspondence to the other," quotes two pauages prorisBcdly in 
e^empliflcation of this dafinition. The iirst is from Shakespeare, who 
aaya that the cattle of a herd " make a maluiii stand," on hearing the 
sound of a truiopet. The second ia from Pope ; " a mutual flame," 
between two persons. But, as to the fiiit, how can a, "stand" be 
" recipmesl ". save by interrelation to another "stand"? What 
Bceond " stand " is contemplated, " acting in return or currespondenoa 
to " the one laeiitioned ? It is not from reciprocation tliat the " stand " 

" The inuleteGr, . . . entering into a long conversation, 
how he waa chief gardener to the cunvent, . . . and as 

tukea place, but because of the trnmpet'a ucting on the cuttle conjointlj. 
A second dEfinltion ia, tharotara, rflqnictd, ta cuter tha mutual uf the 
paasBge in question. And tho sense wblch it has there, though now, 
eicept in Scalland, a Tiilgarism, once was re^y cuirtnt. 

" But aeithec bath a lot any pover of it selfe, neither can any man 
by bis owne will, or many men by their mutuall consent, g[ve any 
such power unto it, as," Ac, Thomas Gatultcr, 0/ the Nature and 
Ua of Lot/ (ed. 1327), p- 360. Also see pp. 73, 91. 

"Those dnnghtersof SoedusuBof Leuctra, .... conceiving nmvluaH 
sorrow far tlioir lost tirginily, became resolute actors in their owne 
tragedy." firathwait, The Buylith thntltman, &c. (ed. 1641), p. 341. 

*' No miIhco could transport them so highly, nor eeuxe un them eo 
bot)y, whcreio, with joint ulTections, they did not partalce tiiiilHallj/, 
and which, with a rertuous temper, they ailsycd not mildly." ///., 
i&id., p. 405. 

" The inconveniences of an unequal yoak, or marrying of It Christ- 
ian with an infldel, were innumerable : the tacicty and conrersetion 
could not be so muiital between them ; the Chiielian woman vould not 
keep those ooiTciipondenees which were of the interest of her religion; " 
&c. Hamon L'Eatrange, The Allianw of Mvins Qgteei (1(169), p. 

" Whereas I always stay till the parties , . , are malnally desirous of 
an agreement." FuUer, JWixt CaiikmjilatioHs, (ci:., II., 12. 

"There the soldier, tJte tradesman, the merchant, .... have laid 
aside their names of distinction, and calmly cunspir'd in a imitUBt 
agreement of kbora and desircB. " Bp. Sprat, The Sistary of thi 
Soyai Society, &c. (ed. 10<!7), p. 427. 

" Eren the torments of the damned . . . will receive a vast accession 
of misery end woe from the mufHaJ weeping, and wailing, and gnash- 
ing of teeth." Bentley, IF'-rii, Vol 3, p. 276. 

" The intimate connexion which I have had with the Boyal Academy 
ever since its establishment, the social duties in which we have all 
Mufuif/y engaged for so many yean,'' &c. Bir Joshua Keynoh^, 
lilfraiy Tori*, VoL 2, p. 181. 

"Our mutual friend, John Banilie." Burke, Corrmpatulfna!, Vo). 
2, p. 2fil. 

Sterne, Con, has the expression " mutual friend." See his ITiirti 
(ed. 1810), VoL 4, p, 169. Also see The Ear! of Corke, r^ U'lirlii. 
No. 47; Colinun, in Thn Prirate CorrttptmilniM of Ilarid Oan-ki, 
" , Vol. I, p. 211: Cumberland, ibid.. Vol. I, p. 381; Thomus 
Dibdia, T/ie Jfie and Ih' lioanr, Act 2, Bcenu 1. 

ae, Mr. Benjnmin Diarueli Itaa wcitlcn of " their 
' Zothair, Cii. 12. 

a once felt to be ambiguous opppari from Iho way it 
iBlifi»l. " Tberc is a miUiiat reciprocal correspand- 
cnoo." Biiihop Andienes, Ninety-»ix Scrmani (ed. 1B41— 1844), ToL 
1, p. 3D5. 

WilliBm Wabbe, in 1686, nsed mut-aitl for 'alteniflte'. " Jrutuall 
it kinde h cnJlsd a round, beeing nuluallie 
singetb one rerae, tlie other the next; eohe 
j1 IHtcoiTie of Eagliih PoetTie, in Aneirtat 
Critienl Emoyi, ka.. Vol. 2 (181S), pp. S4, 69. Also Bee pp. 64, &c. 
Felthnm has inlenmaual, mtermutmlly, and intermiilualiieii, Se- 
wolva, &c. (ed. 162S), Seeonil Centnrie, pp. 49, 197, 244. 
The BuliJDined anoinaloiu uses bIbo deserve notica 
"The eipense of children may, possibly, be urged as an objectioii 
to this sflheme. But I anawer, that children will, of necea^ty, come, 
■whether our baUad-ainging ladies are marriad, or not; and, while the 
mHfually tratelling with the younger at their hacliEi, the 
all probability, be abls to walk." Anon., T>ie World, 

Bnng hetweene t< 
rymelh with himaetfe." 

lutHnUs travelling " is for ' travelling in one and the « 

parents a: 
elder will, 
No. 149. 

"Tha mutual fear of the Captain's resentment to me. and nf hec 
own to him, neither of which would have any moderation, deterred 
me." Misa Buroflj, Evilina, VoL 2, Letter 9. 

For other bad naeB, hy Misa Bumey, of mutual and mutually, aee 
hor acilia, Book 1, Ch. 3 1 Boot 6, Ch. 7 ; Book 6. Ch. 1 and 4. 

Nor would one, now-a-dayi, write, witbont liability to reproof, as 
Southey writes : "I have always admired thai passage in the Iliad, 
where Diomede and Glancua meet in battle, and torn aside by mutual 
consent.'' Vind, Etel. Atigl., p. £24. Compare the passage from 
Grataker, given above. 

Though Mr. Dickens wrote Our Mutual Friend, and not at nil with 
any intentioa t^ accredit tbe expression whicb he chose for his title, 
he had used a similar expression in sober earnest ; and, in the collective 
edition of his works, he Ivt it pass. 

" But he now regretted it the less, inasmuch as it afforded him an 
opportnnity of aoknowledi[ing, before llieir mutual frimds, tliat ho 
loved Mr. Woidle's daughter deeply and Bincerely," &(!. Fickieiek 
(ed. 186fl),p. 478. " h mutual in^iii." Iiid.,-p. 343, 

Dr, Webster's editors teaoh as follows r " Oommcn is applied to that 
which belongs alike, or in eomtnoti, to the parties concerned ; as 'our 
anmnon cotintry', 'a common friend'. JJiifuHi impliea tin inttrehtrngt 

wliat a nation of Iicibs he had procuryJ, to niollifj- licr 
humour," &c.' 

"Misa, he 'a so near, it's partly a, woniier how he lives 
at all." » 

" It [the acanery] Tieighhoiirs nearly, am! aa nearly 
reserablcB, the scenery of Uatfield ; bat with what differ- 
ent perceptions does it present me ! " ' 

" As for that, I don't want friends, neither, I belioye." ' 

" Adelaide . . opens a clothea-pteaa, takes from her head 
a hood, scarf, and night-rail," &c.' 

" She noddled her head, waa saucy, and said rude things 
to one's face," * 

" He mentioned a thousand copies as a iiumeroii-a im- 
preasion." ' 

of Clie tiling Epokcn of between the purtiea; aa 'Mutaal friendship '. 
Henee, lo epeik ot'amutual friend' {aa if a IViflnd could be inter- 
vhongud) is a grou irrar; icbile it is proper tu epenJc of haTin^ 'a 
mutual desire ' to promate tbe intcTeatt of ' a eominnH friend ', or those 
of "onr common conntry'," 

Mutual, vre are here told, denotes ' interchange '. If so, how, un- 
less inlereltangi denolei ' cummunity ', can there be a mutual doiiire to 
promote the interests of a country ? For it la nut impb'ed that the 
country responds to a dciire liko that of which it is the objecL 

' 8temG, Trislnm Shandy, Tol. 7, Ch. 21. "Lunnun is a naatioH 
rum plaia." "This made me noad'on riled." auu't Trip to London 
(Norwich, 1871), pp. 6, 9. Here the word is an adverb. 

» Misa Bumej, Cteilia, Book 2, Ch. 9. " I am not a near man. 
neither; but, as to giving at that rale, it 's quite out of chsrscter." 
Iii., ibid.. Book 9, Ch. 1. This near is ' peuurioUB ', The jwicWy in 
the first quotation seems to be oddly equivalent to ' lUtogether '. Such 
a use of the word, in tbe speech of tbe illiterate, onee was very common. 

A'cnr. as used aboie, is old. See Mabbe, The Sogiu (1623), Part 1, 
p. 107. 

» Cowper, Wiirku, Vol. 3, p. 219. 

* Mti. luohbald, I HI TeU yiiu W&at, Act I, Scene 3. 

> John O'KeslFe, Thi Frimna' at Lvrge, Act 1, Scene ti. Again in 
Act 't. Scene 1, and Act S, Scone 2. 

< Gmves, The Spirilml Quicotn, YuL 1, p. 222. 

1 Dr. Jolinion, Lifeuf F"pe. " They would, in any iiumwuk* mIidoI, 
liavD obtained praise, but not excited wonder.'' Id., Life of Miltm. 

" Plantna, in his richest vein of humour, is mimeroits 
and poetical." ' 

" Hark ye, David ! Take this mummy into the cellar, 
and wet hia dust with a cup of October." ' 

" Mra. Burke has not profited of the hathing." * 

" The mind which has feasted on the luxurious wonders 
of fiction has no taste of the insipidity of truth." * 

" Safe, and, nf conaeiiuence, toM as Dymoke, he has no 
enemy hut himself to comhat." ' 

" Ah, Mrs. Graves, said I; I fear you have had a very 
troublesome guest of me." ^ 

"Adam's diacourae of dreams seems not to he tlic 
speculation of a new-created being," ' 

" I have never set eyes of her once." * 

" His motlier was now better, and had taken pity of his 
Bospense and impatience," &c.^ 

" Here, my Lord, you have fortune vf your side," '" 

" Oh, plague af your obedience ! " " 

> Colmsn, The Comediei of Terence, &o.. Preface, p. 4. 

• Comberlanil, The Natural San, Aot 3. Ocloier signifies ' eider '. 
And see Hetity Brooke, The Fool uf Quality, VoL 6, p. 110. 

' Burke, Bpiiiolary Corretpan^iiee of Bitrhs and Dr. Zaureiue, p. 
5T. Also see p. 186 ; and Corretpondmtot, Vol. i, p. 422. 

* Johnson, Preface to SAakeipeare. 

= John WilkM, Tis Narth Mritua, No. 1. Also me Cowper, Thr 
Cowioiamr, No. 134. 

' Henry BrooliB, The Fool of Qiiality, Vol. 1, p. 240. " Ah, Snin. 
Sam, 1 ham had a heavy loaii of you, since I parted with you to 
that yonng rogue of a omstBr." Id., The Marriiu/e-eontriKt, Act 'J, 
Scene 1. " It ib true, Madam, you have not the luckiest partner of 
me." Anon., The Mume«r> of m>ia (ed. 1743), p. 42, "Mr. 
Munckton vill really have s great loss of her, when she diei." 
Misa fiuraej, Ctcitia, Book 1, Ch. 6. 

1 Dr. Johnson, Life of Milton. 

" Foote, T^ Commiaary, kaX 2, Scene I. 

<■ MiBB Burney, Cecilia, Book 10, Ch. a. 

1" letleri nfjuniia. No. 11. 

" John O'Keeffa, The Pi-ieoner at Largr., Act 2, Scune 3, 


' " Even he, with aU his penetration and esperienee,; — 0/ 

wliioh old folta generally pique themselves, — couid not 

perceive his drift." ^ 

" Then let a musician he admitted 0/ the party." * 

" Yet it cannot be said, that his genius is ever unprovided 

0/ matter, or that his fancy languishes in [lenury of 

" He remitted of his assiduity." * 
"Maaon is in Yorkshire now; but I missed 0/ him,"' 
" They dun't value damnation of a farthing." " 
" Mr, Whitfield then conducted Wildgooae ... to seve- 
ral different people, .... who were for the independence 
not only of each congregation on other churches, but of 
every individual on each other." ^ 

" Every right action is registered in Heaven, and there 
remains, independent on the wrong uses that may be made 
of it by those for whose benefit it was designed." ^ 
" I was struck all oh a heap, for my part." ^ 
" H''' llock will never be persuaded, that such an one 

' Slome, Zttleri, No. 129. 

' Cowper, JForks, VoL 6. p. 111. 

"Wu also use of, inBteiul of uu ur upon, in tbs fuUoniag familiac 
plirasGi, wliicb ovcur nliiefly in uunvcreution : 'tu cnll of a person', 
anil 'to wait ^lum'." Prieetle^, The Jludiimmti of English Gram' 
niar, £c,p. 07. 

Of these use> of 1/ 1 am not nappUed witli ioutuuces from books, 

' Dr. Johnmn, Lift of Drydim. 

< Gbarles Jobriton, CAiyiat, Vol 1, p. 252. 

» Graj, Jf'wit, Vol 3, p. 303. 

' Foole, The Habab. Aol 2. "For my part, I value none of ilic 
modem fusliiuns of a Sg-loat." Mrs. Susnnnit Ctntlivri:, A Buld 
SIroktfora Wifi, Act S, 

1 Graves, T/a Spiritual Quixote, Vol. 2. p. IB. 

• MisB Carter, Ltilirrt tv Mrt. Montagu, Vol. 1, pp. 133, 134. 
Also KB JotiiUDD, XaiKia; Ch. 38; llawkEvwortb, T/« Adnnturer, 
No. ID. 

■ Siii'ridiu), Tht Duima, Act 2, Scene 2. 

246 CHAFTEB vn. 

sets himself o« work, either out of Iotb to them, or hatred 
to sin." ^ 

" Besides, it is the on/iext metliocl to keep her to one's 

" It has a kind of oratarial number or measure." ' 

" Being all outlireafhed in turns, they remitted frona 
their toil." * 

" My lord's servants call you an old oui-of-fasJdoned 
codger, and have taught me what 's what." * 

" The cose, as here described, is similar to that of the 
bag of &pair of lagpipes" &a.^ 

' Eiatop 'Warburton, A Scltction, &c., p. 351, 

' Foote, A Trip lo Calait, Aot 1. " It is the oHJieit waj to rise ia 
the worii" "In short, it ia the onliest liquor of Ufa." Jd., Tki 
Oralort, Acts 1 nod 3. 

Thera is an old uaa of on/j/ which I am unnhle to eieraplKy at flrat 
hand. " Id eonvcraation, I do not say the most polite, wo Bometinies 
hear the word aalyf wbich ia a duninutive, joined to tha superktire 
degree; aa 'He is onl;/ the cleverest fellow I ever saw'." Priestley, 
The Sudimentt^ &c., p. 67. Compare aloHe, tor ' out and out ', spoken 
of in note Q to p. 46, tupra. 

■ Bishop Lowth, leaiah, Pretiminarj' LiEEertatioa, p. 2, Also see 
"Warton, Tie JrfwiKHW, No. 105; and Henry Brooke, The Fool of 
Qualily, Yal. 2, p. 92. 

* Henry Brooke, Tht Foul ef Quality, Vol. 1. p. 20B. 

' Garrick, Sim Tan, Act 2, Beene 1. This odd compound aoems to 
hnva had a oertain vogue for more than a sinxle generation. See 
Gay, Folli/, Act 2 ; Warburton, Tracts, &c.. p. 104 : Fielding, Zo»» 
in Senrnl Maapies, AL*t 3, Scene 5. In the game play, Ad 4, Scene 
2, Fielding bus out-tif-fathion. 

■ Godwin, An Enquiry, &«., p. 319. 

Dr. John Nott, in hia edition of TJib GulTs Moriiboot, reniarka: 
" Whererer I hare seen the word virginai or eirginale occur, it hai 
always heen spoken of as une instniDient, and eiplainod a^ a smaller 
sort of apinet. Decker is the Hrst writer I hare met nith n-ho nien- 
tions a pair of virginale. It only proves that we have but n: 
feet knowledge of the Initrament." 

The inference that a pair of rirffliuih waa a double iustr 

ha»ty. I might qnotc paisnges from old sutburs, for a pai 

' ID to ieada, earda, thapUti, yalluvli, anil eryans. 

r./. • 


" The only reUirn lie received , . . was a Email pension 

for liimaeli^ and a pair of colours in the Guards for me." ' 

'' He saw his friend begin to palate his wino with 

" Damn the city 1 I wish the papitAes would set firo to 
it again." ' 

" I have two French printe hanging in my study, both 
on Iliad sulijects; and I have an English one in the 
parlour, on a subjisct irora the same poem." * 

" Lady Euelle . . . had been something parUciilar, as I 
fancied, in her behaviour to me," " 

" ' But tell me ', continued Mr. Fenton, 'were there any 
prisoners of consideration among the confined debtors 1 " 
' A few, sir, of note, and many who had been well to pa^ 
in the world.' " ^ 

' ChvlEs JdhtiGon, Chrytal, Vol. 1, p. 156. 

' Id., Hid., Vol. 4, p. 204. 

■ Hurpby, The Citizm, Act I, Scene 2. 

"And tbey My ha 'a a papM, too, forsooth." Cowley, Cutler- of 
Ceieman-itriet (1663), Act 2, Sienu 8. J'apM ia tor pajji'sf. 

" Ferhnps I was once a paplnh ; but, since tliat, like most of the 
worlil, I 'm converted to no religion at nlL" Viaoount Grimatone, Tlit 
Laii'ffer't Forlunr, Act 3, Scene 4. 

Also aea Steele, T/te Taikr, Ne. 31 ; Graf, Worki, Vol. 2, p. 83 : 
GravM, Tht Spirilml QHixote, Vol. 1, p. IBS ; VoL 2, pp. IS, 140. 

It is not much more than k aatUaj aince the old papalin fell out of 
use. It is employed by Biahop Larinf(tDn, in The EHthuHOtm of 
Mtthodiiii OKi TapiiU eonpartd {\lil),^f. 183, 33S, 3d3 (ed. 1833]. 

Our old poptUiig, liko papalin, was tnknn, doubUesa, from the Italian 

' Coirpcr, fForki, Vol. 7, p. 7. In Englmid, people who baye a 
dniwing-room do longer call it aparleur, as they called it of old, and 
till rocenilr. 

• Gravoa, Tht Spiriluai Quitate, Vol. 2, p. 80. The signification of 
particular, m tbia paagage, ia 'marked' or 'peculiar.' Also see Foote, 
I!** Engluhman Sttmnidfivm Paris, Act 1, a/ijii. 

~ J Brooke, Tht Foot «f Qualifn, Vol; S, p. 84. See Mabbe. 
«, Part 1, p. itSl ; and Cr. Honibeck, in Saddueimtu Tri- 
It (fid. 1T27J, !>. 4i)S. 


been at it passing a couple 

n the top 
I long 

"Why, I 1 
months," iJfec,^ 

" To be sure, your peaeJung them, who first drew them 
in, is not so very just." " 

'■The prim Bquut clump is peA-ed up exactly o 
of every eminence," ' 

" I wtts petted nt their neglect of us during < 

" The Callender, right glad to find 
TTJH friend in merry pin, 
Ketumeii liim not a single v/ocd, 
But to the housB went in." * 
" To hear a sweet goldlinch's sonnet, 
This morning I put on my bonnet, 
But scarce in the meadow, pixe on it I 

When the captain appeared in my view." ^ 
" I love to pleasure my friends." ' 
"The extracts will be aa plenty — and as valuable — as 
blackberries." * 

" In a great plurality of examples, I trust he will Tae 
perfectly convinced, that no design or contrivance whatever 
has been exercised." ' 

' Foote, r*< Cammiiaarg, Act 2. 

' Cbarlea Johnson, Chrgial, Vol. 1, p. 167. Fiach — in many 
aldiih books written 'peaeh, — is a ehortening of apftaeh. Compare 
ptrt, from aptrl, 

> Uvodale Frioe, An Eiaay m the FietWftqiie, &c,, p. 215. 

' Henry Biooke, TKt Fool of Quality, Vol 2, p. 46. 

' Cowper, Worki, Vol. B, p". 309. 

' O'Keeffe, Th« Rtrmir, Act 1, BaenH 2. "Wliat a pan!" 
Richardson, Sir Charle* Grandvan, Vol. 6, pp. 179. 298, jcc. 

' Foote. The Fatrtm, Act 2, Seene 2. I have hj ma siinilnr eitraoM 
from Colman, Murphy, &c. Lord Macaulay, in our own time, hat 
attempted, but rainly, to revire this old use of the verb pltaiarc, lot 
■ favom' ', ' accommodate '. 

" T. J. Mathiue, The Fitriuiti of Lilrraturt, Note on I.. 227. 

* Puley, Hora Faulina, Ch. 1. A» in this eilraet, jiluralily •tat 
long used where we should use myorilff. 

"You will always, said lie, be getting a power of 
money." ' 

"I am jealous of Edmund's j«-e/e)-a6?e regard for you."* 

"Even Mrs. Delvile evidently desired her ataence; 
Biuce, whenever the journey was talked of, she pre/erulli/ 
addressed herself to any one else who was present." * 

" Sir George prev&iU every wish. He must make tho 
best of husbands." * 

" Ho beareth a very profligate character as to women, . . 
and ia Mr, Lovelace's more especial privado." ' 

" You, Lord Mansfield, did not understand me so ; and, 
Ipromke you, your case requires an abler defence." * 

' Heary Brooke, The Fool of QnalUi/, Vol. 1, DedicBtion, p. 20. 
Also sec Eithardaon, Pamela, Vol. 1, p. 48 ; Vol, 3, p. 9 : Murphy, 
The UphaUteftr, Aot 1, SciBB 3 : Gray, Wurkt, Vol. S, p. 113 : Fred- 
eric Philon, St teould 6« a Soldiff, Act 1, Sc«no 1 : Mrs. Qodwin, 
Paithumoiu Werki (1798), Vol, 3, p. 17. 

' Miss Clara Reere, The Old Englith Saron, p. 143. Richardson 
nboandi irith this un of preferebti. 

= MisB Barney, Ceeilia, Bpuk fl, Ch. B. Also see Rieliarclaon, Sir 
C/iarhi GrandiKH, Vol. 2, p. 136. 

' Mrs, Inohbnld, Nrxl-door Nfiyhiaiiri, Act 1, Scene 1. 

* RichordBon, Clariaa Sarloiee, Vol. 7, p. 369. 

° ZtitfM ef JuHiiH.Na. fiS. "He must hove mere striking fealnrM 

la catch TM, I promiae you.' ' Goldsmith, She Slaopi lo Cmtqiur, Act 
1, Scene 1. Also eee Garriclc, Iftck or A'oihitii/, Act 1, Scene 1 : 
(lolmaii, I5e Snglith XerehaHl, Act 3, Scene 1; Act 5, Scene 1. 
Fifty more references might be added. 
Nor is this ase of modem origin. 

•' ' Wall,' qnotU he, ' I promia yoa I, for my pnrto, hod lieffer lo 
hce theflrator tbechtefm&n here, then thesecoode monno in Ruome '.'' 
Udall, Apophthigiruii, (ca. (1542), fol. 267. 

" And >o 1 commit you to yonr auppsr, and myselfc lo my litter ; for 
Ifireinueyou I am not a little weary with gambolling this al'lemooae." 
Manieciu Eitatieat (1695), p. 20 (ed. ISta). 

" Wit. 1 am Dontoat. Bat do you heare me, sir ? 
Did not Sir Raph Smith asko ye for a wench i 
Phil. No, I pnmite thee ; nor did he looke 
For any bat thy selfe, as I could gcaae." 
Henry Porter, TAi Tieo Aiip-is B'oMwn.ic. (Ifl99),p.37(ed. 1841). 
" Although that, in the time of day, it is wana enough at Kaou^ 

" Good morniiig t' ye, Doctor. Doctor Feelove, 
moming. How are your pulne to^laJ■ 1 " ' 

" Mrs. Talbot ia pure well, and really hears up Burpris- 
ingly." * 

"He has picked up again 'purely, since hia misfor- 
tune," &c.' 

"I must humour this old ind, in order to be remember- 
ed in hia will." * 

" I think a gentleman ought not to pid vp tamely one 
or two severe thinga that the Colonel has said." ^ 

" Don't go to put upon a silly ohl man," ^ 

" And there he told me I was to run, and to double and 
quat ; and there he was to catch me, and all that." ' 

" Mrs. Mechlin haa reason." ' 

yet the nighta, I proinUf jou, are vary poM and Terv unfrifindly." 
Tie Cmxical Siitory of Francioa {1055), Book 12, p. 37. 

" 11 tuus aime de tunt Eon c(ear,y« vuua U proweu." Tbis eipres- 
non is ceaaored b; M. Wey, Eemarqiut tttr la Langm FrantoiM, Vol. 

> Mrs. Cawlojr, Mart JFsyi t)uai On), Aat I. Butjiu/w, as a plural, 
ia of renerable age. 

"He could aote nothing; m, bj littla and little, hee conanmEdaway ; 
and, aftar joma/ew ;>ii?s, be died." Mabbe, ISe Sujkb (1623), Part !, 
p. 22. 

' Miaa Jeffries, Miii Carler'i Leltera to Miis Talbol, Ac, Tol. 8, p, 
19S. Also ace Kichordaon, Pamela, Vol. 2. p. 76. 

• Gray, Curreipotiiiaici of Gray and itaton, p. 288. 

• Mucphy, ThrM JFkIu AJtsr Marriags, Act 1, Scene 1. 

' Bicharduon, Clarina Sariavii, Tol. 7, p. 310. And ao in PBtnela, 
VdL 2, p. 291. 

8ee, fnrtber, AddiMn, The Tatler, No. 93. 

" She's the quietest woman that ere I knew ; for, good heart, she '11 
pill vp anything." Dekkec, Chcttle, and Hsughton, Faliml Qriail 
(IGD3), Act 3, Scene 2. 

Compare do ainay, spoken of at p. 267, infra. 

• Biekerstaffe, The Maid uf the Milt, Aet 3, Scene 3. 

' Foote, Tht Author, Aut 2. See Mabbe, The Eogiu, Part 2, p. 

: 1. Also 

: The Lmna 


" What, you are a courtier, I reekoiu No ■wonder you 
■wJBh the press was demolished." ' 

" He is a very licentious translator, and does not reeom- 
peme his neglect of the author by beauties of his own." ' 

" No time should be lost. So get away, and furnish 
yourself immediately with a regimeidaK You must be 
very smart and fashionable." ^ 

" When the light of the Gospel was relumined by the 
Eeformation," &c.* 

" I hope, dearest madam, you are eq^ually careful to 
fepomt proper memorials of all that happens to you and 
your family ; and then, when we meet, we shall tell our 
stories," * 

" Unnumbered and imperceptible chints, fissures, and 
crannies of our rimoae and rimpled carcassea," &c.^ 

" In the last list, I presumoj you roll I "'' 

" The Misa Flaraboroughs . . . undei'stood the jig and 
the roundabout to perfection." ' 

" I was . . three times in the round-house," * 

" On the second day, hia brown horse, Orator, took 
I rust, ran out of the course, and was distanced." '* 

" What Mr. Lovelace saw of the hoU8e,^which were 
f the saloon and the parlours,— was perfectly elegant." " 

' Foole, Tht Bankrupt, Act 3. This ubb o( reekon is r«rj oommon 
with Fogte. Also sec Jsmes Eesney, Raiting the Wind, Act 1, Scene 
! : Cowper, Warkt, Vol, *, p. 130. 

' Dr. Johnson, Lift of Stepney. 

' Gen. Cunway, FaUe Apptaraneei, Act 3, Scene 2. 
I * Bishop Lowth, Sermant and Olhtr Sitaaini, p. 168. 

> Johnson, Liller to Kn. Tkmk, Sept. 30, 1773. 

« LeyceBter, Olla Fodrida, No. 19. 

' Foote. Tht Liar, KiA 1, Scene 1. Soli here signifioa 'bo 
enrolled '. 

» Goldamilh, Tht Viearof mkefield, Ob. 9. 

" Foole, The Minor, Act 1, Soene I. .'Raaud-hoiue is one of the old 
words for ' look-up ', 

" ColfflBD, The aentleman. No. S. 
" Eiehanlagn, Ci!nri'«oBi(rto«;i', Vol. 3, p. 352, The "best drawing- 


" K I fine them for their irreguIoritieB, it shall Ije in a 
much more moderate sum than forty Hhillings, ur any other 
seonce imposed by the proctors." ^ 

" [She] paid my bill the next week, without sconcing 
o£f sixpence."^ 

" He cried, I will, I will once more seeft to my God." ■ 

" But Sir James Melvil was too well seen in courta to 
have used this language, if he had not undeistouil it would 
be welcome." * 

" It is like those poisonous wild gourds which, being 
f/ired amongst other wholesome herbs," &c.^ 

"If we offer up a petition to a temporal prince, we do 
it ia aa few, honourable, and mgnificative worda aa the thing 
will bear." ^ 

room' is here meant hj lahon. Also see Colmon, Thi Oeiitfoinim, 
No. 6. 

Mr. Marsh writes of "all gradaa ot sooietj-, from the wignitmto 
tbe ialoBH ", and of making " books and joumala speak the dlaleat at 
the taloon ". Leelurei on t/tt English Langnagt, pp. 291, 440. In 
England, hair-dreasers haTB their sbIoohi ; and there are, also, hiliiird- 
ittlooni, la:, &e. Hut I do not know wbere, among English -spsoking 
people, lalaon is the name now giren to any roam in a pricaU house. 
' Colman, Tm-a Filiiu, No, 1. 

< Foote, 7^ Dan! upon Two Stkka, Act 2, Scene t. Also see 
■Wsrton, The JdUr, No. 33: Colman, Tcrne Filiiu, No. 2. And see 
the foot of p. 133. lupra, 

> Henrv Brooke, TAs Fool of Qmlits/, Vol. 4, p. 108. See I. Kings, 
10, 24. 

* Bishop Hurd, Moralatui PolUieai Biatogutt, p. 211, foot-note. 
Seen here has ila old sense of ' lecsed '. 

" All ;ou that fainc would learne the perfect WHJe 
To have your child in nmsicke something teeni, 
Aske nature, Hrst, what thereto she dotb sale, 
Vur further sate ye make to anch a queene ; 
For, doubtlesee, groesum caput is not he 
Of whom the learned muses seene will he." 
"DiotaBitiiiaet, Fit! Sundreth PBinta, &o., Inatrueting of Children. 
'■■ Jones, of Nayhmd, Thealagical and Miioellansoaa JFaf/ii,Ya\. 2, p. 

p Lowth, SermoiH and Otktr Bainairu, p. 338. 

" Iq the style of the lady'a note to you I can eaaily 
I perceivB a smafch of hor character." ' 

" Why, you know you never laugh at the old foUfs, am! 
I never fly at your servants, nor gniuke people hefore thoir 
\ facea," &c.' 

" Who the devil eould think that he would smoke us in 
L this disguise V ' 

esidea, air, in this town, people ore more ^nokij anil 
h •uspicioua." * 

"Mr. Gibbon shews, it is true, ho strong a dislike to 
I CbriBtianity, oa viailjly dUqudlijies him for that society of 
I ■wlii::h he has created Ammianus Marcellinus president." * 

" I warrant your master is only in a sound ; and I \>i 
I a bottle of stuff in my pocket, that will fetch him in a 


"He loved me with passion; and, as I could not fiay 
n in fipecie, I endeavoui'ed to supply my want of atli'L- 
tioii to him by my attention and assiduities." ' 

1 Cnwper, Worki, Vol. 6, p. 155. JJao lee Vol. 8, p. IfiS. 

< Mbs Barney, OccUia, Book 0, Ch. It. Also eco Jamei Eeniii.'y, 
Saiim^ th« Wind, Aut 2, Seano 2. 

' Kelly, Tht SeAool fir Wivei, Act 3, Scena 5. Add Goldsniitli. 
Foots, CtmrlfiB Johnson, Charles Dibdin, &c. Also eee lUnssltlgtr, 
Thi City Uaiiam, Act 3, Scene 1 ; Dryden, An Etening's Zatf, Act i. 

^* Foole, The lar, Aot 1, Scene 1. Also we Th> Bngliihmau ii> 
iPariii, Act 1 ; and The CommitiMHy, Act 1, 
" Jgad, I don't like his Inoka. He seoma a little imoiy." Vun- 
Inigli and Collej CihbBT, The TrotHited Umiand {nsS), Aci S. Sl-l, 
further, Steele, T/a Sptelaloi; No, 320. 

' Poraou, LetttTt lo Mr. AmhdtiuioH Traeii, Pretace, p. nviii. 
Tn the rallowing extract, i». .. at is conatmctedwiih the pretei-it^. 
" She wimplied in a manner u ciquisitely pathetie, at moved me " 
1 Goldmiiih, n> Vi«tr of Wakifi^ld, Ch, 24. 

■ tJickerstatTe and Fool«, Dr. Zait in Mi Chariot, Aot 3. 
' Heiiry Brooke, The Fool of Queliti/, Vol. 2, p, 223. 
" YoQ miist pttj him in specie, Madam, — give liim Ioto tot his «it." 
Srrdini, Ah Bvening'i Love, Act 5, 


hate tlis aider aud \mt r< 

of lb, 

D cxpresiioi 

" Speeies, your honour knows, ie of easier conveyance." * 

"He affirms, that, from the year 1726 to the year 1784, 
there was coined, at the mint of France, in the npeciea of 
gold and silver, to the amount of ahout one hundred mil- 
liona of pounds eterling." * 

"This needle had heen a glover's, of approved metal, 
keen and polished, and three-sj'wre, toward the point, 
for a quick and ready penetration of tough leather."* 

" How an evasive, indirect reply will gtand with your 
reputation . . is worth your consideration." * 

" Whoever weds Isahella, it shall not be Father Fal- 
couara'a »tari-up son." * 

"I have one half of the house to myself . . while , . 
the two musty nieces are etived up in the other hal£" ^ 

" So I find tiiey are all in a tiory" ' 

" How gtrange you make of this matter ! " * 

' Garrioli, Neck or Nothing, Act 2, Scene 2. 

= Burke, R^ctiani on the ReeulsUo7i in Franci. "The tpaiet of 
eoin." Jeremy ColUar, Eiiays Hpon Seteral Moral Siibi'scli (ed. 1706), 
Vol. 3, p. 182. 

Wa owe oar ipeeit to tlie Latin plirafle in ipicie. In lilta mimner, 
OUT t^gy h due to in e^ie, u nur anuestors once wrote, vbile thsj 
put ej/igiei an the nominative. It does not appear that tre maf account 
nmilBrly for the olisolcte ambage and oompaga. Instead of our in j 
tiJScalt, the old eipresbion ii I'li ptnt^ficatibui ; but pontificaUbm wm 
too long to be nntiiralized as Engliab. Contrut tnanilmf. 

• Henry Brooke, Tke Foal of Qiialitj/ (od. 1792), Vol 1. p. 192. 
^ee NtfciiniiUofPHrgalBriii{li2(l),{a.TarllenUJali,&<:. (ed. 1S44), 
p. 73 : Fuller, Thi Holy Siat» and thl Frifant State (ed. 1841), p. 9. 

• Ltlttrt e/ Juniwi, No. 6B. 

> Horace Wulpole, TAs Caslh of Otranlo, Ch. 4. 

" Riobnrdaon, Clariaa SarloKt, Vol. 7, p. 131. 

' Bheridan, The Hunina, Act 2, Scene 3. Stoty is here put for 

' Charles Dihdin, The BeierUr, Act I, Scene 2. 

" Bat hu, as if hee had nut knowne mec, or had not giTen him any 
such thing at all, made to ttrangi of it, that hee made me to saapect 
that, according t« the ciatome of that country, hee had druuke a cup too 
munb, and bo might happely hare forgot it." Mabbe, Tht Rogue 
(1623), Fart Z, p. 33S. 

■ He gave me the dmppado on my elioiilders, and the 
bastinado on the soles of my feet," • 

" Yon are not a little beholden to the poor dear aoul 
that 's dead, for putting a ^reak in your ladder, when you 
was on the last stop of it."' 

"Accordingly, the sublime of Homer, in the hands of 
Pope, becomes bloated and tumid, and his description 
tawdry." ^ 

" I ciinnot but marvel to see you jnnie so elmiii/e of an Bipreeaion 
not only frequent in Scriplure, but common and usual in eiery lan- 
guage.'" Joseph Made (1829), JForis (ed. IfiB*), p. 922. 

Anotbcr old expression, somewhat similar, may aptly be exemplified 
in this place. " II [pamlepels] is also very many times ubed, for s 
good poUioie in pleading or peravrasion, to mati inUe be if we set but 
light of the matter," &c. Fultenham, p. 194. Bee, for another in- 
stance, p. 262. 

' Biolicnitaffi!, Thf Fadloeh Aot 1, Scone 2. 

* Cumberland, Tht Xataral Son, Act 3. Slrettk here means ' rung ' 

" Cnvfper, /Foi-i*, Tol. IS, p. 182. Here we haTfi a sample of a 

ipeoiea o£ Oalliciam which struggled long, hut unsucceaafully, for 

naturalization. Even in our own century, writers of not« have nsed 

I like eipreesione \ but they ace uow leutured by none eicept tke very 


" So that it was only s ciri! and p«liti<!sl worship, in the legislators, 

d hod very little of tacred, even among Che ru%ar," £entley, 

Woflu. Vol, 8, p. 301. 

"HU model may be oicellent; hnt the copy vriil be riiiiculous. 

I This ridiruh does not arise from bis having imitated," &c. Sir 

Joahu-i Reynolds, Lilerari/ Warts, Vol, I, p, 161. And ridiealt is so 

[ used by Addison, in Tht Spectator, No. IS. 

" Tho iiieomprihmiilth of Lore.'" Cowper, Wurit, Vol. 9, p. 39. 
" They are the shadowy oliieuri and fearfully anomalouf ul physical 
I nature, Uie laiahii ol human nature." Coleridge, Kotcs and Leetura 
vptiH SAatfipiarc, Vol. 1, p. 240. 

Te will return, at some future time, to the tiulaphi/aical of the 
Inngnage." Lander, Warkg, VoL 1, p. 164. 

"lot to insist on tiie proiaie of the passage, wo may inquire who 
i eould he suspicious, or who could know anything about Ida wit and 
sublilly."' Id., itid.. Vol. 2, p. 69, 

" Byron, often impreasive sad powerful, never reaches the Imvie 


" The fencing-schools were, of necessity, much resorted 
to hy your gallants, and such of the commonalty who 
aped their manners, as tavem-waiters," &c.^ 

" Oh my Thais, welcome ! 
How does my sweeting ? " ^ 
"He vainly hoped that his sycophant court-language 
would be echoed back in the address." ^ 

" The life of man 
Is like a game at tables" * 
" But here the common proverb takes place, that charity 
begins at home." ^ 

" He took notice to his friends of the king's conduct." ® 
" And draw'st the taplash of another's brains." ^ 
" When I sallied forth, the moon was darting her tem- 
perated rays through the shade that surrounded the cot- 
tage, tipping the tops of the venerable oaks with silver." * 
" Then, throwing her teresa aside, upon my soul, she is 
prodigious fine," &c.^ 

and the patlietic of these two poems. " Id., The Last Fruit Off an 
Old Tree, p. 278. 

The sublime, the obscure, &c., not followed by o/, are accounted 
good English. Ridicule, for * ridiculousness', is a GaUicism of a dif- 
ferent order. 

1 Dr. John Nott, in his edition of The GulPs Horn-book (1812), p. 

154, note 7. 

2 Colman, The Comedies of Terence, &c., p. 101. 

3 John Wilkes, The North Briton, No. 46. 

In the prose of the last century, many words now exclusively 
substantives were used adjectivally; as bombast, coquet, harlot, neigh- 
bour, patriot, scoundrel, &c. &c. And vide supra, p. 227, note 3. 

* Colman, The Comedies of Terence, &c., p. 2G5. 

* Bishop "Warburton, A Selection, &c., p. 350. Takes place here 
signifies * is applicable *. 

8 Dr. Johnson, Life of Waller. Took notice here means *made men- 
tion'. And so Richardson, ^a««iw, Henry Brooke, Colman, &c. &c. 

■^ Colman, Prose on Several Occasions, &c., Vol. 3, p. 157. 

« Mr. Berkeley, Olla Podrida, No. 37. Also see Johnson, The 
Rambler, No. 17/ ' Foote, The Lame Lover, Act 3. 


" Otlier critica have taken the tent of Horace in the 
me sense t/i'il I have Iiere considered it." ^ 
" i'or all the Jesuits had got the cholic, and to tluit de~ 
ee, as never waa knowa in the memory of the oldest 

[ practitioner."* 

rill give you a few lesaons shall set you up for a 

I fine gentleman in a minute."' 

" I am come to tjiste your good cheer, and pass an 
evening with you over a tiffoi punch."* 

"A tour to Tjbum in a Hm-whiehey and two would 

I have concluded your travels," ^ 

> ColmiTi, Froit m Srveral Oeeasioru, &c.. Vol. 3, p. 97. Also eee 
p. 111. 
■■> atome, TriitriiM Shandy, Vol. 7, Ch. 39. 

Slightly different is Ihe conatniotion in thfi fnllowing pnBsago, wherfi 
ilial . . aa — the m being eipreaSFd Or undentood, — k followed by tbu 

" Mrs. Eirera behnvrf with that sweetness and affnbility a* to gain 
slmoBl the adoration of the Bhole family." GrsTes, The Spiritual 
Quiiati, Vol 1, p. 299. 

" I never was thai romsntic fool to imagine there cun he happineBS 
where there is not independency." Frederic Philon, St icouU it) a 
Soldiir, Act 2, Scene 1. 

"The dDmonstiatiTe that is aometimeB used, very emphaticnlly, for 
■so much'. 'But the eiraulation of things, occgsioued by com- 
merce, is not of that moment at the transplantation which human na- 
ture itself baa nndcrgoae.' 

" Sometime* this same pronoun is elegantly nsed for ' so mncli ' or 
' fliich n ' . ' Some cf them have gone to that height of extravagance, 
at to aeaert'," &c. Priestley, Tin Jludim/iita, &o., p. 63. 

It may he doubted whether either of tlieae modes of pipreaBioD was, 
in Priestley's time, regarded as elegant. At all events, thrj are 
thorough vulgnrisms, now-a-daye ; just what one would look for in the 
writings of scholars like Mr. Dioltena. See Somleij asd Sen («d. 
1848), p. 472. 

> Cumlwrtand, Tkt Choleric Man, Ant 2, Scene 2. 

The omission of the relative pronoun is observable in this paBsago. 

• Cumberland, The Brothem, Act 2, Scene S. Also aee Warton, 
7%< Idlxr. No, 33 i Footo, Tht Cap«ehin, Aet 1. 

* Foote, Tht CbsMWJ, Aot 1. Also see Colraan. Prologne lo Tki 
I Suicide. Buries biBjim-tebiiiee. OirretpetideHee, Vol. 1, p. 182. 

i H 


" Of time, on all occasions, he was an exact computer, 
and knew the minutes required to every common opera- 

*' Tou have a good appetite to what you eat 1 " ' 
" 'T is eviilent, and I can plainly see, 
He baa no stomach to a wife." ' 

" He had the assurance, last winter, to court a tradee- 
man'a daughter in the city, with two thousand pounds to 
her fortune, and got me to write hia love-letters." * 

" You shall have Nancy to your wife, aa I promised 
you." » 

" He flattered himaeK that she would not only acquiesce 
viith patience to a divorce," &c.* 

" I may lose five and twenty thousand pounds by their 
acquiescence to this breach of faith in the Spaniards." ' 

" I think to go to Tunbridge for a fortnight." * 

" It has been said, already, that the article has no mean- 
ing but when associated to some other word." * 

" But, to the deformer, — a name too often synonymous 
to the improver,- — ^it is not necessary that bis trees should 
have attained their full growth."^" 

' Dr. JohnBon, life of Sicifi. 

' Bickerataffa and Foote, Dr. Ltul i» Ml Chariot, Act 2, Scene 1. 

3 Colman, Tin Chntedia of Terence, &c., p. 326. 

* Garriclt, Siffh Life Btlaw Stairt, Act 1, Scene 2. 

' Murphy. TArte Wetki After Marriagt, Act 2. And see Colman, 
TIte ComtdUK of Teraae, kc, p. 171. 

' Hornco Wnlpole, The Cattle of Otranto, Ch. I. 

' Zetteri of Junius, No. 4. Also tee Br. Johnson, The Rainbhr, 
No. 150 J and Horace Walpole, Tht Oulle of Otranto, Ch. 6. Cohnun 
hm " acquieaciinco utitk." Prom on Several Oceiuiima, fie. Vol. 2, p. 

" Richardson, Claritia Sarhire, Tol. i, p. 29S. 

' Jgraea Harrifl, Sei-joet, p. 224. Also aeo Aaron Hill, Worte, Vol. 
I, p. 157. 

"> Uvfldale Price, Aa Eway oh the Pietureaque, &o,, p. 219. 

" So doth the kn accept it in this oath, irhere it makes it eqaivalent 
and Bynoninioua to the wordes which are joined with it," &c. Donne, 
Tteudo-marli/r (!610), p. 33B. 


" WLat the devil is toward now^ " ' 

" Hiisli ! I hear Captain Cape's Toice. Tho hideous 

" Would you believe it, that perverse hussy, Lucy 
Waters, who left me but this minute, threatens to froTis- 
tierse all my hopes, and is gone this instant to Sophia, 
with that resolution 1 " * 

" But 't is all tritical, and moat irittcaUy put together. " * 

" This, however, did not happen till it was tjtraed of 
eleven} and then he judged it of the latest to intrade 
upon them." * 

" Tyranness in your turn, aceuae others of your own 
gmlt." s 

" Accept our uitaXienahle love to you both." ' 

" Your couEin, the maniuGss, and all ^our guesCa, are at linnd ; rtnd I 
we no meat totcards." Deleter, Chottle. and Hanghtan, Fnlimt 
GriMii (1603), p. 70 (ed. 1841), Also see Chattla. iTmrfAsrW ii«fnn», 
p. 48. 
* "I 'm »ure there '» mischief toviardt." Sir John Vanbragh, Tht 
Mittate, Act 6. 

" But, as ill fortune would have it, there was bodib piutiy toward," 
4o. Mr. Euakin, Arah-a J'enUlid (1872), p. 30. 

' Murphy, T/u Old Maid, Act 2, Scene 1. Also see Gay, Pally, 
Introduotion ; Tanbnigli and Oolley Gibber, The Frmaked Mvaiurul, 
Aiit 1 : Steele, Tfie Tindir Sutband, Epilogue. 

" Is traiBonlaM, and sEambles all belief," writea Cowper, using tho 
adjeotitB. Workt, VoL B, p. 183. And eo Steele, The Tatier, No. 223. 

' Cumberland, The Brelheri, Act S, Seene 1. 

• SleniB, Triitram Shandy, Vol. 6, Oh. 11, 

' Ilonr; Brooke, The Fool of Quality, Vol. 6, p. 27. " ' Mjf dear ', 
Eft}^ ho, 'aiF,puciunu home Tery lale, lust nigbt.' ''T was but just 
tumtd of two ', Bays 1." Vanbrugh and Oolley Gibber, TIte I'liimked 
Hiaiait'd, Act 3. 

1, Clariua Sarlomt, VoL 2, p. 239. Also see pp. 4, IT, 

The Tocation in tinin coniea to lie thought mean and 
unereditabh." ^ 

" Don't be under any surprise." ' 

" The Penaloaa brought, thia evening , . . . one of the 
jnoBt ungain, conceited profesaors of the art of murdeting 

'er met with." ' 

The Phceniciana, who spoke a harsh and uniuneahle 
dialect, were unacquainted with fine poetry, and, conse- 
quently, with poetical ideas." * 

Tou aee I am become a mereiBiirer, and want to make 
we upon «ae." * 
. " It renders the habit of society dangerously valeiudi- 
nanj." * 

But, really, these thick walls are enough to inspire 
the vapours, if one uever had them before." ' 

" Heally, that old moat and drawbridge are enough to 
vapour him to death." ^ 

[ shall presently aee landacapes beautifully diversified 
with . . plains of plush, vaUeye of veheret," Ac." 

She proceeded to remark, that they who had warm 
fortunes were always sure of getting good husbands." '" , 

PalBy, Strmen, Sept. 21, 1782. 

Guinbei'laDd, Tha Brolheri, Act i. Scene 3. 

Becktord (1787), Ilaly, &o.. Vol. 2, pp. fl2, B3. Also see Misa 
^antejf, Cecilia, Book 9, Ch. 3 : Cnmliorland, The Natural Son, Act 1. 
' H. P. Eni|;bt, An Aeemml of the Semains, Sk., p. 91. Also see 
Cumberland, The Natural Son, Act 1. 

Hicbardaon, Pamela, Vol. 2, p. 389. Also sac Cnmberknd, Tia 
Jfatuml Son, Ant 5. 

Bnrke, Rsfleetiota on the BerolHtion in Traiise. 

Miss Bnniey, Cerilia, Book 6, Cb. %. 

Id., ibid.. Book 6, Cb. 7. " [Ton were] a little vapoured, I thought, 
yesterday." Id., ibid.. Book 1, Ch. 10. Also sea Frederick Pkilon, 
Me fBovld 6e a Ssldier, Aet 1, Scene 3. 

Oiior|;e Canning, The MierocBim, No. 22. Also see Sautbey, 
letter; &o. (Bristol, 1797). p. 11. 

OolAsmitb, I^ Vicarof Wahefild, Ch. 16. In the same ohapter, 
fRrmei WilllamB is colled "a icarm man ". This is a &Tourit« phrase 


" She had been brooght to bed, that day mas a mnuth, 
of a very fine boy." ' 

" You would much sooner be Uken for her wash- 

"If dame Winifred was here, she'd make 'em all out 
with a ■weljinger; but they are above me." * 

"Perhaps there is not a fault but wJiatmay take shelter 
under the moat venerable authoritiea." * 

with the miserly Mr. Briggi, in Mias Barney's Cecilia. Alao ate Janli>a 
Kenney, Mailing the tt^ind, Act 1, Soona 1: John O'Keoffo, Thi 
Farmer, Act 2, Suanu 4 : Coleridge, Literary Eetaaira, Vol. 1, p. 203. 
WaTM, in these cases, means ' afflaont '. The vulgar still use it. 

' Ftwte, The Cbuniia, Act 2. And liere I msy mention sennight, 
for ' week ', onlj recently obsoleted. 

• Miss Bumey, Evtlina, Vol. 1, Letter U. Also eee Vol. 3, Letter 

3 Foote, The Enighti, Aet 1 . "A portar might fetch him with, a 
wttjlnger" DeVker, A Kmghti Colouring (1607), p. 19 [fld. 1842). 
The meitQing is ' with aaae '. 

Br. John Kott, in bis edition of The GiilPi Sombook (1812), bti- 
traya thut the phrase "nitli a wet finger " was unknowa to him in 
roodem usa. I am sare I hava met with it fifty times in the literature 
of the last century. For instances, hy Thumas Edwards and Samuel 
Richardson, tm Uie CorrapotidtHee of the latter, Vol. 3, pp. 15, 173. 
Also see Bishop Ijiviogton, The Moravians Campared arid Delected 
(1750), p. SO. 

Dr. Nott farther thinks, as to "with a wet finger", that "indeed, 
it is not tmprohabla hat the expression may be purely Deckerian " ; and 
dimetieai, he oonjeutorea, is "a word perhaps of thu author's coin- 
age i for I fiftd it nowhere else " but in Dekker. 

Both terms were, certainly, established before Dekker wrote. 
" There is added, also, a large & plain table, in ordre of the A. B. C, 
whereby to the name of any persone, or to any good matier in the 
hooka couteined, readie waye and recourse maye with a iPtat fgnger 
easily bee found out." DdtiLl, jipopAthej/iiiei (la42). To the Reader, 

Dimetieai is used by Kasb, in Pvrec Penilatt, &a. (1592), p. 40 (ed. 

' Sir Joshua Reynobis, LitsTsrif Works, Vol. 1, p. 1 12. 

a, but ichat tdU 
the story of him." Benlley. Work; Vol. 2, p, 214. 

" There is not a note in the gamut but wliat tends to betgten tn^ 

"There ia nothing so ridiculoiiB, or, rather, profane, 
which pious writers will not say for the sake of a witty 
allusion. Thus, the learned Bishop Taylor says, that 
Christ was born at the sign of the Star, in Bethlehem." ^ 

" You may think it too soon to form an opinion of the 
future government ; yet it is imposBible to avoid hazard- 
ing aome eonjeutures, when everything wkUpera me that 
naniea, not principles, are changed," iSic' 

" I, for my part, do heartily widi you may not be 
deceived." ' 

iTiflame m; irife's lauacj." Colntan and ThumU>ii, TIte CoHHoisieur, 
So. 128. 

" Ha olMerTed that no virtue was aHe M n-eiei his arts and seEidoity, 
and that scarcalf a former'a daughter, within ten niilee round, but 
viAat had found Mm Bacceesfiil and faithless," GDldsmilh, The f'icar 
of Wstsfleld, Ch, 3. 

" The abbot cannot be hnmbled, bnt vhat the coramnnity must be 
hnmbled in hia jwraoa," Sir Walter Soott, The Monatlerg, Ch. 10, 

" Not a thing stolen, but vthat the eea gare it up again futbfilUy." 
Dr. I. H. Newman, Lives a/ iht Saints, St. FaulinQS, p. 102. 

This gross vulgarism muDh Burpriees one in Dr. Newman. It ia 
still frequent in inferior vritera. LordLytton, The Caxlatis (1-to1. ed. 
1856), pp. IIB, 257, 263, 357 : What will S6 do with it f (ed. 1859), 
Vol. 1, pp. 187, SOI, 326 ; Vol. 2, pp. 64, 95, 321 ; Vol. 3, p. 321 ; 
Vol. 4, p. 10 ; ^ Strange Story (ed- 1862), Vol. 2, p. 226 : The 
Coming Bace (6th ed., 1872), p. 289. Ee*. Charles Kingaley, Tao 
YeBri Ago (London ed. 1857). Vol. 3, p. 27S. Mr. Charles Reade, 
Hard Cash (ed. 1863), Vol. 3, p. 22 : Griffith Gaunt (ed. 1866), Vol. 
2, p. 89 : PW Y<iur>elf i» Hit Flaee (ed. 1870), Vol. 2, p. BO. 

> Graves, The Spiritual Qulxete, Vol. 1, p. 42, foot-not«. 

" Mr«. Godwin, FeitAumiua Workt (17B8), Vol. i, p. 50. 'And ao 
Miaa Burney, Horace WalpQlt^ &c, &. 

' Gray, Works, Vol. i, p. 199. " I teiih thou art not already too 
^miliar with the wicked ones." Mia. SoEanna Centlivre, A Snld 
Stroke /or a Wife, Aot 5. " I tcish I don't love him at last." Hicb- 
ardion, Sir CharUi Graaditon (ed. 1811), Vol. 4, p. 256. This is B 
very common use with Richardson ; and I find it in Sterne, Miss 
Carter, Burke, &a. &c. " I uiiih thoy don't half kill liim by theit 
ridiculous fondness." Miss Bumey, Cecilia, Book 6, Ch. 6, 

It mttst be oonfeesed, that we hare dealt strangely by ■hup), in mak- 
ing it Eerre the ofSce of teith, in initanees like those quoted. 

"J'tspere quGTOtie BBnt^Mf bonne. Voui Toil^ content, /> retpire." 

" The Btation to which, the chief direction of such a 
work properly belongs, ia filled icith a, person endowed, 
beyond any other of this age, with all the abilities," &c.' 

" Let me have a roast turkey, plump and full-breasted, 
hia craw full with marrow." * 

" When he shall see what frippery a woman is made up 
with, what a pasticcio of gaiizes, pins, and ribbona go to 
compound that multifarioua thing, a weU-dressed woman ; 
why then, why then, — what was I going to say ! " * 

" Come, come, my lord, a trace with your reflections on 
my niece ! " * 

" One commission, however, I can't dispense rtith my- 
self from executing." * 

Ttioae locutions are condemned by M. "Wej, Remarquit twr la Latigui 
Franfiiu, Vol. 1, p. S'il. 

As between the Freiioh and oureelveB, on wboae part has there here 
been imitadon f Ot hoa there been none on eitfaei P 

' Bishop Lowth, Sermima and Oc/utr Semaina, p. 90, note 2. 

' Bobert Jephaon, I^ SlHngt to your Boa, Act 2, Scene 2. 

3 Cumberltind, The Natural San, Act I. " But joa hare heard o( 
our neighboun, Honestus and Futiosa,- — he a peaceable mun. and she 
mude np fcilh discord," &c. VUcoiut GrtmstoDe, The iawi/cr'i Fur- 
tutu, Act 1. 

< Cohoan, Th4 Jtahut Wife, Act 3, Scene 1. Id., Prologue to A 
Wift iH the Eight. Also see Chulea Macklin, Lavi d la Mudt, Aut 1, 

^ Foote, Thi Jfinor, Act 2, Si>iinii 1. AIeo see Henry Broolw, The 
Fof,l of QMtily,V oil, p. IIS; Vol. 3, p. 222 ; Vol, 5, pp. ill, 208. 
" As the tenn begins this dsf, I ahould wieb Ui be dispensed aith in 
general, bat will wait upon jou, if yoa think proper, oQ aiij pnrticnlar 
occaiion, to call me intocotirt." Arthur Murphy, in The Frieati Car- 
retpBttdmee of David Oarrici, &c.. Vol, 1, p. 603. 

One of the old meuninga ol dhpmu tuitk, npplied io a person, ss 
above, iiB 'exempt', ' excuse', 'absolve'. With tbe same sort of re- 
gimsD, the simple verb diipenne, in the same sense, is perfectly good 
EagUah ; and yet Or. Webster's Editors know nothing of it. 

" Ho appeared to thiol binLself born to bo supported by others, and 
ditpetued iiom all neceMitj of providing for himialf." Dr. Johnson, 
Li/e of Saragi. 

•• This is, at least, the rule ol bistorj ; and, if poetry should only 
deviate from it for the aake of making the fable oi 

" Here she meets with such, excellent pennyTvorths, that, 
tts my pantty is stored with more provisions than we can 
dispense with" &c.' 

" And then he went on with sharpening his kjufe." * 
" For more than a year, Scott has cut with the Edin- 
burgh Eeview," ' 


vellona, heroic, nnd anBwering to our notions of jnstiue, T do not eee 
how the poet b ditpemed from it in this inatance." Gibboii, Misatla- 
neoui Warki, Vol. 4, pp. 125, 120. 

" To diipente na from this painful necessity, unthority ought care- 
fully to be iaviatvd viith u sort of magic puiGuaDiun." Godwin, A.n 
Snquiiy, &e,, p. fi06. 

"This materialism .... allows its disciples to talk, and diapensci 
them from thinking." Shelley, Haiaifa, &o., Vol. 1, p. 326. 

" The orders of the directors fumislicd htm with the means of effect- 
ing his pnqiose, and ditpetutd him from the necessity of discassiag thu 
matterwithhisCouneil." Lord MBCauky,iiMy on Warrm Ratting: 

" Ab he could not be diiptnied from residence, he had no option but 
to sell the living at once." Dr. J. H. Newman, Eaaayi Critical and 
Biitorieal, Vol. 1, p. 414. Also see Leeluret an the FrcKAi Fosiliim of 
Calholict in Utiylaiid (ISfil), p, 173. 

' Caiman and Tbomton, Ths'^ContiDiuew, No. 91. 

' Miss Bnmey, Cecilia, Book 2, Ch. 1. 

' Southey, Seleedom from hia Letters, Vol. 2, p. 110. 

A last-century use of toith is thus noticed by Hrieetiey : " The pre- 
position with is, also, Bometimes used, in conversation, to eipruBs a 
de^c of qnality something less than the greatest ; as, ' they are with 
the ffidest'." The Sudiments, &c., p. fi6. 

Similar phrases, in which we have substituted o/Tor viHA, are of the 
oldest. For two, from Udail (1542), see my Additions. 

" There had she such oheare as farmers houses alfoord, wha fare not 
aifh the meanest." Henrie Chettle, Siadharti Breame (15B2), p. 97 
(ed. 1841). 

" And, although he was cut off in the middle course and principal! 
atr^gth of his age, yet, in respect of honour and fame, he hvedioi'fA the 
longest, having, in all parts, fulfilled the moBEure of true nobility." 
Sir John Haywrirde, TAe First J'arl of ihe Life and SaigTtc of King 
MiHrie Iht nil. (1SB9), p. 2. 

" Till be be ready to rise, which, I presume, will not bee with the 
soonest, I prethee let me intreat thee to goe a little way with a servant 
'' mine," i:c. James Habbe, Thi Kogue (1623), Fart 1, p. 23fi. 

"Neverthelesse, excuse me, if I tell you, sir, that your hnt dolhfl^ 

"We feel not tlie sudden damps hia spirit ia often 
seized mthal." ' 

" Wildgooae could not forbear fixing bis eyes upon a 
amall oval picture of a young lady, in a gilt frame, that 
was fixed in a panel iDiOtbiside of the door." ' 

"Ay, marry, you are welt oiT. 'T is no worse than you 
expected. But I am a woe woman this heavy day, I am 

" It is not to be wondered, that Christianity hath made 
no greater progress." * 

a little on tlie one side thereof. The brimi ore leith tliu largest. 
Cause them to he cut mare narcuvF," Thn Comical Sitlar;/ of Franeian 
(16dS), Buok 6, p. 4. 

I'bUcmon Holkod, in the paaaage whicli foUaws, put the aomporative 
after icUh. 

'■ Tea, he eseayed, flirt hefore all Otharg, to vault and mount on 
horaebacI:e, to tihoot, also, &nd dart from hia horse. Went he, 
anj time, away «'i(i the worse ? Very plensant he was, and laughed 
at himselfe most of nil." The Cyrupadia {1G32), p. 12. " Want hs," 
&c., is to render t/rrujfwvoE Si atric. 

like ' with the meanest ', £c. are the Latin cum primii, i» primii. 
Also oompaie the Hehraism iv i^ioroil, iv roTc ii't'tertus, in sxcelnia ; 
and Si' iyyur^roe, Tbucjdides, 8, 96. 

Dr. Abbot prodoces a single instance aimilar to those which I bare 
quoted, — "with the least," from Ben Jonson ; and this he hastily 
explains as ognifying " something like, very near, tlio least." See A 
S'mkeaperian arammtr (ed. 1971), see. \S5. 

' Bishop Lowtb, StrmotiH and Other Smiaiui, p. 326. 

' Graves, Thi Spiritual Quixeir, Tol. 1, p. 1S2. 

' Henry Brooke, The Fmali Offietr, Act 2, Scene 3. 

> Bishop Lowth, SermoHi, &c., p. 8S. Also see hia baiah (ed. 
IT7B), Prelim. Dissert., p. a. 

Milton. Ariopagitita (ed. ISeB), p, 36. De Foe, Mell Flanden (ed. 
1840), p. 306. Bishop Hurd, Moral and Palilieal Dialogiiea, &is., p. 
307. Mrs, Inchbald, U« WiM JfanD/"/Aa«flsJ, Act2, 8csnB2. Dr. 
Newmim, ZtVu of ths Sainit, The Family of Sir Richard, Sui., p. 70. 
Also cKfe luprn, foot of p. 201. 

" Nor ia it at all to be admind, if men fancy something rash," Ice. 
Lord rreston, JIm(i*im (1693), p. 187. Also ride itipra, p. 210, note 4. 
Jt is eoitwnted ia admit him again, and watched to eiitraj) him." 
Gauli', Xlvi-f,avTla, p, Zbo. 

And here it is appropriate to remind of modes of 
epeUing, now altered, which prevailed only a very 
few generations ago ; ^ and also of words imported 
from abroad, of which the old forms, as in the case of 
Imsto' carieatiira,^ rotund* toiise,^ and vteto* differ 
from those now in vogue. 

Intermediate between the English which I have 
been treating of, and English of recent emergence, 
stands that which ia obsolescing. A few examples 
of phrases, and senses of words, belonging to this 
category, here follow. 

" To shew my uncommon civility, I advertise my reader, 

Mamlltd hss been U6cd in the siime way. Bacon, Eami/i, Ho. ii. 
Of Defirmity. Gatakar, Of the Nature aad Utt of LoIk, &c. (ed. 
1627}, p. 3*6. 

" It ie pretended, that the compflnj may eipect," &c. Colman, 
Terra FHiui, No. 2. 

■ Such ss allay for alio;/, aisaj/ for emay, eisay for a»tay, Ac. ke. 
Obsolete modeB of epelling, and thoee of pronnnciation, I cannot, how- 
ever, undertako to treat of. 

* " A buxa Btanda near them, to denote Saulpturo." James Har- 
ris, Thrti Tritttiiei (ed. ITOS), p. 37S. Also see Dr. Joseph WirUn, 
The Adventurer, No. S9. 

' " I shall be stuck up in can'eaiura in all the print-shops." Gold- 
smith. She Stoopi to Conquer, Act 4, Scene 1 . Also see Dr. Jowph 
"Warton, The Adventurer, No. 133: John Frere, The Microcom,'So. 
fi : George Canning, ibid.. No. 18. 

' "They are going, likewise, to hnild a mt-iind. It) terminate the 
visto." Shenstone, Letters, No. 47. 

' This is the old corruption of sdiii, the Freni^h coin. Its pronnn- 
ciation at so late a period aa 1781 ia seen from tbis couplet : 
■> With broken Funds our Monarch meets the House : 
His Board of Works have left him scarce a louu," 
Colman, Pnneon Several Vceaeioni, &e.. Vol. 3, p. 229. 

* " They might see a long, dull, dreary, uoToried riito of despair 
and exclusion, for halt a century, before them." Burke, SpteeK m cMa 
£commieal Refonn, 1780. AJso see John O'Eceffe, The Friimier tl 
large, Act 1, Scene 4. 

that I Bhall impartially transcribe every argument in your 
liivour that has come to my knowledge," Ac' 

" It was boldly aflSrmed, that iimumerablB miraclee ap- 
proved the peculiar virtuea of the practice which was thus 
introduced," &c.* . 

" So far aa this hypothesis may be accepted, the ground 
of the difficulty is done ajeay."^ 

" By what I have heard of his character, I fear it affords 
no very comfortable prospects for our poor PrincesB." * 

" He is known, however, to have written several things 
that have appeared as anonymous; and I fancy, now, soon 
we shall see something conisidprahle from him." " 

" The learned Le Fevre wrote a most elegant copy of 
Latin verses, execrating the fiute and all the commentators 

"A short time, I hope, will discover the generosity of 
his sentiments, and convince you that my opinion of him 
has been more just than yours." ^ 

' I'oraDO, Zclleri to Xr. Arthdeaeon Trovd, p. fi3. 
= Southey, rind. Eecl. Angl., pp. 490, 4BI. Also laa p. 95. 
' Paley, Natural Thmiogt), Ch. 26. Also ace Cowper, Worti, Vol, 
0, p, 860: Southej, Fi'nrf. Stcl. Angl. p. 302. 

* Miu Garter, Lettiri to Min Talbot. £c., VoL 3, p. ISl. 

' Mi«B Humej, Cedliit, Book 8, Cb. 8. "Before I proceed, a re- 
msrk may he made hate, which our good old writeri wonld have oalled 
miHiiiitratlt." Soathey, find. Seel. Angi,, p. 22, Also see Laudoi, 
Worla, Vol. 1, pp. 163, 164. 

• Colmao, The Camcdiea of Terence, &0,, Preface, p. 33. 

■< Gold«n)itli, The Vioar of Wakefield, Ch. 17. AlsoseoDr. Newman, 
Etiafie Critieal and Si'ilBrical, Tol. 2, p. 439. 

A very common old sense of diieoter, namely, ' explore ', ' examine ', 
ia not recorded by our dictionarf-mukErs, Every reader of early roy- 
iigcs and traTols, in prtrticular, must know it well. 

" She Inie a slepe upon her backe, with her handes creI otci her 
heddo,— ftB, for tho mosle parte, yong women are wont to doe,— so that 
rorthwilh the yong Prince diieotvred her from kippe to toe." fiarnahe 
liche, TareweU (o Militarie Proffiaum (1581), p. 102 (od. 1846). 

'■ In this eame yecre, ISOO, it is reported, that Gwper Corlereal 
crsTed a gencrall licence of the king Emmimue! to diecover the New 

" Could any poor creature write such stuiF, unless one 
lately eloped from Bedlam ? " ' 

" Mrs. Sarsanet, it seems, under whose protection Miae 
Townsend had placed herself, after her imprudent elffpe- 
merit from her father, had some buainesa at Bristol fair." * 

" I make little doubt but Noah was glad, when he was 
enlarged from the arkj and we are i 
when he came out of the hsh ; and 
from the good sloop the Harriet." * 

" Cecilia, who had no difficulty i 
tended school-master for Mr. Gosport, i 

B that Jonah waa, 
o was I, to escape 

1 knowing this pre- 
i readily begin- 

" He spared not for warmth of expression, to 

alarm her deKcacy, or add to her displeasure." " 

found land." The Biieoverita of the World, &c. (1601), p. 90 (fld. 

" Sach a one was Juliua Casar, who, in Britain, a country undU- 
cavfred, peopled with a ralinnt nation, boguD a war in antoniii," &c. 
Fnller, The Sulg Stale and the Frnfani Stale, p. 308. Also see Glnn- 
vill, Sctpaia SdentijUa (ed. 166S), p. 31 ; afoyi, &0. (1676), VII., 
p. 1. 

" God commanded Moaea to aend twelve men to diicovfr the land of 
Canaan." Jeremj CuUier, Esaaj/i upon Seteral Moral Salyects, Fart 
4 (ed. 172S), p. H6. 

" These Tules, then, I will take for suro gronnds, and ustf them as a 
land-compass, in tlie diicovny I now intend." Joseph Mede (l(il3), 
Worti (ed. 1661), p. 370, 

"And that there ia an America of Beorets, and unknown Pern of 
nature, nhoee diieovery would nchty advance them, is more than con- 
jectare." Glanyill, Seepaii Seienlifica (ed. 1663), pp. 131, 132. 

"Now, to judge whether the ancients or moderns can be probably 
thonght to have mods the greatest progress in the search and dia- 
eoveriit of the vast region of tnith and nature, it will bo woTtll in- 
quiring," &Q. Sir William Temple, MiaecllsHra, Part 2, p. B. 

' John Wilkes, The North Briton. No, 19. "He eloped from his 
fiiends," &c. Miaa Burne;, Cecilia, Book 1, Ch. 2. Also Bce Ueury 
Brooke, TAe Fovl of QWifj/, Vol. 2, p, B8. 

' Graves, The Spiritual Quixote, Vol. 2, p. 13. 

' Cowper, IVorka, Vol. 5, p, 160. 

' Miss Bnmey, Ceeilia, Boot 2, Ch. 3, 

' Id., Hid., Book 3, Ch, 8, 

" Siio not only became reserved to me, iu order to re- 
I commend heraell' m.orG effectually to our gouvernante, 
I but," &C.1 

" The Djuaic struck up, and, playing bo loyal a piece of 

isic, no one liad the hardhiega to interrupt them." * 

" My good intentions towards you ... are Qontinually 

I frustrated by mere miperlinmciee, each as calls of 

I civility from persons not very interesting to me," Ac.^ 

" And here it will not he impertinent to observe, that," 
f &c.« 

" Yon will not, I hope, foi^et to send them time enough 
[ to be inserted in the volume." * 

" With your natural turn to equity, and knowing, as you 

), in the doctrine of precedents," &c.^ 

" The dwarf had like to have been killed more than 

" I collect the articles of news from the other papers, 
I and make new ones for the postscript, translate the mails, 
I write occasional lettere from Cato and Theatricus, and give 
I fictitious answers to supposed correspondents." * 

' Gntres, The Spirilual Qiiixote, Vol. 1, p. 114. Also aco Cowpar, 
I Tit Caimoiueur, Ko. 119 : MtB. Inchbold, The MidiU^kt Hour, Act 
I ], Bcaoe 1. 

' Graves, Tht Spirilual Qaixoln, Vol. 1, p. 201. Also aeo Cowpcr, 
mrtt. Vol. S, p. 3BI. 

5 Cowper, Wbrhi, Vol. 7, p. S35. Aleo see Mr. De Qamoflr, 
Woiit, VoL 16, p. 2S2. 

* Colertilge, Mdi to R^eetian (ed. 1854), p. 108, Also see 
Bouthey. Fi«d. Sed. Angl; p. 81 : Mr. Da Qoincey, Warlu, Vol, 13, 
p. GO, foot-note. 

" Covrper, Work; Vol. 6, p. 351. In ia omitted here. Also lee 
I Coimun, Tk< Oeniui, No. 9. 

■ LeUeria/Jwiiu»,So.6S. Also see Johnson, Tht AdeiHCwrr, No. 
I 137. 


" Let a man be never so wicked himself, yet," &c.' 

"la proportioa as ncknowledgments ate warmly ami 
vividly given, they are obnoxious to thia possible imputa- 
tion," &C.'' 

" But this we leave, as foreiga to our work, and draw- 
ing us into a theory which merits a better place than an 
nc&aalonal note." * 

" A gentleman told me, that, when he had once gone 
far from hia own island, one of his labouring servants pre- 
dicted hifl return, and described the hvery of hia attend- 
ant, which he had never worn at home, and which had 
heen, without any previous design, oeeaewnaJhj given 

" However, the task proved so difficult, that, when I 
had gone through a part of it, I remitted of my diligence," 

" 'T is true. Lord Dartford'a proposals to Miaa Herbert 
render him unworthy my alliance," &c.* 

' Biehop Lowth, Sermont and Other Remain!, p. 300. 

° JcHieph Richardson. The Fugitive, Adveitiaeinent. And see Jeremy 
Bentham, Woria, Vol. 4, p. 23. 

" Do ^ou prefer a Galliciam, or a Latinism i HowcTcr, 70a aball 
liave botb. 'Kot ohaziaue to Clodiiu'e Irw', fur nut ' auienablo ', 
'liable', or 'subject'," &o. Lsndor, World, Vol. 1, p. 158. 

It is very eoceatrin fo assBrt, tbat there is anything of foreign idiom 

' James Harris, Thr^s Treatiies (ed. 1765), p. 367. 

* Dr. Johnson, A Journeij, &c,, Ostig in Sky. 

The leiicogmphers do not distinguish the two eenees of ofeaiionat 
and Bceanotiaity. The prevailing modern setiM, 'now and then', ia 

" Sacb as these famous mirrors Bhall wee MeatvniaUf/ encoantor 
wiUiall, in our reudings." ItraCbwsit, The Eiigiiih Oentlcman, &c., 
p. 449. 

» Mnson, The Art of Fainting , &B., Profiice. 

" Joseph Richsrdflon, Thu Faffitiiic, Aot 6, Scene fi. Of u hers 
omitted. " Not unarorlhij the anlagontat of Dryden." Johnson, 
Life ofTopf. Also see The SanUiler, No. ISO, " irorlii/ the rsgErd 


" Her country, and the other marks 
Of her original, she neither knew, 
Nor, from, her age, was 't poBsible she Bhould." ^ 
" As my flrat wish, in attempting a play, was to avoifl 
[ every appearance oi plagiary" &c.^ 

" la that 80 wonderful ? And do you think 
To find a woman without any fault 1 " * 
" It tends to familiarize the mind to those atriot and 
[ flevere principles of judging," &c* 

" But, chiefly, I was struck to see that he suiFered Sir 
Clement, who stayed gupper, to sit between us,"' 

oF", &D., Ti., Aid,, No. 82. "'WTio ara uHumrthij proUctioa." Gold- 
imith. Tie Vicar of Ifaie/Uld, Ct, 20. " Wart&rt attention." 8ir 
Jobhuri KeynoH*, Liierctry tFarka, Vol. 2, p. Bi. 
1 Colmsn, Thi OmtdiH of Terence, &c., p. SO. 

> Sheridui, TAt Xii/ah, Preface. 

> Colmiin, Tha Oomedia ef Tirenee, &c, p. 323. Alao see Misa 
Hannah More, in The Privata OHmpondmee of David Qarriei, &o., 
Vol 2, p. 279: Cumberland, Tie Sataral Soa, Act 4: Mrs. Cowley, 
" 'ere ITiit/e (Ann 0«i, Acta 3 and ^. 

• Qodwin, Thi Enquirer, p. 184. Also see pp. 2Z5, 362. 
' Mus Bnniey, Evelina, Vol. 3, Letter II. "We intended to stay 
I theFarce." Id.,ibid.,Va\.l,'LcVl£-c20. "ShewoulAnotHaj/theirriaiiuf 
J in the morning.'' Id,, Ceeilia, Book 9, Cli. 4. Alao aee Biefaardcoii, 
I lunula. Vol. 4, p, 298 ! Anon., The World, No. 77 : Goidamith, The 
~ raf Waktfield, Ch. a : Colman, The Genim, No, 16 : Beoktord, 
I 2w/y, &o., Vol. 2, p. lOi. 

"Su the Duke and the rest uF the lorde departed, except the Earle 
\ oFDsrhy, -who «(fly«i™ji/jn' with the King," &c. Sir John Hajrwarde, 
I The Fint Part of the Life and Saii/iie of Stay Senrit the IIII. 
(lo99), p. 26. Alao see p. 38. 

Tiii and /or have sometimea been omitted after ' stay '. 
" Stay quarier-day he never ean abide. 
But takea np rent apon the high way -side." 

Samuel Itowlanda, The Four £n(itv<, p. 55 (ed. 1844]. 
" Do yea heure, duughtct ? Too ahall slai/e laff leaavrc" 
Henry Porter, The Two Angrie Wamea of Abifstan (1699), p. 34 
[ (ed. 1341), 
"Britac, And how does jourdnngUter? J,eu)ie, Ready for the honre, 
id like a blushing rose that itaiii the pulling," 

Fletcher, The Elder Brother, Act 2, Sceue 1, 

" Yet still the honest man went forward without auapi- 
cion, and grew rich, whUe I still continued tricksy and 
cunning, and was poor, without the consolation of hoing 

"V.a.'nD^ staid the Queen'i aafe delivery, .... be set forward," Ac. 
Hamun L'Estrange, Thu Seign of King Ckarki (ed. 1G56), p. 193. 

Also see Heylin, Tkt Bittori/ of Epxncopacy (1657), Part 2, p. 378. 

' Goldamith, The Vicar of 'll'a/ie_field, Ch. 26. 

The formaCion of Iflckti/ is observable ; the word eiemplifjing the 
rare aaffii -cy, vhich, perbape. consieta of s enphonicallj prefixed to 
the adJBCtiyal -y of roomy, for instance. Trielity is, then, irick + 'tg. 
Tipiy I would take, similnrly, from the now prnTincial tip, ' draught 
of liquor', and not go afield, with Dr. Wehtter'a Editors, to find its 
base in the Swias tips. Tipple is the fieqaentatiTe, or else the dimin- 
ntive, of tip. So we onciG had huggle, from hug. See Stubbes, The 
Anatomit of Abuses, p. 100. Ei»gk, from nils'. Tusaec, ptaiim. 
Seantle, from icant. Erathwait, The English Getii/ema«, &C, pp. 123, 
270. Add gmxtle, from grunl. 

The Bchoolhoy's eatif doubtlesB sprang from coehy ; and kiekty- 
wieksy, from kickg^aickg. Again, as a friend enggosta to me, doxy, 
inatead of being referable to the Danish duike, nia^ have Blartcd ftavi 
the vernaiuJar ducky, and so oonsiat of duck + » + y, 

Bat we are not yet at the end of words presaiDablj embodying a 

Idlethy. Whitlocli, qaoted bj Archdeacon Todd. 

Levidibg. Qaestiom of FroJilaUe aiid Pleasant Cnnecrniiigs, &D, 
(1694), foL 31 V. 

Rigihy. A World of Wonders (11106), The Epistle, &a., sig. A 2 r. 

Rudeaby. Used twice bj Shakespeare. 

"Ton are a radetbg, yourself," writes, in 1774, Mrs. Catherine 
Clive, in The Private Correipeiidetice of David Oarrick, &e.. Vol. I, 
p. 604. 

Sneaksby. Barrow, JForit, Vol. 2, p. 8 ; Vol. 3, p, 330. Dekker, 
in his Satiro-maslix, sig. I 4 y, has meakesbitl, for which fonn, and 
for meakliU, see the new edition of Nares's Olossary. 

Suresby. James, A TreatiH of the Corruption of Scripture, &c. 
(1612), Part a, p. 12. Sym Suresby figures in Udalr'a Ralph Roister 
Soisler (before lBfi3). Sureiie is the form in Richard Bernard, Ter- 
ence in Unglish (1688), p. 86 (ed. 1607). Like it, as to the absccoe 
of (, is litherbie. Id., ibid., p. 19. 

Here we have, annexed to adjectives and snbetantives, a, with -by; 
unless aome ono proves the extsteitce of the teimiaa^an -iby. And 

" And now, sir, eoniplmients hcirg p(V5sc(!, I shall begin 
upon- business," ' 

" Saying this, he anatcheil up hia play, leaving my 
loster to please liimself with the prospect of being criti- 
ciied upon, in a, newspaper." * 

' Hah ! Here 'a another visifant, with another newa- 

At the beginning of this chapter, I quote an ob- 

eervation by Mr. Marsh, a philologist of high note ; 
and naany of my pages serve, incidentally, to show 
how far that observation is contradicted by lacts, 
But, if a scholarly student of our language can 
I err as Mr. Marsh has therein erred, what can be 

wlint is thia -ig } Hoiav have seen boy iu it. Tbe old spelling riidei- 
bey, wUioh I find once, eoggests do solution. 

In nanieB of places, -Jy is Swindinaviaii.ttnddenotca' town", 'abode', 

Namea of places bava largely become namea of persons, as Bnctht- 

hy. J)mby, Jirrhy. Futherby, Grimihy, Stibg, THoreaAy, &b. ftc 

Catesby, JUreiby, &o., I flto unablo W etymologuie ; but we are not, 

I vith Mr. If. 1. Bnwditch, to Und bet, the inceot, in biigIi nnmos ai 

AUlm, Denhee. and >SiUbee. Soe Safolk Snniama, p. 216, 

Perhape it mis in anecientifio imitHtion of prupur nntne* baring -ijy 
I St tlie enJ, that ooi oneestutK coined idlniy and itK congeners. 

Sumpiie bus been used for 'nearly tipsy'. TfUnii'i Jolt, &e., p. 
I 8. "A dria and driclisU oko," Pnttenham, p. 20S. Dr. John 
Euadlj signs bimself , at the end of a lotler, ■* Tour affuctiunBte 
Fucby," The I'rivati Cni-rctpimdena of Bavld Qarriiik, &n.. Vol, 1, 
p. 271. Gadai is u Gypsy word for ■■wifn'. Kyjuej/, in some pacts 
I of flo^tand, means 'basket', Limpay and linxy go with Jiimtg- 
Mepiy li'iig signiflod 'woman', 'mistress'. Btubbes, TAt Anatomia 
I o/ Abum (cd. 1836), p. 160, Pudtry, wbith BBemB to hum pre- 
ceded pudyy, ia found in Eicbordson's Sir CharlN Gmndimn, Vol. 
I 7, p. 239. QaMy is a low term for 'indigent ', SUtigtby I hove u 
note of, but am not sure of its sense. Toatty, in the languHge of the 
nufsery, U for ' foot '. Tntinwey is knoim to everybody, Tlleeu words, 
, and many like Itieni, wMcb miglit be meutiouvd, are etymologii:al 
I puExles. 

' Person, Zftttrn (o Utr. Arehiicseon Tivrii, p. 21, 
' Cliuriea Johnson. Chfyal, Vol, 3. p. Zlfi, 
' Mrs. Cowley, Mori Wayt l/i«n Oiu, Act 3. 

b ^ 

expected from aucli a person aa Mr. Thackeray, when 
he attempta so nieo a f-aak as to write in the English 
current among the contemporaries of Steele, Addison, 
and kSwift P ' To some, perhaps to many, hia well- 
known attempt to write thus has seemed signally suc- 
cessful. Of this opinion is, for instance, a eulogist 
in TliB Saturday Recieic. For we there read : ' 

" Mr. Thackeray's Ennoiid is & miracle of imitative art. 
.... It is scarcely possible for the keonest-acented critic 

to unearth an anachrouism, Thus, no man, woman, 

or child, in Eemond, ever says anything that he or she 
might not have said in the reign of Queen Anne." 

To expose the profound ignorance of this is suffi- 
ciently easy. Who, in Queen Anne's time, ever 
heard ofsuch English as " ivas being battered iowa"?* 

' Of the spirit, ta of the language, of aoj bygone age, Mr. 
Tbnckeraj had but «. parblind peroeptioii. But, among all bis works 
ia which he baa Tentorad iata t^e past, thnt on the Eogtisb bumourista 
must, to any one who haa atadied those writere by tbe light of bietory, 
aeem the most ambilioualy abortive. Prom Mr. Thackeray, as a novel- 
ist, there are, bnwcTer, lesaonB to be learnt which are highly Tolued 
now-a-days, and, but for supplying wbioh, be would never he tba 
prime favourite that he is wilh young Britons. And Iheae lessons are, 
with others of a aimilnr cast, to diabalievo utterly in human goodneBB, 
and to balievs every one who is not of jonr own set to be, moat likely, 
B " cad", and to be treated acoordingly. The novels of Mr, TbackerDy 
mirror, rigidly to the life, the conceit, superailioUBneaB, suapinion, and 
jenlouay of the Engliahroan in his latest polite phaais of degeneration. 
To hia countrymen tbey have, indeed, become a very Bible, aa I hare 
more than once heard them admiringly denominated. 

Mr. Thackeray'a patrician slang atfects, I know, many who live out 
of Che world, juat ae it affects myself. Well has it been said, by Sbelley : 
" The vulgarity of rank and fashion is aa gtoss, in its way, as that of 
poverty; and its cant lerma, equally eipressivo of base uoneeptions," 
Essays, 4c., Vol. 2, p. 222. 

" Vol. 18, p. 715 (Dec. 10, 1864), 

' Vol. I, p. 29. Also see Vol. 2, pp. 2fl, 228, 244, 248, The 
rpFerencd are to the London edition of Thi Hitlory ufHtiiry Eiwotid, 
in three volumes, 1862. 


Or of the verbs cede,' olden,'' philander?^ Or of (ifj- 
ffressive,* civilisation,' transatlantic,^ unplemaiitry,^ up- 
set?^ Of directly,' immediately,'^ and instantly," for 
' as soon as ' ? " Of all the same, " for ' nevertheless ' ? 

The readBF vrill Hnd, in. the Appendii, a full diacuedon of phruaes 
like thai \a wMcli Uiie nute is attadisd. 

' Vo!. I, p, 237. 

= Neuter and octEre. Vol. 1, pp. 202, 2S2. I doubt tlint tbe 
world had often heard of this verb before 1S32. 

' VoL 3, p. 108. This verb, ant imposBibly, did not bob the light 
till aiter Mr. Tbnclieraj himself. Tbe allusion it conveys is old. 

Attach, *erb neuter. Vol. 1, p. 161. tFeart/, Vltrb oauter. Vol. 
1, pp. 1S7, -236. 

These rorbs aro not known to tbe diclionory-wrightB. I rvia to 
them at pp, 293, 301, in/m. 

Narrate. Vol. I, p. 19; Vol. 3, pp. 13, 32, 230, This Terb, in 
Queen Anne's days, would, almost certainly, bare sturaped its umt as 
Scotch. Sec, furthcEr, p. 121, inpra. 

' Vol. 3, p, 15. This adjecdre, at least for any uuljceable eurconcy, 
belongs to our century. Vide infra, p. 314, note i. 

' Vol. 3, p. 16. It appears that Mr. Thackeruy could not have 
heard of the etory ooDnecting this word with Dr. Johnson. 

" Vol. 3, p. 324. Who us«d traTisatiantie befom the American 
Hevolulion ? Sb William Jones used it in ITS:^. See Memoirt, &<:., 
p- 217. 

' Vol. S, p. 246. Mr. De Quincey, having used the term iin- 
pleetaHlriei, thus annotates on it : " This is a new and ludicrous 
word, launched, a vt:ry few years back, in some commercial towns. 
It is generally uwij, not in any sense that the reader would collect 
from its antipole, pUaiantry ", &o. }riiTka (ed. 1BB3], Vol. 6, p. 
258, fool-nule. 

This uuthur is fur too omniscient to be trusted implicitly ; but tlivro 
is Bcaroely room tor queititm that vaplmta»try sprang up during his 

'' The substantive. Vol. I, p. 307. Upiett, ttnder that name, were 
very mrc befora 1800. 

• VoL 3, p. 36. '" VoL 2, p. 278. " Vo3. 1, p. 38. 

" iiMfonrify.BsHr.Ttiackemy uses it, I du not remember to have seen 
cxocpt in his pages. 0( its synooyms, dir'/cHu and immrdieteti), the 
latter is the older ; it having been printed in the lost century, towards 

a Seotticiam, and was imported 

Of espreesiona like quite a young lad' and in the 
interest* of justice; or of a young person,' for 'a 
young woman ' ? Wlio was then so careless as to 
write different to* habitually P Or so curious as to 
have disinterred, and ao eccentric as to use, the verb 
advocate,' the participle humiliated,'^ the adjective in- 
fiuenlinl^ and the preposition on to^? It was all 
very well for Mr. Thackeray to call an inn accustom- 
ed ; here and there to introduce phrases like a-bird- 
ing, a dish of chocolate, a pretty many, sceptic doiibta, 
trencher-man ; to misuse imperial, for ' imperious ' ; 
and to call a pretty maid-servant an ancillary beauty ; 
but, in these, and perhaps half a dozen more, obsolet- 
isms, — the whole of which might be got together in 
two hours' reading, — is comprised everything, in hia 
novel, at all savouring, as to language, of any days 

I Vol. 3, p. 132. Qitfte a child. Vol. I, p. ISl. Quill an tagtr. 
nan. Vol. 3, p. 25. Addlsnn aud his fricn^H knew nothing of quite, 
in thfl Bonse which it has here ; nor, eicept when the word wBfl pre- 
ceded by a negative, did the]' put a after it. 

' Vol. I, p. 103. yfe may be pretty sura that eyen Dr. Johnson 
was tinacquninted with this mie of inltrist. 

= Vol. 1, p. 175. Thie nauaeons slang Mr, Thackeray stands almort 
alone, among \a conteiaporaries, in employing scriouiljr. It ia alto- 
gether modem. 

* Vol. 1, p. 313; Vol. 3, pp. 37, 48, 78; Vol. 3, p. 166. For 
diffrrnil to, see pp. 77—81, fupra. 

» Vol. 3, p. 69. Vide infiv, foot of p. 285. 

< Vol. 1, p. 141. Ses the foot of p. 133, sspra. 

' Vol. 3. pp. 243, 209. Between the dnjs of Borrow and thou of 
Buike, the slambeta of inJItKutiiil were dieturbed yery rarely. Viit 
infra, foot of p. 286. 

' Vol. 3, p. 12, For this antiqne, see Cspgraye, Tha Chnnieltof 
Engltind, p. 382. 

I may adil partially, for ' only in part ', Vol. 1, p. 188, This, too, ti 
both yery old and too modern for Mr. Thackeray's pnrpore. For a 

\g period it was diauied. Vidi tupra, foot of pp. ISl, 192. 

OUR grandfathers' ENGLISH. 277 

but our own. In brief, instead of being " a miracle 
of imitative art," the work at which I have thus 
glanced lacks no one attribute of a complete failure. 
As inculcating the necessity of caution, if, in 
dealing with language, one would avoid trespassing 
against the proprieties of chronology, the digression 
in which I have here indulged may, perhaps, be 
considered as pardonable. 


n in homintfaus to 

a perrereibu, i 


The complacency and the querulousness of Eng- 
lishmen, traits whicli conflict so ludicrously in their 
national character, have nowhere shown themselvea 
more conspicuously than in the opinions which we 
find recorded touching our language. Some of these 
opinions I have already adduced ; and their instruct- 
iveness is such, that, except for fear of hecoming 
wearisome, I should feel warranted in adducing many 

From the manner in which Sir John Cheke writes 
about English,' one might almost infer, that he sup- 
posed it to have sprung from his native soil, in 'com- 
plete equipment for every conceivable service. At 
any rate, he seems to have thought that it needed, in 
his days, but very scant enrichment from without, 
for any emergent purposes whatsoever. 

But the dreamy irrationality of Sir John was not 
at all peculiar to him. It is the great basis on which 
nearly everybody, from hie day to our own, has phi- 
lologized. Neither culture, nor erudition, nor any- 
thing but common-sense, can save a writer on lan- 
guage from drivelling ; and philological dotage is, 



with rare exceptions, as mucli the rule, among our 
contemporaries, as it ever was. The proofs of this 
exist in unlimited abundance ; but I shall confine 
myself to transcribing a passage in which, somewhat 
more circumatantially and concisely than is usual, 
absurdity attains its perfect climax. 

" Some optimists may be ilisposed to ask, what is the 
good of thia hatr-aplitting, and to say that English may 
safely be left to itself. Gut, if we examine the hiatory of 
the language, we perceive, that, since the date of the 
authorized ttanalation of the Bible,- — the finest example of 
English, — the alterations that have taken place have been, 
generally, for the worse. The double negative has been 
al^ndoned, to the great injury of strength of expression. 
The inflexion of the preterite haa been abandoned, with 
the use of the second person, that moat forcible of all 
kinds of address. The affected Itabanisms of the six- 
teenth century happily did not commend themselves to the 
translators of the Bible. They were succeeded by the 
more offensive Gallicisma of the modish eighteenth cen- 
tury, which, happily, could not maintain their hold. The 
nineteenth century has witnessed the introduction of abund- 
ant Gallicisms, Germanisms, Americanisms, colonialisms, 
and provincialisms ; nearly all needless, or easily to he sup- 
plied by more correct words or phrases. There is no nation, 
except our own easygoing one, that would tolerate such 
words as i) jn-opox or naive, the one a foreign phrase, the 
other the feminine of an adjective, appbed indiacrimiuatcly 
to nonns of both genders ; the Carlyleian hfforc-vnhenrd- 
of, pkriue-biruUng-iogether, Aristoplianen-wise ; such vile 
compounds as atarvaiion, a Saxon root with a Latin ter- 
mination, in a misapplied sense ; and the many provincial 
slang words, as to run doma and put. up with, both provin- 
cialisms : see the Dorwt Glosmry, pp. 77, SI. Now 


though many provinuialisias are very good Euyhsb, as the 
Cheshire word to elem, lor our inaccuiatB to utarve, in the 
sense of ' dying of hunger,' yet the indiecriminate admis- 
sion of slang phivincialignis, in no small part due to 
novel -writers, ia destructive of the purity of the language. 
Ifot merely in words, but even in grammaticfti forms, the 
language is atill undergoing changes." ^ 

How disheartening the reflection, that oar lan- 
guage " is still undergoing changes " ! Wten, pray, 
was any language not undergoing changes ? And, 
save by effecting a total transnaturation or stagnation 
of the human mind, how could a language be pre- 
vented from undergoing changes ? We are admon- 
ished, too, that, as to starve, because it meant, with our 
remote forefathers, more than it now means, namely, 
'perish from cold, hunger, &c.', weare "inaccurate", 
in limiting its application ; but that the antique clem, 
still surviving in Cheshire, is " very good EngKsh ", 
In other words, whatever is old is good, and whatever 
is new ia bad, Starvation, we are also told, belongs 
to the class of " vile compounds," from being a 
mongrel ; as if English were not full of mongrels, 
and as il' it would not be in disti'essing straits, with- 
out ihem. Further, to run down and to put up with 
are to be rejected on the ground that they are 
" provincialisms ". " Even if they were so by origin, 

' Thi Londoa Reviete, Oct. I, 1864, pp. 37B, 380. 

* But ia what aense provinci^isma F Thcj may be Ijctter known to 
the fliiiuniDn people of Doisetshire tbnn to tbe common people elue- 
where ; but tbul does not prove that tbey bad their birth in Donet- 
thire. Does It folloir that rha and an, beoauee they are popiilaclj 
U3eil, in Suffolk, fur iplU and iliy, began witli being Sitffulkisms? 

EuH dototi, B melnphor borrowed from the chace, has ever;; nol« oF a 
gouii idiom. Sot is it modem j and it does not aeem eier to lutrt 


where, it ia pertinent to ask, must a word have been 
born, in order to be a proper word ? To be reckoned 
lawful, must it be made out to have sprung up all 
over England simultaneously, like the grass in 
spring P And is the sanction of universal usage in- 
sufficient to legitimate it ? 

To the extract just commented on could be added 
a hundred others of a kindred purport, that is to say, 
conceived in a spirit of pure fatuity. That, especially 
in our century, people can go on writing in this way, 
merely demonstrates, that abiding irrefiectiou ia quite 
consistent with increase of general knowledge. No 
unprejudiced person, il' he takea the trouble to ob- 
serve and to consider, can soberly maintain, that 
English ia deteriorating ; and any one who remem- 
bers what new words have arisen within the last 
thirty years, must be convinced, from his own experi- 
ence, that our lunguage is, as it always has been, 
and always must be, in a state of irrepressible growth 
end mutation. This fact, as will bo seen, is sns- 

been lulgar. Dr, JulinsDii qnotos South, Bi^dou, imd Bp. BerkeUj 
for it. 

Put up Kith is B modiflcatioa of the old pvt i^,—as de au/ay mitk ii 
moderuiied (torn do veay, — hLicU wai never ecomed by the vorj beet 
writcra. Vide lupra, p. !i67. 

Farther, u between these two eiprogaioni and eltn, where ii tha 
proof that the liul wiu U nny time of general currcnoj' F And, eien 
ir it had been, oa whftt grounds vuuld it have bjea hetler tu lierpetaate 
eltm thun atame > Hunfftr-ttarre va» long uur rerb ; but sinoe, when 
ttani deDotod the effvct of cold, the oontexl; indicated that denola- 
tion, huHfir WAS rrgected from the compaund, becsuiie o( iU enper- 
fluonsDVM. Flonllf, fiarvf, na now employed, bean, ve read, " a mis- 
applied lenaa." The Anglo-Saxon itforfan bud a vagiior sense than 
that which wo now give to its descendant; but it is no valid ubj»i^tioii 
to the ealahliehed use of a word, that such ausewua aneeuiivitabliiilicd. 

1 return to »(««■« (.*o«, «t the foot of p, 287, f"/™- 


ceptible of profuse illustration ; and, of the neoter- 
isms awaiting specification in the sequel, though 
Bome of them are several generations old, there are 
others which have not yet attained the age of legal 

After the lapse of nearly a century, during which 
the labour hestowed in regularizing and modulating 
our language had operated not only to impoverish 
it, but to check its growth, whether from within or 
from without, various causes gradually concurred to 
restore something of its old-time fecundity. In date, 
this new era tallied, to all material intents, with that 
memorable assertion of popular rights which realized 
itself in the American and French Revolutions. 
When priestcraft was, for a considerable portion of 
Christendom, extingiiished by the Eefoitnation, the 
first great change which the languages of Europe 
have undergone since the period of the Crusades, 
immediately followed. The impulse which produced 
this change had, however, exhausted itself some time 
before the practical protest against kingcraft, and 
the new birth of science, both which signalized the 
era of the Third George, again stimulated mental 
activity to devise adequate expressions for new facts, 
and things, and thoughts. As might have been ex- 
pected, the first experiments in the way of develop- 
ment, revival, and appropriation, of words, were, ia 
many instances, infelicitous. But not so, by any 
means, were all. It ia to the age of Burke, and of 
his fellow-hheralists who came just after him, that 
we are beholden for the active verbs grow* and locate; 


for the neuter verbs attach^ emigrate, and roci/crale; 
tor enactment, immigrant, and requisition ; for compli- 

pniB used as a traiiBitive vorb, in Hew Kit){land; and the ear revolts 
at the prnclke." 

Dr. Webater, whatevar his ear and its decisions, would hoTo ehowti 
prudence by not talUng about iberu. 

' Attach, co«PUJtENT*iii, l-on 




Attach.— Tt^ tah'btii not yet, I believe, talcen its place in any Dio- 
tionary. It U used by Burke (17B1J, Coleridge (17S9), William Taylor 
(1B03), Cbarlea Lamb, H. T. Colebrooke, Bisbup Heber, Sir Waller 
Scott, Soothey, Sydney Smith, Lord Macanlay, Mr. Db Qnincey, Dr. 
If evman, Mr. Buskin, &c. &c. Gtmerally it is roUowed by to. SuC I 
Rud upon, also, after it. Bee Paley, A I'ievj of the Evidentes, &c. 
(179*), Vol, l; p. 337 (ed. 1807) : Benlbam, Worh, Vol. 2, p. *09. 

Complimaitary. — ComplimfUal was its precursor. Vidt luj/ra, p. 



(.of c 

i amploytd in 

the d.^fi 

The predecessor of elmfliletitiiil was coiffiileril: 
an acceptation now disused. 

" I had given notice In a companion of mine, a eanJiiltHt lervant of 
niy masters, that be ehonlii stay there waiting for me." Uabbe, Thi 
Rogue (1623), Part 1, p. 178. 

For another inalanec, seo William Becher (1808), in Gul. Camdmi 
Fl Illuat. rir. ad G. C. Epist., p. 101. 

U bting iuill. — Add^ ' to eimtmil one's self ; 'lo eracic a whip' ; 
' to fut a person'; 'done tip', for "tired out' ; 'to piah an inmatiga- 
tioii ' : 'to laki thami Id one's self ; ' to VDt« one a bore '. 

Aem'idit.—Cwfei wrote, in 1793 : " I am hotter pleaaed, indeed, 
tliut he censures some things, than I should have been nith unniiied 
eummendation ; for his ocnauro will — to use tbe new diplomatic 
tiirm, — teeredit his praises."' ff'orii, VoL 7, p. 187. 

As Arobdeneon Todd shows, accredit is used by Sbelton, in hia trans- 
bilion of Boh Quiiotf. 

Where we use accredit, our forefatbers long used credit. 

" I made it my chiefe happinesse, and plaeed a kinde of Miritie 
therciH, that my actions might nidit my profession," &o. Mabbe, 
The Siyut (lfi23). Part I, p. 108. 

" I insert the word We, not to trrdit myself, but lo conflnn tho 
render." Fuller, 2%« Apf»i, kn. ^LQ&a\'Guft.%,'t.%t.. 


B.«e»iary,' coiifideniial, 
expressions -"- " 

, and inferential; and for the 

aieaij wifh and is being built} The 


" Thua .... (ho authority of vrhiub tranelstioii a abunduntly en- 
dittd and aasattad by its boing quoled in the New Tealament," Ha. 
Gkavill,£Moyj, 4d. (1676), VI., _ "" 

" Suoh a aUte of things .... eriiilelh the Chuioh, and graoeth m 
liginn." Barrow, Worki, Vol. 3, p. 260. 

Also Me Milton, iVow Worki (Bohn'a «d,), VoL 2, p. i 
Till, Sttpaia Seimtijiea, pp. 36, 87, &c.: Henry Mora, MgtCefff of-'^ 
Gtdlinsu, p. 368. 

With Che best writeia of our ago, tho acoeptation of aceredil U * Ib- 
Test with credit or aathority ', to which maj bo iwided its diplomatio 
lenae, 'actld witli letters crodeatial'. Dr. Webster's Editors give 
i.tllree definitions of it. The first is: "To give trust or confidence 
to ", which is neither English aor intelligible. In the senttince which 
>fhey quote In. illustration, the word is badly used for 'recognize', 
• acknowledge '. The second definition is : "To receive, as an euvoy, 
in hii public charoctiir, and gire him credit and rank sccordingly." 
~ then named; but I should be much surprised, if it wore 

shown that his meaning baa not been miataken. in one passage, I 
Jmow, Burke seams 1^ mteiii],bj accredited, simply 'poaaesaing credit', 
authoritutife ', 'intrinsically infiuential'. 
" France, in effect, has no king, nor any minister accredited enough, 
aither with the court or nation, to undertake a. design of great magni- 
tude." A letter to the Marquie of Eackitijiham, 1777. 

Now-a-days, few eicept very bad writers employ it, after the man- 

T of Sonthey, Sir Walter Scott, &c., aa a robust substitute for crsdit 

or Uiieti 

" For llio charge ot Arianism there may, then, have been at least a 
plausible foundation. la there any ground for that of Manicheism f 
Robinson, in ncendiiing it, fortifies himself with the anthori^ of 
Limborch", £c. Suuthey.TAe Quarterly Anvi'fic, Vol. 33 (162S],p. 144. 
" In the history of this remarkable man, nothing is more remark- 
ahlE than hia Toracioua credulity. He accredited and repeated atorios 
of apparitions, and witchcraft, and poesession, so silly, aa well as 
monstrous, that they might have nauseated the coarsest appetite for 
wonder," &e. Id., Life of Wealey (ed. 1864), Vol, 2, p. 198. Also 
see Etjays Moral and Political, Vol. 1, p. 293. And I might givv 
lerous other references to Soathey. 

But Mrs. Martha Belthune Buliol, oonscioua that, in case of eon- 
ion, she could never have prevailei] upon herself to dethrone the 
ling of Talestine from the atone benoh on which he sat for hours, 
milting Ms stocking, refused, by acoreditiiiy the intelligence, cvi'n to 
Alio upon biatrial," &o. Sic Walter Scott, Ckronielei of the Cum 


active verbs accredit,' advocafe,'-a.iid notice;'^ the neuter 
verbs fflffe,' mililate,' and progress;'^ with entire- 

Mr, De Qiiineey makes aeeredit signify ■ oredit ', ' truBt ', ' eateeni ', 
&c. &c. Sm hia Worii, Vol 1, pp. *7, 287 ; Vol. 5, p. 137 ; Vol. 11, 
p. 211 ; Tol. Vi, pp. 80, IBS. In Vol. 12, p, IBS, it ia used correctly. 
Adeaeats. — " Freely to advomte my own astrology." Nssb, Zcnica 
StHffs (1598), in The Sarltian MiMtllany (ed, Oldya and Purlt), Vol 
6, p. H8. 

" To adeotati the came of tljy client". Bishop Sandarson (1021), 
SfrmBHi, Vol. 1, p. 103 (ed. 1681), 

I need not qnoto Milton for ndtmeate, v.a, Coluridge TontureJ it 
in ISOO. See Emaifi on Bis (htH Timm. p. 40(1. And lie had heea 
preceded by Burko. Tet Soulhey, in 1822, and even later, dcriiled 
this verh as an AmericaniBni. Lord Mscaulajr uses it. 

FranMin, writing to Dr. Webat«r, Deo. 26, 1788, objects to the 
Terha active arfiweofe and Holiee, to the neuter ^-oprfM, and to the ex- 
pression DfijKMBif fa, as in, 'to he cp^irif fo a meBsnre'. Frivalt Cur- 
rnpimdinee (ed. 1817), p. 128. 

Advoeatf, as a Terb neuter, ia adll to be recovered by onr leii- 
coffrapherB. Here are references for it. Hcylin, Ecclaia Vindieala 
(16-57), Tart 1, p. 77 r Examen ffiXonnim {165S), Part I, pp. 173. 
179, 190. Fnller, Tie Appeal of Injured Iimoctva (1659), Part 1, 
pp, 11,47; Part 2, pp. 20, 80 ; Part 3, p. 81. 

To tho verb adtioealt, and other old norda, as lupposed American- 
iame, I hope to reenr at some future time. 

Ifolier. — Its antiquit; has been demonstrated hy Malone and othsre. 
Not until after its revival, I suppose, vae noticiahlt uduced from it. 
Noticeable was used in 1751, by BichardBon, Sir CAarlei GrmidiMn, 
Vol. 2, p. 33. For mnoticed, aea Edward Moore, Tlit Gaiaeiler [17S1), 
Act 4. 

Lwdor, in an inuiginary donversation, makes Dr. Johnson say Ic 
Home Tooke: "I have remarked the preterite [of the verb mliea] 
spell nalie'd, and by writers of reputation, in the beginning of this 
century," Worki, Vo!. 1, p. 208. 

Johnson, in his Dictionary, doca not know ihe verb nolice ; and of 
its xlmost complete inuaitatioa at the time he is fabled to specify, 1: 

Agr.'-yialcxaori Holland has been quoted for it. Soulhey adduced it 
from a modem book, in 180fi, See The A'iih'mI S/v<tui,\i,\.Z. p. 58S. 
* By far the mo«t common aoceptation of the verb age is ■ show maika 
of age' ; and tUs oocfptation is bnrno out by the quotations adduced 
by Dr. WDbiter'a Editors, who, Iiowevcr, give the ileSnitiou '' to grow 
ulil, to become aged," only. 

I btra q,iioted,f« tiia«^at^«.^<^'^ 

[ ty,'^ financier, requirement, factttolaUty ; aai adulalorff, 
' educational' influential,' inimical,' patriotic,' picto- 

in IfiTo. But it wns used earlier. " Certain I am, that tho discourse 
of ClemeilB, in the esid Epistle, doth mililate aswell against the one Ita 
I agiinst tlie oilier." Heylio, The Sulorj/ of Epitcupaty (16ST)> I'arC 
I 2, p. i. Also see Furt I, p. 94. 

I Prograi. — " From Ambition and Avariea, hia suborner, let me pra- 
I gnu to the second son of I'lide, which is Vain-glorj." Nash, Chriii'a 
Temrt over Jeruialem (lfi94), p- 102 (in Are&aica, Vul. I). 

" And this is as furre as I alloned m^ discourse tu ptogreim in this 
way." □□one. Binihanaloi, p. 213 [first ed., undated}. 

""Wee progreme in the wayes of vic«, and ace conitant in nothing 
but perpetnall offending.'' Feltbam, Eeaohma, &e. (cd. 1628), SecoDd 
Centurie, p. S4. 

Trogresi, the verb noutor, long erroneously called an Americanism, 
has shifted ila BDccnt, in becnming modem English. -That we should 
bava a verb corresponding to the aubataiitiva prugren ia, certainly, 
desirahlo. If it had not been urgently desiderated, it would never 
hsTO attained its present very general preralenoe. 

Enliteli/.— Vide lupra, p. 43. Educational. — Vide lupra, p. 131. 

i^wilr'ai.—GlanTill is quoted, for it, hy Dr. Johnson. Sec, for in- 
stances, his Estagi, &c. (1676), VI., p. 10: SadduciiMut TriumpAattu 
(ed. ITST), p. 10. I add other rorBr«ncee. Gaule, nSg-iiayria (16S2], 
pp. 3, 49, S3, 77, 136, 137, See. ; iafiuenlially, p. 07. Adj. Barrow, 
Worki, Vol. 1, p. 143 ; Vol. % p. 168 ; Vol. 3, pp. 32, 254, 370 : J 
TfealiK of Ihi Fope'i Sapremacy, (lc. (ed. 1683), p. 140. Samuul 
Bichardson (17S4), Correspandcnee, Vol. 3, p. 216. Jonea, of Mayland 
(bflf. 1760 P), Theological and Miictllatieoua IFori; Vol. 1, p. 145 ; 
Vol. 5. p. 1. 

In the early years of this century, iti^vential was denounced as an 
Americanism; and Englishmen aoaaidiugly felt in duty bound to shun 
it. In Tlie Edinburgh EtvieMi.'V'A. 28(1817), p. 277, it is objaclfd 
to in Franklin, and is called " Franch, rather th^i American", 
When was it over French ? 

Such a render oi old English as Coleridge ought, however, to have 
known the word tu be a revived archaism ; and very likely he was quite 
aware of it« being so. Hie preaumable reason for substituting i'h- 
Jliuniiivi, or injliintiive, we may well smile at. But mptriencim It not 
the adjective which, through dislike of the ambiguity of erpirimailal, 
ho ohose to flt to ixpirietee. Naturally enoagb. he gave the prefer- 
ence to ei'prri'ni'rrt/. ¥oT ittfiiuncivi, ka., 'sea Thf FHcnd (eA 1818), 
Vol, 2, p. 116 : Leiten, &e. (1836), Vol. 1. p. 167 ; Vol, 2, p. 224. 
Unii\fitaiieivi occurs in hi» Lai/ Sermons. From Etiayi on Bit Ou'H 

rial,^ Inifh/it!,' were, at tlie same period, resuscitated, 
after long oblivion ; and comjiele,' convaksce, narrate,^ 
starvation,^ toul,^ and unwell^ were cited from pro- 

Timtt, pp. 91, 616, 642, wa learo th&t hs used, in IT9S, iKfiimitial, 
but, in IS09, injlue%civc and iNriimHiiu. 

Inimuni. — This word oonatB in Gaule, JlBg-iiovrla, pp. S6, ISO. 
For early osea of it in the last eeatury, see Samuel Richardson (ITfiS), 
Corrapondenre, Vol. 5, p. 189: Sleme (1^82), Triilraia Shandy, Yal. 
6, Ch. 35. I forbeai lefereaces to Jones of Nayland, Falej, and Uodwiu. 

Enmiaiu is entered in the FrampiBriiim Fareulorum, and ia used bj 
Fox, in hid Aati and Moaumeats. Dr. Richardson quotes Ereljn fuv 
inimieaun. SteroB nses inimicitiaHi. See a letter (1760) to Warbnr- 
ton, in A Stiselioii, &c., p. 213 ; and Tristram Shaiidif, ToL 4, Cb. 
23 (1701). 

For leveral rashly confldent atalcments w to the age of miinical, eee 
Dr. Worcester's Siclionari/. Archbishop Trentb really seems lo attaeb 
some credit to the atalernenl, that Burke flrat used this word, Bta 
JEufflith, Fait and Fraeal (ed. 18S9], p. 71. Dr. Worcester sliona 
tbaC it was recoRBiied by a Dictionary in 1678. 

Faeriolic.— ride infra, p, 317, note 3. 

Pitlorisl, — Dr. Johnson quotes Sir Thomas Browne for pitloriiil, 
on which he remarks : " A nord not adopted by other writers, but ele- 
gant and usflful." His definition is : " Produced by a painter." Wbat 
we intend by pittoriai critically demands — as we have nature and tut- 
lural—pictural, which Spenser usea, as a subatandve, fur ' picture '. 

Truthful. — I hare been Tiolentlj assailed for using this "Ameri- 

Compftf, — This rerb, nauseated and ridiculed, within the memory 
of living men, as a Srolticism, (a now universally used, and without the 
slightest conBcioueness, on the part of ninety-nine persona in a hundred, 
that it is not hi old ai Shakespeare, or older. Compititim has sprang 
up during the lost thirty or forty years, I believe. 

Narrate. — Vide tupm, p. 121. 

SlarmlieH.^Thit Uan old Scotticiem, as has been abundantly de- 
monstrated. ArchbiBhop Trench once roundly asserted: "The word is 
an Americanism." He wished it to be bo, no doubt ; and bia wish was 
foundation enough, is Buoh a matter, fur a bet. Hishaste and ignorance 
were pointed out ; and what then P " Soma bare supposed it to have 
reiiehed as from America.'' English, Peat aad Freienl (cd. 1859), p. 
But who wore the"Bome"? The Archbishop aelf-pluralized f 
And is the auppoaition of those " some " itill to be respected ! Many 
other questions might bo asked; and all hecBase we are fobbed off 
vUk that style ol evasiveueBs— a not uausual grudwl t^C mxKKfiM 

vincia] or tochnical obscurity, to render suit and 
service to the great English-speaMng public. Then, 
too, it was that appreciate,^ base, deoompo»e, deteriorate, 
disorganize, mngnelise; with demarcation, grade,^ and 
publicist; eventual, industrial, monetary, and respect- 
able,'' were welcomed from abroad, or'deyised on fo- 
reign models ; and in their train came monstrositiea 
on the type of aristocrat, democrat,^ ideology, and par- 

hnmility and unapnatolio inoome, — whioh historj' has tanglit the 
wicked tu rocognizu na diatinctivulir eoclaiieiticial. 

Tsvt.— Vi^ lupre, foot of p. 13*. 

OnionU. — Vide tiipra, pp. \U, 126. 

* Landor flelitioaaly rapreaenla Home Tonke oa aajinj to Dr. 
jDlinaon : " Only nno valuable word haa been recoived into out lan- 
^Qge since aij birtb, or, perhaps, aince yours. I liave lately heard 
«pprecitile, for 'estimata'.'' Warki, Vol. I, p. !6o. 

Lord Chesl«rfield used appraiate in 1766. See The World, No. 

Appreeiatian aaetoa to ba older, with ua, than appraiati. H ia 
used by Henry Mors, Amiolaliiiiii upott ' Ziix Oriaitaiii,' Sec (1BS2-3), 
p. 2es. 

> ridt mpra, p. 129. 

' I do nut knov uf any English authority earlier than Burke, for 
this word. It was Fretiph, but as n neoteriam, in 1603. So a»yi 
Caillif^re, as rererred to by HI. Lorfdan Laiche;, in Zta Excenirieitii 
da Langage [od. 1863), p. ti. 

Unrespectable waa used in 1778, by Henry Brooke, in Tim OiHlmd- 
ing Brill hen. 

? Hobb«s — see my Rsami SxempUfieaUom, Ac., p 7* — uses d ma 
fvalieat as a snlatantive \ and thia, or demna-al da with 

analogy. Compare critic, mechanic, mimie, &o. B k n d h a 

claaaical instinct, when, in preforenca to deinncral, h t rpd lim 
ei-atial, which may be derived directly from iij/io p u h n 
favour of democracy', 

By rule, arislocral, presupposing dpiarotpiir^i;, — from apicro- 
tfiarii-i, — ahonld mean 'ruling in the beat manner', or 'ruling by- 
means of the beat', &c, ; and Jij/ioitporijs, demBcral, ahonld mean 
'mling by the peopio', 'ruling for the people', 'ruling orer tha 
people ', ic. Both the Greek adjectiveB might be suhstttnlivizcd. 

iilltoipaTmnt, as a substantive, means eiaotly what the French in- 
tend by tbeir d^mocraU, whence our dcmonrat, Ikmecralie nnd aria- 
atf»tie QH^ tp Itave heen out «ah«t«n.tiTU. 


alysCy^ which, with grandiose ^ and stand-point, would 
much better have been left at home. Such are a 
few of the numerous innovations which we owe to 
our more recent predecessors. The licences of lan- 
guage which they allowed themselves are similar, in 
kind, to those that mark the history of English in 
all its bygone stages ; but their quantity is incom- 
parably greater than that which was generated 
during the interval spanned by the death of Milton 
and the supremacy of Johnson. Our grandfathers, 
insensible to what extent, in subjection to the bias 
of the age, they practically disregarded purism, de- 
ferred, theoretically, to the teachings of their sires, 
and industriously inculcated it. More alive than they 
to the peculiar demands of the intellectual activity 
which distinguishes our century, our fathers, a few 
adherents to the ancestral cult excepted, rather left 
the old idol to the moles and the bats, and, with 
or without set purpose and design, brought forth 
fruits which would not have shamed the most de- 
liberate verbiculture. If or is the present generation 
any more disposed than the last was, to profess 
fealty to a fusty and fantastic superstition. As 
in the order of nature generally, so in language, 

No less bad than democrat are William Taylor's and Coleridge's 
physiocrat, and Southey's pantisocrat, instead of which Lord Macaulay 
has pantisocratist. * Vide supra, "p, 174, note 4. 

^ This word b so much needed, that its being a malformation is the 
more to be deplored. We took it from the French, before whom, 
however, the Italians had educed grandioso from grandis, against all 
law. Yet we ourselves, long ago, did just as ill, in shaping illustrious 
out of illustris or illustre. And just like illustrious is our forefathers' 
enormious, — from enormis or enortne, — ^which we are not to account 
singularly morutruous, as the same forefathers wrote, very allowably* 



there obtains the law of incessant decay and in- 
cessant compensatory renewal. Some words, do 
what we may to retain them, will fall out of 
sight ; and other words, do what we may to inter- 
cept or resist them, will emerge, and win their way 
to acceptance. The former fade and vanish away, 
because they have served out their turn ; the latter 
spring up obediently to influences of which it is im- 
possible to forecast the products. The vicissitudes of 
language are, thus, a thing over which our volitions 
rarely have a calculable control. Truisms as they 
are, these facts, if duly weighed, should suffice to 
dissuade from that unfavourable opinion of modem 
English, on which so many pique themselves, as 
being a proof of their sagacity, or more refined 
taste. Moreover, freely as we of the nineteenth cen- 
tury neoterize, it must be indubitable to any obser- 
vant student of English, past and present, that, 
relatively to their amount, new words, and new mean- 
ings of old words, have been scrutinized much more 
jealously, during the last seventy years, than they 
ever were scrutinized before. In presence of this 
truth, it strikes one with surprise to come upon the 
assertion, from a scholar like Landor,^ that " our lan- 
guage, for the last half-century, has fallen more 
rapidly into corruption and decomposition than any 
other ever spoken among men." ^ 

1 JForkSy Vol. 2, p. 164. 

' Would that pessimists could learn to stifle their flatulent lamenta- 
tions. Listen to another, one who, for all his unctuous clutter, is, cer- 
tainly, the most mechanical of contemporary prelates. " Surely, in a 
degree which, perhaps, was never hefore equalled in the history of man- 
kind, worldliness, in its most intense activity, is around us, and so must 
threaten our souls.*' Bishop Wilberforce, Sermofu, &c., Second 
Series (1863), p. 268. 


To follow the ruling fasliion of the present time, I 
am aware that I ought to depreciate modern English, 
and, if not sit in the seat of the scornful, at least 
assume sackcloth and ashes, for its multiplied trans- 
gressions. There are those, however, who, like the 
writer of these pages, with as little fear of being 
counted unfashionable as care to be counted fashion- 
able, distinctly avow an exceedingly good opinion of 
the language, taken for all in all, of the days on 
which we have fallen.^ Though our contemporaries 
produce much of bad and inferior writing, they pro- 
duce much more which, in various degrees, up to the 
highest, is excellent. And so deems the most pro- 
ficient stylist that our literature, taken in its fullest 
compass, can hitherto boast. " This ", says Dr. 
Newman,^ " is not a day for great writers, but for 

Let us give ear, for a moment, to another croaker. 

*' The prevailing opinions of this age go to the destruction of every- 
thing which has hitherto been held sacred. They tend to arm the poor 
against the rich ; the many against the few : worse than this, — fur it 
-will also be a war of hope and enterprise against timidity, — of youth 

against age The fact is undeniable, that the worst principles 

in religion, in morals, and in politics, are, at this time, more prevalent 
than they ever were known to be in any former age." Southey, 
Colloquies, &c. (ed. 1831), Vol. 1, pp. 31, 32. 

This was written in 1829 ; and, since gentlemen of the old school 
maintain that the world goes on steadily from bad to worse, how 
intensely rotten the present generation must be,— the children of the 
corruption thus wailfully depicted ! 

^ Part of my thesis resembles that of Godwin, who, in 1797, wrote 
his Essay on English Style, " to shew that the English language was 
never in so high a state of purity and perfection as in the present reign 
of King George the Third." The Enquirer, pp. 369, 370. 

Further on, Godwin asserts, and with perfect truth, *< that the ordi- 
nary standard of elegant composition, at the present day, is superior to 
the standard of English composition at any preceding period." Ibid., 
p. 472. 
2 While never shrinking from a useful neoterism, whether borrowed 


good writing, and a great deal of it. There never 
was a time when men wrote so much, and so well, 

or extemporized, Dr. Newman, when writing at his best, comes nothing 
short of Addison, for grace, and, for correctness, is incomparably his 
superior. It is no secret, that he composes with great rapidity ; and 
occasionally we meet, in him, with a sentence which a moment's labour 
would have enabled him to amend materially. Nor, considering his 
taste, his matchless command of expression, and his perfect clearness 
as to his meaning, is there any ground for apprehension, that, if he used 
the file, he would use it otherwise than as a master. Briefly, his eloquence 
is that of nature, improved by the highest culture, and insensibly con- 
trolled by the most liberal and rational principles as to the true pur- 
pose of language. Uis antipodes are not far to seek ; and the general 
reader will not require to be reminded of that nebulous and painful 
anabaptist, the Rev. John Foster, or of Archbishop Trench, and his 
agonizing contortions, or of Mr. De Quincey, with his perpetual chal- 
lenge to pause and wonder at his superfine affectations. 

Having studied nearly every line of Dr. Newman's voluminous 
writings, I am surprised to find how little there is in them, as regards 
words and uses of words, to arrest unfavourable attention. Directly, 
in the sense of * as soon as *, one may have a personal dislike of ; but, 
after all, it may simply anticipate on the English of the future. Assist, 
for * be present ', still has a foreign air about it. Realize^ meaning 
* think of as real ', smacks of the slang of pietists. Ere^ for * before ', 
belongs to the diction of poetry. Notwithstanding ^ for * nevertheless % 
is careless ; and so is has drank. * Neither A nor B are ' is archaic. 
On the long run is eccentric. Dement , harass^ and make-belief are 
strange substitutes for demented^ harassment, and make-believe. Indul- 
gence we hardly need, as a verb active ; and as little do we need the 
verb neuter passage. Elsewhere I have taken exception to one or two 
peculiarities of Dr. Newman's phraseology, not here specified. 

Let us now turn to another writer of high and deserved repute, the last 
of our really well-informed lingual conservatives. Like Dr. Newman, 
Lord Macaulay uses assist for * be present *. His dead-born for * still- 
born ', whittle for * knife ', and observation of the Sabbath for * observ- 
ance of the Sunday *, whatever they once were, are not now English, 
but Scotch. RisJlesJier for * butcher ', and twaddle for 'twaddler', 
have always belonged, I believe, to the north of the Tweed. His use 
of parts for ' talents ', and his verb active pleasure, with * neither A nor 
B are*, and his democratical, prosaical, and several similar forms, are 
archaisms which have an appearance of quaintness in modem writing. 
His embowel, for * disembowel ', is scarcely more tolerable than dis- 
annul. As little deserving of imitation is his loose employment of m- 


and that without being of any great account, them- 
selves. While our literature, in this day, especially 
the periodical, is rich and various, its language is 
elaborated to a perfection far beyond that of our 
classics, by the jealous rivalry, the incessant practice, 
the mutual influence, of its many writers. In point 
of mere style, I suppose an article in the Times news- 
paper, or Edinburgh Review y is superior to a preface 
of Dryden's, or a Spectator, or a pamphlet of Swift's, 
or one of South's sermons." ^ 

To specify all our words of recent introduction or 
resuscitation would take me far beyond what I now 
attempt. To give samples of them is quite as much 
as I can undertake, particularly since I go back, for 
modernisms, as far as 1760,^ the first year of the 
Third George. Nor is the limit here fixed wholly 
arbitrary ; for any one who has studied our language, 
with reference to its changes since the death of 
Milton, must acknowledge that my limit answers, 
roughly, to a fact of history. It was not far from 
1760, that the rage for impoverishing and emasculat- 
ing English received a check, and the feeling began 
to revive, that novelty was not necessarily synon- 
ymous with barbarism, and might consist even with 

finitely^ a word which, in rigid propriety, should be restricted to 
matters of physical science, theology, and pure nonsense. Lord 
Mncaulay's hemean^ and his application of the term ** missile weapon " 
to a musket, I have already animadverted on. For the first, see my 
Recent UxempliJicaeionSf &c., p. 105, note 2 ; for the other, supra^ foot 
of p. 171. 

^ Lectures and Essays on University Subjects (1859), pp. 112, 113. 

2 Some few of the words enumerated in the following pages had 
been proposed, and even sparingly used, before that date, — and even 
long before it ; — but, to the best of my recollection, none of them, 
till a later period, attained anything like popularity. 

294 CHAPTER vm. 

elegance. More explicitly, from about that time we 
are to date the influence, on our language, of Johnson 
and of Burke,— of both, as reformers, and of the 
latter, at an after-period, as an intrepid innovator. To 
the lessons, all the more salutary for their difference 
of tenor, which they practically taught, we are to 
attribute, in no small measure, the extinction of the 
old literary creed, that to imitate the easy flow of 
Addison, or of Middleton, should be a writer's high- 
est ambition. 

Ages have elapsed since the specific type of our 
language, as we now possess it, was fixed definitively ; 
and the accessions to our vocabulary, of which 
account is here taken, in no respect differ, as to 
general character, from the verbal stores accumulated 
by our predecessors during several preceding cen- 
turies. The development presented in the modern 
locution is being built is fully matched by the inven- 
tion of its ^ in the days of Queen Elizabeth ; but, 
these extreme and disparate instances of innovation 
apart, we of later times have neoterized precisely in 
the same direction with all our ancestors since the 
Reformation. The neoterisms about to be adduced, 
taken with those noted in other parts of this treatise, 
will, probably, be esteemed sufficient, on comparison 
with our older words, to establish the soundness of 
this position. Nor less will they demonstrate, that, 
when circumstances call for them, new expressions 
are certain to be devised, and, in proportion to their 
utility, are certain to be adopted. 

Among our neoteric verbs, those in -ize are exceed- 

^ See a note on this word, in the Appendix. 


ingly numerous. Demoralize, by whomever intro- 
duced into English, was soon found to be indis- 
pensable.^ Eynphasize certainly has nothing of the 

1 Dr. "Webster, we are told, claimed to have first employed demoralize. 
It is " bad enough in structure," says the Rev. Mr. 451ackley, in his 
Word Gossip^ p. 188. This impracticable rigour of criticism applies to 
many other verbs which careful and learned writers have deemed allow- 
able, and reminds one of the ostracizing rage of Home Tooke ; for, 
in the list of several hundred most useful words which he would have 
turned out of our language, are acoustics, fragile, horticulture, putative^ 
synoptical, trend, venial. Among recent coinages similar to demoralize 
are debarbarize, debrutalize, dece^itralize, deckristianize, decivilize, de- 
eonservatize, dematerialize, demonarchize, denationalize^ denaturalize, de^ 
paganize, dephysicalize, depoliticalize, dereligionize, devitalize. 

These words may be connived at ; but that eminent scientist. Pro- 
fessor Huxley, puts philological patience to a severe test, where he 

writes that ** this immense fauna of Miocene Arctogsea is 

shrunk and depauperized in North Asia," &c. Critiques and Addresses 
(1873), p. 206. Depauperize ought, regularly, to mean something 
like the reverse of pauperize. The analogy of deininuere we have 
not, hitherto, availed ourselves of. 

In many'places, the learned Professor, following a bad lead, also 
uses the verb atikylose, — as he spells, somewhat improving on the anchy- 
lose of sundry other biologists. Ancylose I forgot, when speaking 
of its better-known kindred, anastomose and diagnose. To those who 
are able to accept it, I would certainly offer aneylosize, 

A third word used by the Professor seems to be one of those which 
have been coined by himself. I mean homotaxis, which, he tells us, at p. 
183, ** has not, so far as I know, found much favour in the eyes of geo- 
logists." Perhaps these gentlemen are beginning to study Greek. 
Homotaxis is impossible : homotagia, or — which is better for us, and 
defensible,— Aowo^oicia, homotaxy, is the eligible fonn ; and the 
adjective already assigned to homotaxis, homotaxial, fits it no less well 
than homotactic. 

Nor, because he may write epigenesis, is he authorized in writing 
abiogenesis, biogenesis, heterogenesis, homogenesis, xenogeftesis, instead 
of abiogenesia, &c. Such coinages are scientistic, rather than scientific. 
If, at p. 38, supra, I did not stop to condemn hamatemesis, it was 
because modem medical writers, as cormptionists, seem to be incorri- 
gible, and because it matters very little, in general, whether their 
technicalities are normal or abnormal. Etematemesia and haememesia 
represent Greekish inventions which obey analogy. The Tagliacotian 
operation b not to be extended from surgery to philology ; and profane 


air of a novelty ; and yet it is as modem as it is use- 
ful. Liberalize cannot, I suspect, be traced further 
back than to the time of Burke.^ The modern 
deflection of the sense of realize,^ — a deflection which 

doctors may well take a leaf from the book of their sacred brethren, 
who never fail of ruthless grammatical exactness, in fitting a new 
heresy with its appropriate designation. 

* The substantives liberal and liberalism are much more recent. 

" The celebrated Marquis of Lansdowne introduced a useful word, 
which has, of late, been warmly adopted in France, as well as in Eng- 
land, — to liberalize.** Isaac B'Israeli, Curiosities of Literature, History 
of New Words. 

2 *' Yet, even these are much concerned to realize the brevity and 
uncertainty of their present state, that they may be stimulated to 
make the most and the best of it." Rev. John Newton (1775), Cardi- 
phonitty Letters to a Nobleman, No. 18. 

Dr. Newman, Essay on Ecclesiastical Miracles, pp. 73, 75, 125. 
Bishop Wilberforce, Addresses, &c. (ed. 1860), p. 153. Mr. J. S. 
Mill, On Liberty (people's edition, 1865), p. 25. With these refer- 
ences, others, to the Rev. Henry Martyn, Lord Teignmouth, Dr. Pusey, 
Mr. E. A. Freeman, &c. &c., might be given. 

On considering the subjoined passages, one will see how easily 
realize came by its latest sense. 

"His fancy only placed Caesar so continually in his eye, that it 
realized him to his imagination ; and he believed he saw him." De 
Foe, T/^e FoliticAl History of the Devil (ed. 1840), p. 262. 

" All joy or sorrow for the happiness or calamities of others is pro- 
duced by an act of the imagination, that realizes the event, however 
fictitious, or approximates it, however remote, by placing us, for a time, 
in the condition. of him whose fortune we contemplate." Dr. Johnson, 
The Rambler, No. 60. 

" To put these materials to poetical .u^, is required an imagination 
capable of painting nature, and realizing fiction." Id., Life of 

" Particularly in the case of reputation, no man can, without pain, 
realize, as to himself, the facility with which partialities are discarded, 
friendships dissolved, and the man who was your warmest advocate 
subsides into indifference or worse." Godwin, The Enquirer, p. 293. 

Dr. Johnson's second definition of realize, but unsupported by a 
quotation, is " convert into land." In the sense of * gain ', this verb 
is " used in America", Dr. Worcester says. And so, for more than 
half a century, it has been used in England. 


may, in part, be compared with that of the sense of 
ascertain, — though not altogether in the best taste, 
claims recognition in this place. Utilize, early, if 
not originally, was ventured by the very epic Joel 
Barlow, in his Columbiad. But the English-speak- 
ing world was not yet ready, in the days of the 
divine Joel, for a word which is now of universal 
currency.^ And I might remark on acclimatize, actu- 
alize, antagonize, antithesize, appetize,^ botanize, central- 
ize, coalize, conventionalize, deodorize, differ entialize, 
dissocialize, economize,^ eulogize, euphemize, Europeanize, 
excursionize,^ feudalize, fluidize, focalize, fossilize, frater- 
nize, generalize, geologize, lionize, localizcy maximize,^ 
mediatize, memorialize,^ metaphysicizie, minimize, mobil- 
ize, mosaicize, mysticize^ fiationalize, neologize, oxid- 
ize, pedestrianize, popularize, pragmatize, prodigalize. 

" And is the money arrived at Mr. Webb's ? Send me an account 
of the number of crowns you realize** Shelley (1819), Ussays, &c., 
Vol. 2, p. 237. 

Southey used the expression " realize a maintenance **, in the last 
century. See Letters, &c. (Bristol, 1797), p. 25. 

^ Like demoralize, it was taken from the French ; and, doubtless, if 
we had had, like them, an adjective utile, in addition to our utility, 
utilize would have been less slow than it wa? in obtaining naturaliza- 
tion. See, further, p. 128, supra, text and note 9. 

* Vide supra, foot of p. 132. • 

* Archdeacon Todd wrote, in 1818 : *'Both in French and English, 
[this word is] of very recent usage.** £conomiser was then at least a 
century old. 

* Excursionize was very soon suggested by excursionist. Exeurse, 
as a verb neuter, is used by Richardson, in Clarissa Harlowe, Vol. 3, p. 
71 ; as a verb active, by Hallam. Charles Lamb has the verb neuter 
excursion. See his Letters (ed. 1837), Vol 2, p. 181. 

» In The Quarterly Beview, Vol. 18 (1818). p. 129, exception is 
taken to the following words, used by Bentham : annuulity, trietmiality, 
benejicialness, undangerousness, knowable, maximization, minimization. 

* Vide supra, foot of p. 171. 

298 CHAPTER Vlll. 

puritanize, rationalize, reorganize, revolutionize, ritualize, 
sectarianize, sentimentalize, soherize,^ soliloquize, subside 
ize, systematize, terrorize, theorize, totalize, tranquillize, 

Demarcate ^ is, undeniably, a useful word ; for it is 
idle to say that we have any synonym of it. Crimi- 
nate was well worth reviving ; and isolate * we could 
ill part with. Itinerate^ is now freely employed, 
where Jour net/ would be inadequate. Originate, in its 
active sense,* was, while novel, violently attacked, 
simply because of its novelty. Modem verbs, similar, 
as regards termination, to the foregoing, are seen in 

1 Lord Lytton, The Caxtom (1-vol. ed., 1856), p. 262. But Rich- 
ardson used the word long ago. See Clarissa Harlowe, Vol. 4, p. 245. 

* For more such verbs, vide supra, foot of p. 174, and foot of p. 

3 The Editors of Dr. Webster's Dictionary pronounce demarcate 
to be •' rare ". What can be their acquaintance with modem literature ? 
Bemarkj though it is not very uncommon, they do not insert at all. 
As to demarcation^ following Dr. Webster, they take the liberty of 
sophisticating Burke, in making him write demarkation. 

* '* The affected, Frenchified, and unnecessary word isolated is not 
English, and, we trust, never will be." So The British Critic, Oct., 
1800, as quoted by Archdeacon Todd, who adds : ** I fully agree with 
the writer, in considering it as a most affected word.** The Archdeacon 
does not, indeed, formally assent to the verdict, that it is " unneces- 
sary " ; but his assent may be assumed. Everything new, just because 
of its newness, seems to have been, in his opinion, superfluous. 

* Cockeram gives this word ; but it hardly had a recognizable exist- 
ence, until it was taken up by Wesley and his followers. Southey, 
Mr. De Quincey, Bishop Christopher "W^ordsworth, and Mr. "NV. E. 
Gladstone have lent it their countenance. 

8 There is no reason why, like end, origin should not develop an 
active verb, as well as a neuter ; and the termination of originate is as 
appropriate to one sort of verb as to another. 

Landor makes Dr. Johnson say : " Scholars will always say * The 
measure originated /ro;» him'.'* Works, \o\, 1, p. 165. Neverthe- 
less, scholars already have, in such a case, ofteii said with. And how 
was the Doctor to see so clearly into the future ? 


adulate^ affiliate^ annotate, centesimate, certificate, cir- 
cumamhulate, differentiate, domesticate, equate, etiolate, 
exfodiate, formulate, gyrate, intemate, jubilate, manipu- 
late, methylate, migrate, orientate, perorate, potentiate, 
rehabilitate,^ rubricate, spoliate, triangulate.^ 

Bank, that is to say, ' have certain dealings with a 
banking establishment ', though very recent, appar- 
ently, is one of those instinctive coinages which take 
their place in a language, without provoking demur, 
or even attracting attention as novelties. Classify 
could not look more natural than it does, if it had 
lived through a millennium ; and what should we do 
without edit, fidget, identify, philander, photograph, 
pirouette, and pooh-pooh ? Condone, an old legal tech- 
nicality, has, of late, received a popular welcome, as 
a stately euphemism for ' pardon ' or * overlook '. 
Revolt, in the sense of 'provoke aversion in', 
* shock V isj I believe, scarce a century old ; it being 
a neoterism with Bishop Warburton, Horace Wal- 

* This old law-term has been gaining ground ever since it was in- 
troduced into popular discourse by Burke, to whom it may have been 
suggested by the French rkhabiliter. Equally with its substantive, 
rehabilitation^ it enables us to dispense with a tedious circumlocution. 

Mr. E. A. Freeman calls rehabilitate a " cant word.'* Historical 
Essays, Vol. 1 (ed. 1871), p. 329. 

In the seventeenth century, our ancestors used reestate. Bishabilitatey 
in 1827, Archdeacon Todd described as ** a word now in common use." 
Who would now believe it } 

' Sou they once uses the old verb difficult ate, a malformation. 

' Archdeacon Todd has ^* turn ", which, as a definition, is vague and 
inexact. His misdefinition shows how unfamiliar revolt, in its modem 
sense, must have been to him. Yet even his quotations from Warburton 
and Burke should have taught him its later meaning. 

** What there is of a religious cast in the volume, I have thrown 
towards the end of it, for two reasons ; first, that I might not revolt 
the reader at his entrance, and, secondly, that my best impressions 
might be made last." Cowper (1784), JForka, Vol. 6, p. 87. 


pole, William Godwin, and Southey. Sanction, it 
will surprise most of my readers to be told, is not so 
ancient as our republic. Shunt, a very old word, but 
which, prior to the era of railways, was only an 
obscure provincialism, is now known and used by 
everybody, at least in England ; and even metaphor- 
ical applications of it are by no means infrequent. 
Supplement has firmly established itself, in spite of 
the hostile criticism which it has evoked.* Test 
appears to have slumbered a long while after the 
days of Shakespeare. Our countrymen falsely have 
the credit of reviving it ; ^ and it is now accepted 
English again. Even such a purist as Lord Macau- 
lay uses it more than once ; and it is found in the pages 
of Dr. Arnold, Abp. Whately, Mr. De Quincey, Mr. W, 
E. Gladstone, and Mr. E. A. Freeman. Worsen, both 
as a verb active and as a verb neuter, was revived by 

* Very thoughtlessly, it has been called anomalous. Exact parallels 
to it are seen in scores of verbs, as fencSf Jioor, ornament, roof^ &c. 
&c. For more such, vide supra, p. 75, note 1 ; and p. 169, note 2. 

According to Mr. W. E. Gladstone, it had its birth in Scotland. 
Financial Statement, &c. (1863), p. 442. It was not long in developing 
supplementation, which is used by the Kev. Charles Kingsley, and also 
by several writers of better repute. 

Equally handy with the verb supplement is the verb interview^ which 
is really needed, and has, already, been largely adopted. * To cable a 
message ' is just as convenient, and deserves to become permanent. 

2 " She cannot break through a well-tested modesty." Richardson, 
Clarissa Marlowe, Vol. 3, p. 187. 

" You have been sufficiently tested.*' Henry Brooke, The Fool of 
Quality (1760), Vol. 1, p. 138'(ed. 1792). 

** She shall be tested." Id., Antony and Cleopatra (1778), Act 4, 
Scene 3. 

" But I will test (as an American would say ; though, let it be 
observed, in passing, that I do not advocate the use of Americanisms), 
— I will test Mr. Campbell's assertion." Southey, The Doctor (1-vol. 
ed.), p. 397 


Southey and William Taylor, whose example in using 
it has been followed by Mr. De Quincey, Mr. W. E. 
Gladstone,^ and many others. After being good Old 
English, it long had no vogue but provincial. It is 
not surprising that those who write much should, if 
they know the word, now and then feel deteriorate to 
be weak in comparison. Among our modern miscel- 
laneous verbs are, also, clerify, codify y countrify^ den- 
sify, intensify, jellify, simplify, torpify; coarsen, hoarsen, 
smarten; allowance, bracket, burke, caricature, chloro- 
form, complement, comcribe, cuddle, deplete, deploy,^ dis- 
bar, disestablish,^ disrate, drape, electioneer, engineer,* 
enlist, evanesce, exchequer, excrete, exhume, facsimile, 
flick, genuflect, ignore,^ improvise, levant, loot, malinger, 
nag, paraph, patent, potter, quay, rat, recoup, scamp, 
schedule, scrunch, silt, stockade, stoke, telegraph, tidy, 
tour,^ tub, weary J 

^ See Juventus Mundi (1869), p, 185. 

' " A military word of modern times, hardly wanted in our language ; 
for it is, literally, to * display '.'* Archdeacon Todd. This criticism is 
characteristically Toddian. 

' This verb, according to Dr. Webster's Editors, is " obsolete " ; 
but such it never has quite been, since first it was coined; and now it 
is in all English mouths. Disestablishment, likewise now very current, 
was employed, by William Taylor, in 1806 : see The Annual Review y 
Vol. 4, p. 264. It is not yet in any dictionary accessible to me. Dis- 
endow is similarly unrecognized. The revived disestablish, and its 
conjugates, with infallibilist, are striking instances of words suddenly 
familiarized by popular interest. 

* Cowper wrote, as long ago as 1781 : " Unless we engineered him 
with question after question, we could get nothing out of him." 
Works, Vol. 15, p. 64. • 

* Vide supra, p. 118, note 1. 

* In enumerating our neoterisms, it should be remembered that we 
are to add, to our new verbs, the substantives and words of other parts 
of speech that have grown out of them. 

^ I mean the verb neuter. Rather than English, it long was Scotch, 
but is now common, at least in conyersation. It is in no dictionary 


A few of our new substantives shall next be men- 

Analogue, like homologue^ we have to thank the 
French for; and so convenient an expression we, 
once possessing it, could hardly do without. Ante* 
cedents^ for which, also, we are indebted to France, 

that I know of. Miss Carter used it more than a century ago, in 1769. 
" The spirit wearies with perpetual dissipation.*' Letters to Miss 
Talbot, &c., Vol. 3, p. 379. Also see, for it, Dr. Newman, Lectures 
and Essays on University Subjects (1859), p. 360. 

^ Certain idly nice scholars hare preferred analogon and homologon. 
If synagogue had, in their time, been struggling for recognition, no 
doubt they would have voted for synagoge. Those who favour akm4 
might as well favour charakter, 

* Landor writes of ** what the French have lately taught us to call 
his antecedents.** Sagaciously, he has no objection to offer. The 
Last Fruit off an Old Tree, p. 176. Dr. Newman uses it in his Dis- 
cussions and Arguments, &c., pp. 343, 385. 

Mr. De Quincey calls antecedents, as now used, ^'modern slang''. 
Works, Vol. 14, p. 449. 

" The use of this word as in the question, * What do you know of 
that man's antecedents ? ' is not defensible, except upon the bare plea 
of mutual agreement. For, in meaning, it is awkward perversion ; 
an4, in convenience, it has no advantage. . . . ; . But to call the 
course of a man's life until the present moment his antecedents, is 
nearly as absurd a misuse of language as can be compassed. And it 
is a needless absurdity. For, if, instead of * What do you know of his 
antecedents ? ' it is asked, * What do you know of his previous life ? * 
or, better, * What do you know of his past ? ' there is sense, instead 
of nonsense, and the purpose of the question is fully conveyed." Mr. 
R. G. White, Words and Their Uses, pp. 91, 92. 

What better plea, one would like to know, can there be for a word, 
or for the use of a word, than "mutual agreement", or, in English, 
* common agreement ' } Mr. White admits — which I cannot admit — 
that a military general's official predecessors may correctly be styled 
his antecedents ; and he grants the rationality of antecedents gram- 
matical, logical, and mathematical. In every one of these cases, this 
Latinistic term for * foregoers ' has its broad etymological sense special- 
ized. It is simply a new specialization of this sense that Mr. White 
resists, and calls " awkward perversion ", " needless absurdity ", "non? 
sense ", and what not. He does not see, that his only real argument 
consists in his general aversion to things which did not enjoy the ap- 


IS not yet a generation old. It well deserved the 
popularity winch it very speedily attained. Bestowal 
and hestowment are words at which Dr. Johnson 

probation of his grandfathers and grandmothers, in whose days an 
" absurdity " may have been better than " needless", perhaps. 

M. Wey is wroth with M. Cousin, for saying that Aristotle was 
Kant's antecedent^ and remarks : " Ce substantif ne peat designer une 
personne, et devenir synonyme de pre'de'cesseur, de pr^curseur, etc.*' 
Remarques sur la Langvs Frangaise^ Vol. 2, p. 126. 

We once had, for all the silence of the lexicographers, antecedent as 
a personal agential. 

" Hee *8 every thing, indeed, .... 

My antecedent, or my gentleman usher." 

Massinger, The City-madam, Act 2, Scene 2. 

To return to Mr. White. Almost as often as this critic ventures an 
appeal to reason, his readers may be certain that something raw is 
imminent. In the new edition of Words and Their Uses, he takes ex- 
ception to Lord Macaulay for writing : " Skinner, it is well known, 
held the same political opinions with his illustiious friend ". On this 
and other passages the comment is : ** Does the eminence of the 
writers make such a use of language authoritative.^ Certainly not. 
Here reason comes in, and sets aside the weight of authority, however 
eminent Same expresses identity, and, therefore, cannot pro- 
perly be used in correspondence to with, which means nearness, con- 
tact, and implies duality, severalness." 

Now, the very mention of "identity*' should have suggested 
identical, which, a synonym of same, takes with, — the preposition after 
one, also, another synonym of same. And * equal with* was once as 
good as* equal to\ The propriety of Mr. White's "therefore", in 
what he says about same, is one of the profound mysteries with which 
his book abounds. Sometimes, *the same as* is preferable to *the 
satne with ' ; but it is where a conjunction is indispensable ; and it is 
not because of any particular relational import belonging to as. 
Phrases, in many cases, must be accepted as wholes. - Lord Macaulay 
disliked ellipses ; and .as, instead of his with, would necessitate one. 
So we no longer say, except in church : " Because there is none other 
that fighteth for us, but only thou, God." Further, if we may not 
say same with, how, in propriety, can we say sameness with ? Mr. 
White is, to be sure, benevolently disposed towards Lord Macaulay, 
and would not excommunicate him for his " occasional lapses ", of which 
he has exhibited what he accounts a specimen. His benevolence, in this 
instance, may unhesitatingly be resumed for future expenditure. 


would have stood aghast, unless he had himself in- 
vented them, or unless they could be pointed out in 
some old author, which is unlikely. Both are ana- 
logical ; but . no person with an ear will hesitate, for 
a moment, to prefer the first. ^ Betray al, a more 
euphonious form than betrayment, and quite as nor- 
mal, has completely superseded it. Byron, Southey, 
Dean Milman, and Archbishop Whately, with others, 
have so accustomed us to this word, that it is difficult 
to believe it the novelty it really is. Celebrity , medi- 
ocrity, and notoriety have followed notability^ in be- 
coming personal substantives. Cmtodian, as legiti- 
mate a derivative as historian, or librarian, suggests, 
much more immediately and exactly than keeper, 
guardian, or superintendent, * one who has custody \ 
Decade, which began with denoting any ^ aggregate 
of ten', has now come to mean ^decennium ' or 'space 
of ten years ' ; ^ and learned writers so employ it.^ 
This new sense of the word has not yet attracted the 
attention of our dictionary-makers ; nor has the new 
sense of centenary, which, though it does not embody 
annus, now signifies ' centennial celebration '.* Com- 

1 *' Bestowment is preferable to bestowal^ on account of the concur- 
rence of the two vowels in bestowal" Dr. Webster. What a reason ! 

* In the tirae of the great French Eevolution, the period of ten 
days which was to take the place of the old week, was styled dkcade. 

' Among them are Mr. De Quincey, Mr. J. S. Mill, Dr. Newman, 
and Professor Huxley. 

' * Centenary is used by Hakewill, — who has " centenary of years ", 
also, as has Howell, in his Bodonds Grove, p. 76, — just as we have 
come to use century. An Apologiey &c. (ed. 1630), pp. 49, 50, &c. 
This use of centenary also occurs earlier, namely, in A World of Won- 
ders (1607), pp. 229, 327, 331. 

And here I may fitly note centenarian, with septuayefiarian, octo- 
ffenarian, and nonagenarian, words unknown to Dr. Johnson. Neither 


pare century, originally * aggregate of a hundred ' 
in general. Diplomatist ^ made its first appearance, I 
suspect, only fifty or sixty years ago. Enlighten- 
ment is, to this day, always used, by a certain class 
of English writers, with a manifest sneer. The 
writers referred to are those who would rather have 
been bom under the rule of barons than under the 
inchoate rule of reason, and would gladly exchange 
the age of science for the ages of faith and folly. 
Those who object to the word will ordinarily be found 
to object to all that it stands for. Executive is al- 
leged to have originated in our country;^ but 
scarcely an Englishman, especially if unaware of this 
allegation, now scruples to make use of it. Inapt- 
itude and ineptitude have been usefully despecifi- 

he nor Archdeacon Todd gives even sexagenarian, which occurs, accord- 
ing to Dr. "Worcester, in Bentley. Southey has centenary, for the sub- 
stantive centenarian. See The Doctor (one-vol. ed.), p. 333. 

1 There are those, even now, who will have diplomate ; and I have 
heard Englishmen pronounce as if aristocrate, deinocrate, and fran- 
chise had not been Anglicized. 

2 I think I have seen it somewhere in Burke. At all events, it is 
used by Charles Johnson. See Chrysal (ed. 1777), Vol. 4, p. 187. 
Coleridge used it in 1799 and in 1811. See Essays on His Oton Times, 
pp. 337, 827. 

Comparable with executive is serial, to designate a literary produc- 
tion issued in parts. Special, another adjectival substantive, once used 
to denote a particular thing, is now sometimes used to denote a par- 
ticular person. Analogous is vernacular^ — supplying the place of the 
old vulgar, for * vulgar tongue *, used by Sir Thomas Elyot and Putten- 
ham, and even by Southey,— which, having long been restricted, in 
more popular usage, to qualify language', has now become also a 
substantive, absorbing its ordinary adjunct. To the class of words 
here adverted to belong annual, biennial, casual, cereal, cmnponent, 
convalescent, expert, locomotive, open, perennial, professional, suburban, 
and many other terms of prime convenience. See further, ray Recent 
Exvmplificatiotis, &c., pp. 73—75; and supra, p. 169, note 2. 



cated ; ^ and only the latter now imports * folly '. The 
former must be regarded as a domestic coinage, based 
on aptitude. Insularity is a word for which, as suc- 
cinctly defining their geographical peculiarity, our 
transmarine kinsmen ought to feel thankful, and for 
which, as pungently intimating their most conspicu- 
ous ethical peculiarity, we cismarines do feel thank- 
ful.^ Jangle, derived to us, through the living lan- 
guages of India, from the Sanskrit, may now be 
regarded as good English. The sort of wild which 
it denotes is common enough in many countries, but 
is not nearly so aptly designated by any other ex- 
pression. Locution y though long ago first used in 
English, has only of late years become at all common. 
The French has, doubtless, to account for its present 
existence in our language.^ Material was rarely 

^ It is their despecification — not the words themselves, — that be- 
longs to our period. Inept was not needed to mean the same as t/ti- 
apt ; but its derivative, itieptitudej was acceptable as a sonorous syn- 
onym of * folly*. Inaptitude, for *want of aptitude', is used by 
Shenstone, Goldsmith, Burke, Cumberland, Godwin, "Wraxall, Southey, 
Wordsworth, Shelley, Hazlitt, Mr. De Quincey, and Mr. Matthew 
Arnold, among modern writers. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the original edition of his Discourses^ uses 
inaptitude, for which the edition of his Literary Works, published in 
1819, gives, in Vol. 2, p. 167, ineptitude, Hi»-ee4emporary, also, is 
there always changed into contemporary, and, on one occasion, bis 
substantive antiquarian into antiquary. 

2 I have seen the word noted as the malicious device of some 
American. But why malicious..^ Some things are perceived only at a 

Coleridge used insularity in 1800. See Essays on His Oum Times, 
p. 309. 

* Lord Macaulay again and again uses phrase, for * single word ', as 
well as for * combination of words'. To him, therefore, locution, 
which imports either, would have been superfluous. In the compre- 
hensive sense of * mode of expression ', it is daily becoming more and 
:aore familiar. 


used till within the last hundred years. In the case 
of anything made up of a single substance, to speak 
of its materials was likely to mislead. It was this 
consideration, assisted by the French materiel, that 
gave us mdterial} Monograph ^ is one of those nu- 
merous neoterisms which stand amply justified by 
their superior distinctness of definition. An ad- 
herent to old fashions would prefer the vague essay, 

A few other revivals shall here be glanced at. 

Appliancef a word which our grandfathers would have regarded as 
very (quaint, certainly owes its reappearance to the increased study, 
during later years, of old English literature. Few of the archaisms 
which have recently been endowed with new life are more felicitous. 

Belongitigs^ as an old expression now reinstated in its former rights, 
is peculiar to the very latest period of our language. The more of such 
vernacularisms we call up from the past, the better. 

ComphXy the substantive, is now beginning, after long neglect, to 
find favour again. We should search in vain for its punctual equi- 

Proclivity is another good old word lately become popular. Sir 
"Walter Scott uses it, to be sure, in Redgauntlet ; but its resuscitation 
is due to our countrymen. Englishmen, at first, were amused at its 
pedantry, and then succumbed to its utility. 

Jiaidf a very old word, — and so forat/, another, — has lately been re- 
vived by Scotch influence. A note appended to it by Dr. Webster's 
Editors betrays entire ignorance of its extensive currency in England ; 
nor is there any mention made, that it is the same as the old roady 
the last syllable of inroad. For this roady see 1 Samtiel, 27, 10, Sir 
Philip Sidney, Shakespeare, Bacon, Philemon Holland, &c. &c. 

Who-eabouts, as a substantive, has emerged, in our century, after 
long desuetude. It has been used by Southey, Wordsworth, Sir Wal- 
ter Scott, Dr. Arnold, Mr. De Quincey, Mr. W. E. Gladstone, &c. &c. 

To the fore is a phrase which, after having long lurked in holes and 
corners, is now freely used in conversation, and, to some small extent, 
in books. It occurs in the writings of Mr. De Quincey and Mr. 
Thackeray. Henry Earl of Monmouth knew it more than two cent- 
uries ago. See his Advertisements from Parnassus (1656), p. 416. 

* It is used by Paley, Southey, Bishop Heber, Lord Macaulay, and 
many others. 

2 For its correct factitious original, see, as against Mr. R. G. White, 
my Recent Exemplifleations, &c., p. 45. 


Objectivity, with subjectivity , causativity, plasticity^ 
receptivity, and several other kindred terms, have 
come into vogue, during the two last generations, 
through the influence of German philosophy and 
aBsthetics. Pervert has been engendered by that 
spirit which would mark with reprobation those 
who transfer their affections from the Protestant 
doxy to the Roman. And the goats, if they 
come back to the old sheep-fold, to be reovilized, 
are now, in pious phrase, denominated retroverts} 
Verbal provision has not yet been made for further 
metamorphoses. Physicist ^ is noteworthy, as a very 

* Mr. "W. E. Gladstone has used reconverts. See The Foreign and 
Colonial Quarterly Review, Vol. 2 (1843), p. 674. 

2 Akin to physicist is prosaist; and, inasmuch as proser has no 
chance of being relieyed of its dyslogistic purport, it is a word which 
we shall do well to encourage. It has already been employed by many 
excellent writers. 

And here it is apposite to refer to specialist, a speaking example of 
the tendency of modem English to verbal economy. Scores of similar 
neoterisms condense, each, half a dozen words into one. 

Just above, I have written dyslogistic ; and, looking to its context, 
I have written frightful nonsense, provided we are to pin our faith to 
the dictionaries, as regards its meaning. 

In the edition of Walker's Dictionary published by Mr. B. H. 
Smart in 1849, there occurs, at p. 710, among the editor's additions, 
the following article. 

** DisLOGisTic, a. Illogical ; undoing, by argument, what seemed to 
be previously established by it. In the first sense, at least, if not in the 
second, the word is ill formed." 

Dr. Worcester, while omitting the sapient criticism of Mr. Smart, 
takes from him, with proper acknowledgment, both the word and its 
definitions ; the latter being reduced to " illogical " and " refuting, dis- 
proving." Dr. Webster's Editors, who make no reference to Mr. 
Smart, treat of the word, as if independently, in these terms : 

" BislogistiCy a. 1. Not according to logical forms or principles ; 
illogical. [Rarcl 

" 2. Serving to disprove ; 'refutatory. [Rare.'] " 

But, ** rare ", or not, is it quite regular and right ? We are not told ; 

late and very useful neoterism ; and scienikt is, in 
every way, a companion to it. In the last century, 
physical meant ' medical ', as in the phraae ^'physical 
phraseology ", Then, too, the sense of nnluraiist 
had nothing of its present explicitness, and, moreover, 
often aignilied ' anti-supernaturaliBt '. Though lay- 
ing aside the old acceptation of naturalkf, we have, 
however, based an adjective on it, in tiatiiralislic. 
Platitude ' we have horrowed from the French, and in 
this century. With Horace Walpole, it was only a 
Gallicism. But it is now thoroughly Anglicized ; 
and its offspring, of better or worse repute, plaiituiii- 
narian, platl/udinoua, platitudiuomneso, phtitiidiiu'ze, 
and pialitudinium, already show their faces in respect- 
able society. A psychologist should find this group of 
vocables highly instructive. To those who indulge 
in what Southey calls " damnatory expletives ", it is 

snd one would reaU; like to know whether anj: [ihenomeiiBl peiaoti. 
M patron of diilti/iilic, and in the uiutec thus givea it, biu jet appeuied 
sniodg men. Far what has logiilio to do with hgh f And, «ven if 
logutie meant 'logical', what a compound we have in diilagialie ! 
Fnini Mr. Smart, who lion difcovorotl such words u ehefflomachti and 
eurrieaiut, bis ailicle nn ■' dialagistic " is niit at all Buqicising. But 
wliat are we to think oE our IciiiiigrBpherB who huvn rultowed in hii 
wHke !' Ad^ respectable icbolar, even if dyihyiatie were new to him, 
would lec, at u glance, that diih^iatie muil be a mistake for It, and 
tbal the right word must be the rerurae of tiihgiilic. The putemity of 
dytvgU'ie —on biLDtling, but now almost a eeutenariHii, — is adjadged 
tu that genim of eomnan-senae, Jeremy Bentbam. See hi* Tamuui 
Taih nj llu apriiigt «f Aetton. 

From whit 1 have here set forth the leader will draw bis own infer- 
ence u to the Kholanbip and probity wbicli preside ovt^r the oon- 
crxlion nf our later English dictionuries. And what can be said nl 
the pretentious and grutuitons eupersCructure which Dr. WebettT's 
Editors bare erected on Mr. Smart's little basii of rubhisb ? 

' Dr. Woreesler takes platitttdt directly from nkaria. This ia like 
deriring blami immcdiDluly from ^Kaa^ttitia. 


such oaths as were sworn in Flanders, not your lean 
piddling profanities, that afford positive relief. And 
even so, to disburthen one's self of a sense of con- 
tempt, a robust full-bodied detonation, like, for 
instance, piatUudinous, is, unquestionably, very much 
more serviceable than any evanescing squib of only 
one or two syllables. Plebiscite we have lately taken, 
in popular use, from the French. The word pre- 
viously belonged, however, to the language of the 
civil law.^ Redaction, imported from France, is a 
real acquisition to our language. To work up liter- 
ary matter, and give it a presentable form, is neither 
compiling, nor editing, nor resetting ; and the oper- 
ation performed on it is exactly expressed by redac- 
tion. Solidarity, also, we have borrowed from the 
French. Solidity, our old word to denote the idea 
which it conveys, could never, from its ambiguity, 
find general efitertainment. Solidary, 'joint and 
several ', if it had got into ordinary literature, and 
had been felt a desideratum, would very soon 
have evolved solidarity. Solidary and solidity,^ 
though well-known technicalities of the civilians, 
have escaped the researches of all our lexicographers. 
Specie,^ irregularly as we have come by it, is now in 
universal use, and would successfully resist all at- 
tempts at displacement. Veto is a curious instance, 
with which memento and caveat may be compared, of an 

' See Bishop Hallifax, An Analysis of the Roman Civil Law (ed. 
1795), p. 6. 

2 See Mr. H. T. Colebrooke, Treatise on Obligations and Contracts 
(1818), pp. 6, 8, 149, 161, 153, for solidary; and pp. 7, 146, 149, 162j 
157, 201, for solidity, 

^ Vide supra, p. 254, note 2. 


inflected Latin verb taken by us as a base. Zero we 
were prompt to import from Continental Europe, in 
the absence of any domestic equivalent of it. We 
have, in it, an interesting example of a foreign and 
scientific term at once naturalized by necessity, and, 
to our consciousness, as little a neoterism as the old- 
est word in our language. Among our myriad of 
substantives like the foregoing are abolitionist, abso^ 
lutisty agriculturist y alarmist, architecturalist, archiv- 
ist, augw^ist, aurist, balladist, ballotist, biblicist, 
capitalist, ceremonialist, circumlocutionist, colloquist, 
conversationist, criminalist, decimalist, diarist, eco- 
nomist, elegist, epopceist, eulogist, exclusionist, ex- 
cursionist, fa^simiiist, frescoist, funambulist, futur- 
isf, guitarist, hygeist, indifferentist, individualist, 
instrumentalist, ironist, larcenist, legendist, magazin- 
ist, magnetist, mannerist, memoirist, monologist, neo- 
logist, oppositionist, optimist, orientalist, paragraph- 
ist, parodist, pessimist, philanthropist, plagiarist, 
polemist, positivistf propagandist, protectionist,pugilist, 
reactionist, requisitionist, retrogradist, revisionist, 
rigorist, routinist, secularist, sentimentalist, sinecur- 
, ist, socialist, somnambulist, summarist, terrorist, testi- 
monialist, tourist, traditionalist, transcendent alist, 
vetoist, zoologist; absenteeism, alienism, classicism, 
colloquialism, favountism, individualism, manneiism, 
realism, msticism, toadyism, ultraism ; abandonment,^ 
accompaniment, apportionment, bedizenment, besotment, 
embankment, engulf ment, enlistment, entailment, mal- 
treatment, jmzzlement, recruitment, revictualment ; 

^ Vide tupra, foot of p. 131. 


accountability, anility , cananidty, catholicity, conduct^ 
ivity, constitutionality, conviviality, domesticity, event- 
uality, excitability, identity, nationality, sentimental- 
ity, totality; analysation, arrestation, beautification-, 
civilization, identification, improvisation,^ instrmnenta- 
Hon, miscalculation, orchestration, seclusion, superses- 
sion, unification, vivisection, vocalization; acreage, 
clientage, frontage, levera-ge, serfage, sewage, sewerage, 
windage; apiarian, attitudinarian,^ equalitarian,^ 
lapsarian, metaphysician, rubrician, statistician, vul- 
garian; constabula/ry, dyery, fernery, functionary, 
grapery, greenery, heathenry,^ jewellery,^ johiery, mil- 
linery,perfumeiy, pinery, rockery, signatary, symbolry, 
trinketry, veterinary ; anthropology, biology, carpology, 
conchology, cosmology, criminology, ethnology, gastrol- 
ogy, oology, phrenology, sociology; appointee, cmisignee, 
examinee, nominee, pledgee ; cellaret, cigarette^hydro- 
nette, novelette, sermonette, statuette, waggonette; aspir- 
ant, celebrant, emigrant,^ executant, postulant; convers- 

1 Colman used this word in 1786. See Frose on Several Occasions, 
&c., Vol. 3, p. 166. 

2 This was used, however, by Cowper, in 1756, in The Connoisseur, 
No. 138. 

3 Here I should mention doctrinarian, used by Dr. Newman. See his . 
Discussions and Arguments, &c., p. 19. He is to be commended for 
his attempt to purge our language of the Gallic doctrinaire. "With 
doctrinarian compare Southey's millionist, spoken of at the foot of p. 
183, supra, * Vide supra^ foot of p. 133. 

* In my Recent Exemplifications, &c., I have brought together 
sundry old words terminating with the aggregative syllable -ry. I may 
add the following, all taken from Udall's Apophthegmes, &c. (1542). 
Bawdry, for * bawds *. Fol. 46. Viandry, for * viands *. Fol. 28, 55, 
86, 185. JTafry, for * wafers '. Fol. 170. Junkery, in fol. 104, 131, 
is the same as Nash's yun^M^^^^. The base of the first approaches the 
YTer\Q\i jonch^e ; that of the second, the Italian giuncata. 

' Paley'8 use of this word in 1785 was, I suspect, early. See his 


ttHw, iiisisk'nce, oblimscencG, rt^uvenescence, reticence, 
submergence, transference; abettal, deposal, portray- 
al, r&viewal ; bureaucracy, lUplomacy, itnpolieif, iner- 
i-ancy ; candidature, fixture^ ilUterahire ;* heathendom, 
puzzleilom, rascaldom ; arborKulture, ostreaculture, 
pisciculture; paatoraie, prohtanate ; lithograph, pho- 
tograpk ; acrobat, aerona%it, affluent, appreciator, aqua- 
rium, alhleto, break-down, break-up, buffer, eenava/ 
clmb, congener, craler, doton-pour, dynamics, ernpty, 
excerpt, exegete, Jiac, floe, gadabout, glacier, guillotine,* 
gymnast, heavy, hymnody, iceberg, vnjluemia, htleido- 
scope, la^goon, lean-to, makeshift,^ malpractice, mam- 

Moral PAiltmphy (ed. 1810), Vol. 2, p. 382. Foole, in hia Dedicatinn 
to TAt Minor, bo* migratil, BttbaWnlive. 

' Tbia, Ihe modern corrupt substitute for ^7iir«, web BUgge9ted,iiiost 
prolialil;r, bymiifwr, with which, however, it is not in analogy. Mix- 
tun it not built on the EcgUib mix, but ou (ho atom of mixtum; and 
there is nofixtum, Ymifiium. on the ileni of which to rear a legitimat* 
anbatandyB. Also vide supra, p. 130, note 7. 

" This, synonjmous with the unwieldy tmletlrrtdneai, la a word full 
worth reviling. It* letj etymotogy eridencea, that it by no mesna 
goes BO for aa illiteracg or illilcrataiea. It has bout used by Williun 
Taylor, The Monthly Majiaine, Vol. 12 (I80I), p. 29B ; by Southey, 
The Quarterly Stviuc, Vol. 47 (1832), p. 97 ; and by Dr. Maitland. 
Bomewhero in The Dark Aget. 

' Cente is used, by Howell, juat as we use nniuji, " And the number 
of grafia nbicb sprung at one time in (ud about her walla, iu a faniouB 
wnw that woa made, amounted to abate three milliuna." Oudima't 
Onme (1640), p. 73. 

* Thii reminds mo of a kindred word which, thoagli only of late 
become naturalized, was long ngo in print. 

" That doue. throwing a cord about his nockc, makiDg nae of one ol 
the cornen of the chayre, he gave him the garruU [lie], wherewith he 
was strangled to death.'' U»bbe, The Rogue (1623), Part 1, p. 288. 

' TMs word is for from new, but, I believe, never naa aommon, in 
ita preaeat leuu, till recently. Mr. Wright, in hia Dietionar]/ of 
OinleU and Pratiiidal Mi/liih, qaotes, far it, H book dated in 1009. 
Dr. 'Woreoster founil it in Thu L'diiiiuiyh Rivinc. It baa been used by 
Jumea Mill, Charlca Lamb, iu. Sec. 


moth, mountaineering, operative,^ outcome, outing, ozone, 
jparachute, peripatetic, prairie, ratal, remand, siding , 
slum, splash-hoard, stimulus, strat^igy, sub-way, swish, 
telegram,^ terseness, thud, titular, turfite, unwisdom,^ 
whaler, wrap. 

It would be easy to comment on our new adjec- 
tives, also, in much greater detail than I shall here 
allow myself. 

Aggressive is so natural a complement of aggres- 
sion and aggressor, that one would suppose it must 
almost as long have been English.* Anachron- 

But the older use of the word has been overpassed in our lexico- 

" At noone if it bloweih, at night if it shine, 
Out trudgeth Hew Makeahift, with hook and with line." 

Tusser, Five Hundreth Fointes, &c., Ch. 15. 

" And not longe after, came thither a make shifte, with two men 
wayghting on hym, as veiy rakehelles as him selfe, bragging that he 
was a profounde phisicien." John Halle, An HistoriaU Expostula- 
tion, &c. (1565), p. 19 (ed. 1844). 

" Certainely, it seemeth that London is sore charged with these tnake- 
shiftea ; for that almost in every streate and lane there dwelleth two 
or three of these pettie brokers or cherish-theeves." George Whet- 
stones, A Mirourfor Magestrates of Cyties (1584), fol. 33 v. 

"Ye play the makeshiftes, nay, the murtherers." Henrie Chettle, 
Kindharts Breame (1592), p. 27 (ed. 1841). 

1 Used by Coleridge. See The Friend (ed. 1818), Vol. 3, p. 81. 

2 For a full discussion of this word, see my Recent Exemplijications, 
&c., pp. 41—47. 

3 I have met this good old word scores of times, within a year or two, 
in very modem books, and in newspapers. 

* It is not at all certain whether the French agressif suggested 
aggressive J or was suggested by it. They may have appeared independ- 
ently of each other. 

In agressif we have a good sample of the tricks which the French 
play with proper spelling. As to the word, if they can bear it, why 
should some of them And an ogre in progressif, — ^the counterpart of 
progressive, which we have had hard on three centuries, if not longer ? 

^* Fro^reasif et progresser sent dus & Timagination des ideologues du 


ovs ^ has, of late, been ventured here and there ; and I 
am greatly mistaken, if it does not answer all the 
criteria of an acceptable neoterism, harmony included. 
Appreciative, whatever its nationality,* established 
itself, past all extruding, very soon after its intro- 
duction. We have a legitimate choice, however, 
between appreciative and appreciatory? Deferential, 
like most of our modem words, is analogical in form- 
ation, and, unlike many of them, is a really valu- 
able addition to the vocabulary of bygone centuries.* 
Exceptional we have wisely adopted from the French, 
to signify 'implying, constituting, or relating to, 
an exception or exceptions'.^ Financial has not 

teraps de Franklin, de Malesherbes, et de la guerre d'Amerique 

Ce mot progresaif est perfide ; il 8*en faut garder. On commence k 
dire : un homme pi'ogressif. Frogressif^ applique k des personnes, ne 
peut designer que d'excellents marcheurs." M. Wey, JRemarques, &c., 
Vol. 1, pp. 447, 448. 

At p. 186 of the same volume, there is a separate article on pro- 
greaser^ there called "un barbarisme", "un m6chant mot'*, &c. &c. 

' We have synchronism and synchronotts ; and what scholar has not 
desiderated a manageable adjective to match anachronism ? Anachron- 
istic^ ol)viously, will hardly do, except for holiday wear ; and the chances 
of auarhroniCf which was patronized by William Taylor and Coleridge, 
are frustrated b^ chronic and its inevitable associations. 

With anachronous I may name vicissitoua. But this, as demanding 
a recondite and tedious argument for its justification, may, like the 
long-tailed vicissitudinary and viciaaitudinouay be doomed to knock at 
the public door in vain. Favour is denied it for the very reason which 
is withdrawing favour from lenity, in favour of lenience. 

*-* In 1856, this word was exhibited, in Notea and Queries, as a brand- 
new Americanism. 

3 Southey has used appredant. Colloquies, &c., Vol. 1, p. iv. 

* See my decent Exemplijicatinna, &c., pp. 63 — 65. 

* Exceptive could never become popular in this sense, by reason of 
its seeming, more naturally, to mean * excepting ' ; just as connective, 
deceptive^ and reflective, for instance, are equivalent to the aoristic par- 
ticiples connecting, &c. 

I have adverted to Mr. Buskin and Dr. Johnson^ q& ^vtx^xii^^ ^- 



yet been in current use for a hundred years; and 
rather singularly ; inasmuch as finance and financier 
have been in the language more than double that 
period. Humanitarian^ wider of scope than philan- 
thropic, is a word pregnant with significance. Huma- 
nity, quite as much as prudence and reverence, stood 
in need of a secondary adjective.^ Industrial, as a 
forensic technicality,^ existed long before the word 
came into use in its present acceptation. Industrious 
would ill serve the purposes for which we find indus- 
trial so advantageous. International was coined by 

plying, respectively, unexceptionable and tmexceptionahlyy at the foot 
of p. 201, supra. 

^ " humanitarian is very strangely perverted by a certain class of 

speakers and writers. It is a theological word But it is used 

by the people in question, whose example has infected others, as if it 
meant < humane', and something more. Now, as the meaning of 
humane is * recognizing, in a common humanity, a bond of kindness, 
good will, and good offices', it is difficult to discover what more 
humanitarian^ if admitted in this sense, could mean. In brief, humane 
covers the whole ground ; and humanitariany used in the sense of 
* widely-benevolent and philanthropic', is mere cant, the result of an 
effort, by certain people, to elevate and to appropriate to themselves 
a common feeling, by giving it a grand and peculiar name." Mr. B. 
G. White, Worde and Their Uses, p. 127. 

With the animus of this compare that of M. W§y*8 remarks on 
paup^rtsme, quoted in my Recent Hxemplijications, &c., p. 41, foot- 
note 1. M. Wey, of course, discharges his little pop-gun at humani- 

Mr. White's argument is, that, since humane signifies *a b c', 
humanitariany if used as its synonym, signifies nothing more. This is 
not entirely convincing. Humanitarian is no more humane, than 
humane is human. Is utilitarian only utilis ? And does Arch- 
deacon Hare, by "an expediential policy", intend *an expedient 
policy' ? Humane and humanitarian differ as much as practice and 
theory. A humane action, if the result of principle, is the result of 
humanitarian principle. Conversely, this principle, if not barren, 
produces fruit in humane action. It is the source and power to which 
such action, when springing from a right motive, is to be referred. 

' See Bishop HaUifax, An Analysis, &c., p. 24. 


Beiitham, who^ modestly speaks of the word as 
"new, though not inexpressive."* Nobiliary, in 
such a phrase as * nobiliary roll/ or ' nobiliary element 
of Parliament/ is a term of patent utility, and one 
to which we should try to habituate ourselves. Note- 
worthy, for a long time abeyant, is now again in 
common use. PatrioUc, strange to say, has not 
yet been current English for three generations.^ 

* In his Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, 
published in 1789. 

William Taylor took up the word early in our century. See The 
Annual Review, Vol. 1 (1803), p. 274; Vol. 5 (1807), p. 169. 

Codify, maximize, and minimize may be specially mentioned from 
among the numerous useful expressions with which Bentham has en- 
riched our language. For their sake, his verbal monstrosities, long 
ago dead and buried, may be freely pardoned. 

2 Mr. De Quincey, in 1844, on occasion of using the term inter'repeU 
leut, adds: " The late Mr. Coleridge suggested, and, by his own example, 
sanctioned, the use of the preposition inter, for expressing cases of 
reciprocal action, or, in his language, of inter-action" The Logic of 
Political Economy, p. 18, foot-note. 

Surely, we had, international apart, interchange, internecine, &c., 
long before we had Coleridge. Of late, we hare coined largely words 
like intercolonial. 

* For its presentation as early as 1653, vide supra, p. 117, note 5, 
ad fin. 

Dr. Johnson did not admit patriotic into his Dictionary. As his 
editor, Archdeacon Todd, observes, however, he " has repeatedly used 
this word," but " in an ironical way." He uses it, but always sneer- 
ingly, to qualify "pleasure**, "rage", "tribes", and "vanity". 
Yet, in his Taxation no Tyranny ^ he means, by " antipatriotic pre- 
judices ", just what we should mean. 

Lord Macaulay, in his most unfair Essay on Horace Walpole, gives, 
as a palmary sample of his Gallicisms : " It will now be seen whether 
'10 or they are mosi patriot.** But * most patriotic ' would have seemed 
ilmost as odd to Walpolc's contemporaries as " most patriot " seems to 
us. To Burke, Gibbon, and Mathias, with many other writers of 
tlicir a^e, patriot was both a substantive and an adjective, as, in the 
liinjruage of poetry, it is still. Foote, in The Minor (1760), makes 
Snift speak of " a patriot gingerbread-baker." " Apatriot minister ". 
The Monitor (1762), No. 357. John Wilkes prefixes patriot^va. \X^'L 


PretentiouSy a very useful word, and in analogy 
with conscientious y licentious, and sententious,^ we 
have imitated from the French pretentieux. Sub- 
stantival and its congeners ^ are secondary adjectives 
which we owe to the superioc exactness of modern 
grammatical terminology. Further samples of our 

and 1763, to "toasts", "labours", ** spirit", "minister", "club", 
"stem*', "king'*, "heroes". The North Briton, ^os. 15, 18,^2, 
36,39,41. But "jpa^no^rc zeal'*. /*trf.. No. 39. In Wilkes's Dedi- 
cation to Lord Rokeb/s The Fall of Mortimer^ patriot qualifies " king **, 
" minister ", and " moments *'. Other references are these. Cole, The 
TForldy No. 86. Henry Brooke, The Fool of Quality (ed. 1792), Vol. 
1, p. 250; Vol. 3, pp. 256, 261. Colman, Prose on Several Occasions, 
Vol 2, p. 31 ; Vol. 3, pp. 257, 266, 280. George Watson, England 
Preserved, Act 1. Bolingbroke's phrase *^ patriot king " long held its 

In the slavish times of George III., patriots and patriotism were 
often talked of in a way which would now provoke a stare. 

" Political truth is equally in danger from the praises of. courtiers 
and the exclamations of patriots." Dr. Johnson, Life of Waller. 

" Patriotism and tyranny look opposite ways ; and there may be such 
a thing as a true patriot ; but, for the most part, these two are like 
Samson's foxes, connected by a firebrand, to inflame human affairs, and 
convert public calamity into private advantage." Rev. William Jones, 
of Nayland, Theological and Miscellaneous Works, Vol. 2, p. 139. 

And there is Dr. Johnson's conversational definition oi patriotism, — 
" the last refuge of a scoundrel." 

1 According to the newspapers, Mr. Beresford Hope, not long ago, 
ventured, in the House of Commons, the word asswnptiotisness. 
Neither does bumptiousness Hot presumptuousness, terms which define 
two of the honourable gentleman's most salient characteristics, afford 
him a precedent for his invention. 

2 Among them are adjectival, affixal, diminutival, imperatival, nom- 
inatival, &c. &c. Compare festival, — with reference to festive, — but 
merely as to form. The verb be is called substantive, to denote that 
it signifies something like * existence ' ; a noun is called adjective, to 
mark its species. Average, in * average rate *, grew out of averagium, 
and, therefore, is a substantival adjective ; eatables originated from an 
adjective, and, hence, is an adjectival substantive. These exemplifica- 
tions are, alone, sufficient to show the utility of the class of words here 
referred to. 


new adjectives are seen in abnormal, abysmal, accent- 
ual, alluvial,^ architectural, biographical, censorial, con- 
versational, denominational, departmental, directorial, 
discretional, distributional, divisional, emotional, extra- 
mural, fictional, fratricidal, functional, governmental, 
inaugural, inquisitorial, intramwral, intuitional, legis- 
latorial, medieval, normal, prelatial, regicidal, sculp- 
tiiral, secretarial,^ sectional, sensational, sentimental, 
sessional, territorial, transitional, tuitional, typal, 
zenithal ; abeyant, adolescent, afferent, assentient, cul- 
minant, dominant,^ flam boy ant, grandiloquent,'^ hesitant, 
larmoyant, nascent, originant, persistent, preponderant, 
presentient, recalcitrant, riant, senescent; aid ei manic, 
archaic, artistic, ceramic, climatic, dynastic, dyspeptic, 
fistic, operatic, strategic, transatlantic, voUani^c ;^ 
barbaresque, gentesque, gigantesque, picturesque, 
sculpturesque, sermonesque, soldatesque, statuesque; 
documentary, domiciliary, expeditionary, insurrection- 
ary, reactionary, vestiary ; amorphous, cantankerous, 
eponymous, euphonious, gaseous, monotonous, oragious, 
uproarious; crotchety, fussy, jerky, markworthy, pudgy, 
shaky, sketchy,^ skimpy ; cleverish, dearish, priggish, 
raffish, sharpish, wideish ; co usinly, fortnightly,'^ grand - 

; ^ 

^ The old word, according to Dr. Johnson, was alluvions. 

2 Southey, in 1801, used seeretarian. 

3 This is a resuscitation ; and of the same character arc efete and 

* Neither Dr. Richardson nor Dr. Latham has this now common 

^ The pronunciation of volcano with the Italian a is a sort of shib- 
boleth of the English nobility. It is amusing, that such die-away 
people should be distinguishable by their peculiar dealings with a word 
so suggestive of explosiveness. 

• Thb is one of the few neoterisros used by Lord Macaulay. 

^ Dr. Webster's Editors are unacquainted with this adjective. I can. 


fatherly, waiterly ; antipodean, lunarian, reptilian, 
Trojctarian^ utilitarian ; ^ evasible, regrettable, reliable; 
exhaustive, precursive, promotive ; demented, extortion- 
ate , flavour some, limp,^ nondescript, peninsular, repara^ 
tory, sparse, taciturn, truthful, unwifelike^ 

Such are some of the words by which living 
English differs from the English which prevailed in 
the time of George the Second. It is curious to 
speculate what will be the contents of a correspond- 
ing list, in which the neoterisms of the century- 
then just elapsed shall be exemplified in 1973. 

testify to its having been in common use, among Englishmen, for a 
least Ave and twenty years. Dr. Worcester records it. 

^ Instead of this ill-formed word, I have met with Tractite and 

2 This word — see Mr. J. S. Mill's Utilitarianism, — was first used, it 
is said, by Mr. Gait, in his Annals of the Parish. 

Like utilitarian, many words are no sooner created, as adjectives, 
than they become substantives, also. 

* Dr. Worcester calls limp, for * flaccid*, 'lithe*, "local". It is 
not so in England. 

* New adjectives in -ish, -ly, -like^ and -y are improvised, in conver- 
sation, as wanted ; and some authors write them as freely as they 
speak them. By way of curiosity, I give a few in -y, — all of them 
taken from books, — additional to those in the text. It is not likely 
that, without exception, they are modern. Old-fashioned lexico- 
graphers considered such light expressions as unworthy of their 

S^ffff!/i ^^fyf beery, crackly, dashy, fizzy, flary, flossy, fluffy, gossipy ^ 
P'<^99yi headachy, hiecupy, jewelly, mouthy, muzzy, nutty ^ patehy^ 
peaty, per fumy, pimply, poky, raffy, raggy, rumply, rutty, scrappy, 
scratchy, shifty, shingly, shrieky, sludgy, spiffy, stagy, thundery, thymy, 
tricky, viewy, whimmy. 

In our days, as compared with former times, colloquialisms get into 
black and white very largely ; but there is no reason to suppose that as 
many as we now use were not used in past centuries. Richardson's 
novels deserve special mention, as being a rich storehouse of the 
conversational dialect of their author's age. 


Who is so bold as blind Bayard ? — Old Froverb. 

'^ All really well educated in the English tongue 
lament the many innovations introduced into our 
language from America ; and I doubt if more than 
one of these novelties deserve acceptation. That 
one is, substituting a compound participle for an 
active verb used in a neuter signification; for in- 
stance, *The house is being huilt^ instead of *The 
house is building.' " Such is the assertion, and such 
the opinion, of some anonymous luminary,^ who, for 
his liberality in welcoming a supposed Americanism, 
is somewhat in advance of the herd of his country- 
men. Almost any popular expression which is con- 
sidered as a novelty, a Briton is pretty certain to 
assume, off-hand, to have originated on our side of 
the Atlantic. Of the assertion I have quoted, no 
proof is offered ; and there is little probability that 
its author had any to offer. Are being, in the phrase 


1 L. W. K., CLK., LL.D., EX-SCH. T.C.D. Of this reverend 
gentleman's personality I know nothing. He does not write the most 
exemplary English, and he does not say exactly what he means ; but 
what he means is, yet, unmistakable. The extract given above is from 
a letter in Public Opinion, Jan. 20, 1866. 



" are being thrown up/' ^ is spoken of, in The North 
American Seview,^ as "an outrage upon English 
idiom, * to be detested, abhorred, execrated, and given 
over to six thousand^ penny -paper editors;" and the 
fact is, that phrases of the form here pointed at have 
hitherto enjoyed very much less favour with us than 
with the English.^ 

As lately as 1860, Dr. Worcester,* referring to is 
being built, &c., while acknowledging, that " this new 
form has been used by some respectable writers,'* 
speaks of it as having " been introduced " " within a 
few years." Mr. Richard Grant White,^ by a most 
peculiar process of ratiocination, endeavoTirs to prove, 
that what Dr. Worcester calls "this new form", 
came into existence just fifty-six® years ago. He 

^ The analysis, taken for granted in this quotation, of ** are being 
thrown up " into "are being" and "thrown up," will be dealt with 
in the sequel, and shown to be untenable. 

2 Vol. 46 (1837), p. 604. 

' The Rey. John Earle, after quoting, from the oflfertory-mbric, 
" while these sentences are in reading ", adds : " In modem English, 
we should make it passiye, and say ' While these sentences are being 
read':' The Philology of the English Tongue (1871), p. 486. 

And this is all that the author of the very disappointing work, just 
quoted, has to say on the interesting point which forms the subject of 
the present monograph. 

In A School Manual of English Grammar (1873), Messrs. "W. 
Smith and T. D. Hall insert, as the " Present Tense Incomplete " and 
the " Past Tense Incomplete ", " I am being beaten " and " I was being 
beaten ", in their Paradigm of the Passive Voice, and simply remark, 
at p. 49 : " This usage is of late introduction into our language.'* 

Dr. R. Morris, in his Historical Outlines of English Accidence (ed. 
1873), ignores, I believe, these neoteric forms altogether! 

* In his Dictionary (ed. 1860), Preface, p. xxxix. 

» See liis Words and Their Uses (1871), Ch. 11, entided *Is Being 
Done\ extending from p. 334 to p. 364. 

' TbiB was written in 1871. 



premises/ that, in Jarvis's translation of Don Qiiuoi.e, 
published in 1742, there occurs "were carrying," 
and that this, in the edition of 1818, is sophisticated 
into "were being carried." "This change," con- 
tinues our logician, "and the appearance of t'a being 
with a perfect participle, in a very few books pub- 
lished between a.d. 1815 and 1820, indicate the for- 
mer period as that of the origin of this phraseology, 
which, although more than half a century old, is still 
pronounced a novelty as well aa a nuisance." ^ 

' He begins with sajiiag; : " The latter coune of thia idiom of r'H, on, 
or B vilh the vecbal noun may be traoed, and the period of the cen- 
oeetion of is hting may bo determined, by a eompariBon of the heading 
of chapter xxiL of Dan Qutxiite, aa it appears in the priacipal English 

" Detetmined" hai iiuee haou altered to " approiimat^l ", for 
reasons shown in the next note. Hut alteration is itill needed. It 
does niit follow, becaosa k, in 1742, wrote wert carrying, Hnd B, in 
1818, wrote aere btiitg cam'ad, that B'l exprossion was urikuo*n to A. 

' In the new edition of JFonit and Their Uuii, published towarda 
the end at last jetir, we Uml, at p. 348, instead of the BoatAace quoted 

"This change indieates the latter part of the leientaenl.h [rind 
eighteenth] ceotmy, as tbe birth-time of it being. And, in fact, the 
earliest known initaniw of its uss occurs in a letter by Southey, dated 
179S. Coleiidge nsed it, and Lamb, and Landor; yet, after thre« 
quniters of a century, it is pronounced a noielty and a nuisance." 

The factB about Sonthey, Coleridge, Lamb, and Landor. the reader 
will find at pp. 326, 327, infra ; but Mr. White, while pillaging from 
me, nowhere eren names or alludes to ne. 

A rcricwor in The Nalioti, May 15, 1873, wrilos thus : 

" Mr. White, howerer. is not absolutely inaccessible to instraction 
from his critivs. Dr. Hall's elaborate reCiitation of his argument 
against ■> being, publinhed in Scriimr'i Monlkly, a year ago, — the 
subject is, therefore, only alluded lo, not reargued, in the present 
hroch lira,— has been so fir taken to heart, by him, that he now (p. 
337] declare* the phrase to haie begun 'about eerenCy or eighty years 
ago ', instead of, as in the flrit editiut), ' aboat fifty years ago, as I 
infer," to distress and torture e»ery tasteW wid reasonable frioitd of 
correct English. He mtshl ftU, Ra tbiiilE, hnie ffxea On. Q>!^ «»!;:£. 


Who, in the next place, devised our modem im- 
perfects passive ? The question is not, originally, of 
my asking ; but, as the learned are at open feud on 
•the subject, it should not be passed by in silence. 
Its deviser is, more than likely, as undiscoverable as 
the name of the valiant antediluvian who first tasted 
an oyster. But the deducible character of the mis- 
creant is another thing ; and hereon there is war be- 
tween the philosophers. Mr. G. P. Marsh,^ as if he 
had actually spotted the wretched creature, passion- 
ately and categorically denounces him as "some 
grammatical pretender.'' "But," replies Mr. White, 
" that it is the work of any grammarian is more than 
doubtful. Grammarians, with all their faults, do not 
deform language with fantastic solecisms, or even 
seek to enrich it with new and startling verbal com- 
binations. They rather resist novelty, and devote 
themselves to formulating that which use has already 
established. It can hardly be, that such an incon- 
gruous and ridiculous form of speech as is being done 
was contrived by a man who, by any stretching of 
the name, should be included among grammarians.'' 
In the same page with this, Mr. White vituperates 
the great unknown as "some precise and feeble- 

for suggesting this alteration of date, particularly as he does not draw 
an additional particle of profit from the counter-argument. This whole 
matter is thoroughly characteristic of Mr. White." 

But Mr. White, even when he pilfers, makes an ill use of his booty. 
For how does the change, in the edition of Jarvis's Bon Quixote pub- 
lished in 1818, into were being carriedf from the were carrying of the 
edition of 1742, '* indicate the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
as the birth-time of is being''} Mr. White's later logic is no im- 
provement on his early. 

^ Lectures on the English Language, p. 649. 


minded soul/' and elsewhere calls him " some pedan- 
tic writer of the last generation." To add even one 
word towards a solution of the knotty point here in- 
dicated transcends, I confess, my utmost competence ; 
and all the world, quite possibly, must be content 
to share my helplessness. Nero, Heliogabalus, 
Changhez Khan, and, Alva are properties of his- 
tory ; but, in all likelihood, we shall labour in vain 
to discover the Attila of speech who, by his is being 
builfy or is being done, first offered violence to the 
whole circle of the proprieties. 

Dr. Priestley, in the last edition of his Rudiments 
of English Grammar, which came out in 1772, takes 
no notice of locutions like those in question; and 
none is taken by the Rev. John Bretland, in his en- 
larged edition of the aforesaid work, published in 
1785. If Priestley had ever heard such locu- 
tions, he would, doubtless, have remarked on them. 
Whether they had arisen, or not, in 1785, I am 
unprepared to say ; but, as I shall show, they were 
beginning to have vogue only ten years later.^ 

1 In a portion of Jeremy Bentham's Chureh-of-Englandism and 
its Catechism Examined^ &c., republished in 1868, we read, at p. 69 : 
** are every day being consumed'*. The original work first appeared 
about 1788 ; and even the editions of 1818 and 1824 have ''^are every 
day consuming** . 

In Matthew G. Lewis's Journal of a West India Proprietor (ed. 
1834), p. 129, in a letter bearing the date of 1816, is the expression 
*' while breakfast was getting ready". A later edition changes this 
into ** while breakfast was being got ready.'* 

An elegant London edition of The Vicar of Wakefield^ printed in 
1855, gives, in Ch. 25 : *'The little money I had was very nearly 
being all exhausted.** Goldsmith, I find, wrote "near"; and, by the / 
substitution of " nearly ", the expression " was being exhausted " is 
foisted upon him, and to the utter perversion of his meaning. 


How soon they were recognized by grammarians 
ought to be ascertainable at the expense of a few hours* 
questing in such a library as that of the British 
Museum. So far as I have observed, the earliest 
Grammar which exhibits them is that of Mr. R. S. 
Skillem, M.A., the first edition of which was pub- 
lished at Gloucester, in 1802. We there find, in the 
paradigm of the passive voice, "to be being con- 
quered,'' " I am being conquered,'* " I was being 
conquered," " I shall or will be being conquered," 
"I can, may, or must be being conquered," &c., 
&c. Most of these forms must come among those 
which the author admits that he inserted for the sake 
of theoretical completeness. He nowhere invites 
special attention to any of them. 

Robert Southey had not, on the ninth of October, 
1795, been out of his minority quite two months, 
when, evidently delivering himself in a way which 
had already become familiar enough, he wrote of " a 
fellow whose uttermost upper grinder is being torn 
out by the roots by a mutton-fisted barber." ^ This 
is from a private letter. In a work which Southey 
published two years later, we read : " He is now being 
educated for a Catholic priest," ^ 

^ * — — ■ -- ■ 

Editors of modern literature, until very recently, have rarely been 
noted for scrupulous fidelity. Hundreds of authors, no question, have 
been tampered with like Clarendon, Madame de Sevigne, Gray, and 

1 The Life and Correspondence of the late Robert Southey, Vol. 1, p. 

2 Letters, &c. (1797), p. 372. I might appeal largely to Southey's 
private letters ; but, for further testimonies, I confine myself to his 
compositions of a more formal cast. 

^* Plans and elevations of their palace, and of the new temple, have 


" While my hand was being drest by Mr. Young, I 
spoke for the first time," wrote Coleridge,^ in March, 

Charles Lamb speaks of realities which " are being 
acted before us," ^ and of " a man who is being 
strangled." * 

Walter Savage Landor, in an imaginary convers- 
ation, represents Pitt as saying : " The man who 
possesses them may read Swedenborg and Kant, 
while he is being tossed in a blanket." * Again : " I 
have seen nobles, men and women, kneeling in the 
street, before these bishops, when no ceremony of the 
Catholic Church was being performed." * Also, in a 
translation from Catullus : 

" Some criminal is being tried 
For murder." * 

" We were allowed two hours for dinner ; and 
two more were wasted in the evening, while the 

been made for them, and are now bein^ engraved for the public." 
Hspriella's Letters, &c. (1807), VoL 3, p. 266. 

** Volumeg have been filled, and are perpetually being filled^** &c. 
Life of Wesley (ed, 1864), Vol. 2, p. 281. 

*^ Such . . at this time are being* reestablished.** Colloquies, &c., 
Vol. 1, p. 338. 

"It is needed alike for those who are being trained in our seminaries," 
&c. Covcpar's Works, Vol. 1, p. 8. 

** She has been carried from lecture to lecture, like a student who is 
being erammed at a Scotch UniTcrsity." The Doctor (ed. 1849), pi 

** That verb is eternally being declined.** Ibid., p. 40. 

> Biographia Literaria (ed. 1847), Vol. 2, p. 317. 

' Elia*8 EHsaya, Stage Illusions. 

* Ibid., On the Inconveniences Resulting from Being Hanged. 

* Works, Vol. 1, p. 376. 

• The Letters of a Conservative^ p. 88. 

• The Last Fruit off an Old Tree, p. 262. 

328 . APPENDIX. 

coach was being changed,*^ So writes Mrs. Shelley.* 

And Shelley, in 1819 : " My Prometheus, which 
has been long finished, is now being transcribed, and 
will soon be forwarded to you for publication."^ 

The critical Dr. Arnold has : *^ For instance, what 
lies at the bottom of that question which is now 
being discussed everywhere, — the question of the corn- 
laws, — but the geological fact, that England is more 
richly supplied with coal-mines than any other 
country in the world ? ** ^ 

Nor does Mr. De Quincey scruple at such English 
as " made and being made^^ * and " the bride that was 
being married to him."^ On one occasion, he writes 
" not done, not even (according to modern purism) 
being done ; "® as if purism meant * exactness,' rather 
than * the finical avoidance of neoterism.' 

I need, surely, name no more, among the dead, 
who found is being built, or the like, acceptable. 
** Simple-minded common people and those of culture 
were alike protected against it by their attachment to 

1 History of a Six Weeks* Tour, &c. (1817), p. 72. 

2 Shelley Memorials f p. 118. 

3 IntrodtMtory Lectures on Modern History (ed. 1846), pp. 126, 127. 
Also see Miscellaneous Works, p. 121. 

Shelley, Mrs. Shelley, and Dr. Arnold are not named by Mr. "White, 
— vide supra, p. 323, note 2, — in his list of early users, among good 
writers, of is being, &c. The passages which I now take from them 
were not given in my first edition of the present paper. My extracts 
from Mr. De Quincey Mr. White shuts his eyes to. It would not have 
done for him to let it be known that a writer so highly esteemed in 
America differed from himself. 

♦ Works,No\.1,^. 111. 

' Ibid., Vol. 18, p. 232, second foot-note. Somewhere else, Mr. De 
Quincey writes : ** The shafts of Heaven were even now being forged.** 
My reference to the passage I have mislaid. 

« Wwhs, Vol. 4, p. 7. 


the idiom of their mother-tongue, with which they 
felt it to be directly at variance." ^ So Mr. White 
informs us. But the writers whom I have quoted 
are formidable exceptions. Even Mr. White will 
scarcely deny to them the title of "people of 

So much for offenders past repentance ; and we 
all know, that the sort of phraseology under con- 
sideration is daily becoming more and more common. 
The best-written of the English reviews, magazines, 
and journals are perpetually marked by it ; and some 
of the choicest of living English writers employ it 

Preeminent among these stands Dr. Newman, who 
wrote, as far back as 1846 : " At this very moment, 
souls are being led into the Catholic Church, on the 
most various and independent impulses, and from the 
most opposite directions." ^ 

Bishop Wilberforce shall be summoned next. 
'^ How plainly, in this case, is the work of evil being 
accomplished in our soul, and all hope of the continu- 

^ Aod this language Mr. White repeats in 1872, when in possession of 
the facts as to Southey, Coleridge, Lamb, and Landor, which he plagia- 
rizes from me. 

In his new edition, Mr. White boldly insinuates that expressions like 
is being built are, even at this day, somewhat peculiar to very low 
persons : 

**This * continuing passive present' seems to be fastened upon us; 
those who inaugurate * sample-rooms *, or who report the proceedings 
on those occasions, being instant in its use, and seizing every opportu- 
nity of airing their precision." P. 413, foot-note. 

By sample-rooms are meant, in New York slang,' * grog-shops '. In 
Mr. White's opinion, either the keepers of such places, or else their 
newspaper-puffers, must be influential indeed, if they can really 
'^ fasten" any mode of speech on the people at large. 

2 Essays Critical and Historiealf Vol. 2, p. 448. 


ance of a faitWul and prosperous ministry being de- 
stroyedy ^ " The true evil is being wroughV^ * " It 
is acting the evil which is being accomplished within 
him/^ 8 a Perhaps this last issue w being now decided 
for us, as a nation." * 

From Mr. Euskin I take one instance of similar 
phraseology, and refer to fifteen more. " Now, dur- 
ing the whole period in which the ground w being 
recovered,** &c.^ 

" Italy is being annexed to Sardinia by its own free 
will," says the Rev. Dr. E. A. Freeman .• 

"The king of Dahomey sips sugar and water, 
whilst a hundred human beings are being massacred 
before his eyes, and their blood is being puddled with 
the blood of tigers." So the Rev. S. Baring-Goidd.' 

Mr. Matthew Arnold writes : *' Any one, for in- 
stance, who will go to the Potteries, and will look at 
the tawdry, glaring, ill-proportioned ware which is 
being made there," &c.® 

" The corpuscles enter into the eggs, while they 
are being formed^^ is the language of Professor 
Huxley, in his account of the panhistophyton.* 

1 Addresses, &c. (ed. 1860), p. 225. 

3 Sertnons, &c., Second Series (1863), p. 48. 

3 Ibid., ^.60. * J*»V?., p. 74. 

' The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), p. 142. Also see Zee- 
tures on Architecture and Fainting (1854), p. 70 : The Two Path* 
(1859), pp. 14, 68, 155, 228: Ethics of the Bust (1866), pp. 22, 102, 
108, 190, 198, 203: Sesame and Lilies (ed. 1871), pp. 21, 97: 
The Eagle's Nest (1872), p. 67 : Fors Clavigera, Letter 29, p. 2. 

• Eistorical Essays, Vol. 1, p. 167. Also see pp. 122, 237. The 
three passages referred to were written in 1860, 1869, and 1871. 

' The Origin and Development of Religious Belief (ed. 1871), 
p. 77, 8 Literature and Dogma, p. 66, 

» Critiques and Addresses (1873), p. 247. 

Ijord Macaulay, Mr. IKckens, The Aflantic Moiiihly, 
and The Brookli/n Eagle are alleged by Mr. White, 
afterhaving given extracts from Bistop Jewell down- 
wards, in proof tliat people still use such phrases aa 
" Chelsea Hoqiital wa» buihimg," and " the train 
was preparing," "Hence we see," he adds, "that 
the form is being done, is being made, is being built, 
lacka the support of authoritative usage from the 
period of the earliest classical English to the present 
day." I fully concur with Mr. WMte, in regarding 
" neither T/ie Brooklyn Eagle nor Mr. Dickens as a 
Tery high authority in the use of language ; " yet, 
when he has renounced the aid of these contemned 
straws, what, by his argument, has he to rest his in- 
ference on, as to our own day, but the practice of 
Loi-d Macaulay and The Allantic Monthly? Those 

I ■who think tit will bow to the dictatorship hero pre- 
scribed to them ; but there may be those with whom 
the classic sanction of Southey, Landor, Dr. Newman, 
and Mr. Matthew Arnold will not be wholly void of 
weight. Fox, when he resolved to put on paper 
no word wliich had not the warrant of Dryden, 

I decided for himsdf alone. Mr. Wliif e out- Foxes Fox. 

All scholars are aware, that, to convey the sense of 

the imperfects passive, our ancestors, centuries ago, 

prefixed, with is, &c., in, afterwards corrupted into 

See, farther, the RBT.ChnrleiKingaley, ThiBirmiti,-^^. 18,31; Mr. 
Hanrj Crablie Boliiimm, iJinrj/. ic„ Vol.1, p. 602; Vol, 2, p. 367. 
Atid I might rarer to Ceckford, Sir John Davu, Mr. OJckeoi, Mr. 
Thaokeray, Mr. Cnrljlc, &o, la. &o. There are twelTO instancBs in 
Sir. Cbarlea Renile'« Hard Caih, and athem in Tli« Cowm of Trta 
Lore, &x.. The Eighth CammaHduitut, i'uC Youraelfia Rii I'lUff, Griffilh 
I Qauni, &c. 


a, to a verbal substantive. * The house is in building ' 
could be taken to mean nothing but cedes cedifican^ 
tur ; and, when the in gave place to a,^ it was still 
manifest enough, from the context, that building was 
governed by a preposition. The second stage of 
change, however, namely, when the a was omitted, 
entailed, in many cases, great danger of confusion.^ 
In the early part of the last century, when English 
was undergoing what was then thought to be purifi- 
cation, the polite world substantially resigned is a- 
building, especially in its passive sense, to the vulgar.^ 

1 Thomas Fuller writes : "At his arrivall, the last stake of the 
Christians was on losing.'* The HistoHe of the Soly Warre (ed. 
1647), p. 218. 

' In the Geneva New Testament, 1 St. Peter, 3, 20, is the expression 
** while the arcke wa4 preparing** And so the passage is reproduced 
in Bagster's Sexapla, where, Mr. Marsh supposes, *^ preparing .... 
is, probably, a misprint for a-preparing ; as no other example of that 
form is known to occur until long after the date of that version.** 
Lectures, &c., p. 651, foot-note. 

There is no misprint, I tind, on reference to the original edition of 
1557 ; and Mr. Marsh is mistaken in thinking that such a form as 
preparing for a-preparing, was not in use till long after that date. 

" Or els, whyles a commodye of Plautus is playinge, and the vyle 
bondemen skoffynge and trylFelinge amonge them selfes," &c. Raphe 
Robynson, Translation of Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1551), p. 64 
(ed. 1869). 

*' There was talking of a monasterie that was erecting in the honour 
of hym." Pasquine in a Traunce (ed. 1566), fol. 17. 

" And yet was there one [pageant] much fayrer, that was preparing 
for Peter Lewes," &c. Ibid., fol. 101. 

" He was worthily received by Pontus, duke and gouvemour of the 
same ile, with whom he lodged while his shippes were newe repairyng.** 
Barnabe Riche, Farewell to Militarie Frofession (1581), p. 69 (ed. 

" In the meane space, while these things were providing, he trimmed 
the maine mast of the Jesus, which, in the storme aforesaid, was 
sprong.*' Sir John Hawkins, in Hakluyt, Vol. 1 (1589), p. 524. 

» ** Noble is thy bringing uppe as is thy raising to high fortunes.*' 
Dekker, The Bead Tearme (1608), sig. C 4 v. 


Towards the close of the same century, when, under 
the influence of free thought, it began to be felt that 
even ideas had a right to faithful and unequivocal 
representation, a just resentment of ambiguity was 
evidenced in the creation of is being built. The 
lament is too late, that the instinct of reformation did 
not restore the old form. It is gone for ever ; and we 
are now to make the best of its successors. . ^* * The 
brass is forging y* '^ in the opinion of Dr. Johnson, is 
" a vicious expression, probably corrupted from a 
phrase more pure, but now somewhat obsolete, . . . 
* the brass is a-forging,^ " Yet, with a true Tory's 
timidity, and aversion to change, it is not surprising 
that he went on preferring what he found estabUshed, 
vicious as it confessedly was, to the end. But was 
the expression " vicious," solely because it was a 
corruption ? In 1787, William Beckford wrote as 
follows, of the fortune-tellers of Lisbon : " I saw ane 
dragging into light, as I passed by the ruins of a 
palace thrown down by the earthquake. Whether a 
familiar of the Inquisition was griping her in his 
clutches, or whether she teas taking to account by some 
disappointed votary, I will not pretend to answer." ^ 
Are the expressions here italicized either perspicuous 
or graceful? Whatever we are to have in their 
place, we should be thankful to get quit of them. 

Inasmuch as, concurrently with building for the 
active participle, and being built for the correspond- 

We still use the fonner, but no longer the latter, of the expressions 
italicized. For raising we could here substitute neither * rising * nor 
* being raised *. We should put * elevation', meaning * elevatedness*. 

> Italyy &c., Vol. 2, p. 89. 

ing passive participle, ive possessed the fonner, with 
is prefixed, as the active present imperfect, it ib in 
rigid accordance with the symmetry of our verb, 
that, to 'conBtmct the passive present imperfect, we 
prefix is to the latter, producing the form is being 
built. Such, in its greatest simplicity, is the proce- 
dure which, as will be seen, has provoked a very 
levanter of ire and vilification. But anything that 
is new will be excepted to by minds of a certain 
order. Their tremulous and impatient dread of 
removing ancient landmarks disqualifies them even 
for thoroughly investigating its character and pre- 
tensions. It is not impossible to imagine, that the 
primeval practitioners of articulate speech themselveB 
were frowned on, with severe displeasure, by sturdy 
conservatives who had determined to be content with 
the language of pantomime. And theoretical ad- 
mirers of the prelingual period are, possibly, scattered 
here and there, to this day. " Unless a man," writes 
Mr. White, " is a monster of pedantry and priggish- 
neas, — and, indeed, not then, — the words and the 
forms of speech he uses are not made, or even chosen, 
by himself."^ But, as "words" and "forms of speech," 
that is to say, language, are made, and are, most as- 
suredly, not the work of pedants and prigs, their 
origin must be estrahumau. As to is being built, it 
is, presumably, not to the class of those expressions 
which, with yvmQi. irtavTov, streamed down from 

I " Any man bss the ri^ht to use n word, especiallj' a word of such 
natural growtb and bo well rooWd oi JHXtapate, for tha first time ; elae 
WH aliauld be poorly off for language." Ward* and Tlicir Utit, p. 

Haw u this to be raeoticUed with the doctrine quoted ia the tut P 



■Seaven, but to the class of tKose wluch steamed up 
B&om Tartarus, that Mr. White would assign it. 
I In wf building and in is being built, we have an 
fc»uxi I iary followed by the active participle present and 

■ by the passive participle present, just as, in will build 
■and in will he built, we have an auxiliary followed by 

■ the active infinitive and by the passive infinitive. 
KAnd then there is has been built, paired against has 
B built} To come to analysis, tritl be built and ha% been 
I huilt, considered as equivalent to will be ~\- built and 
B.^s been -|- built, would signify Bomething like' will 

P > Tbougb, of these concretiiins, aa rnicih, the latler, hat built, it itctivB, 

■ I cannot cnOBent with the gi^mmiinana in m cnlling the paiticlple, 
huilt, which it embodies. The real reuBoa wbj biisU may be an ele- 
ment of an nctiie cnncretioii, no Icbb than (A n paaiiive coaorelian, u. 
that, taken unqDalificdbyAact or bi, it \s itatio ; as in ' abiiill hoaae', 
' I fonnd thehoufla iuill ', where built, in eueuoe and function, ia indu- 
tinguiabuble li-om an adjeetive. 

I would here refer, tor an admirable eipoaition of the dichotomj of 
the pirts of speech into st«tic and dynamic, to Dr. Shudnorlh S. 
Hodgaon'i Thtoi-y of Practici, Vol. 2, Ch. 1, Fara. 93. 

* I eiprsss mfbclf in this manner, bfcanse I distinguish between bt 
and ixiit. As well might one denr that'thej differ, as deny a difference 
between mie and ixiilere, When we assert that a thing eziilt, we 
denote, respecting it. a degree of protennian in time, or of prominence 
of presentation, wbich a clearly uhsent f^om the conicionsness, when 
WD assert that the thing if. Moreover, txiil, refusing to derogate from 
its original charaoter, and to surrender it« aabstantiro rights, will not 
«ubmit to be Bltcnuated into a mere link of eonneiioii ; whereas In 
diiesta itself madily of its dynamic robustness, humbles itself to he- 
eomo a simple cupula, and, as such, is equally fitted to form a constitu- 
ent of a Terb actite, of a *orb pasaive, and of a yerb neuter, or, IB 
other words, la suhserre tbe full expression of energy, recipiency of 
energy, and objectless actirity. 

Home Tooke says he would " rather chuse, in the scale of beinas, 
taixitt B mastiff or H ranic, than a monkey or a lap-dog." Herenn Mr. 
White comments, that "no man who bos preserved sU ble senses will 
duubt, for a moment, that. ' to ui'if a mastilf or a male ' is absolutely 
the same as ' (o fa a mostilTor a mule.' " I, for one, mnal, then,huve 
parted with soma portion of my seusca. But I am Goaifof<jE:>i 'b,'^<;)w 


exist built and has existed built, which, plainly, are 
neuter. We are debarred, therefore, from such 
resolutions ; and, by parity of reasoning, we may not 
analyse is being built into is being -(- built. It must 
have been an inspiration of analogy, felt or unfelt, 
that suggested the form I am discussing. Is being -\- 
bui/t, as it can mean, pretty nearly, only exists built, 
would never have been proposed as adequate to con- 
vey any but a neuter sense ; whereas it was perfectly 
natural for a person aiming to express a passive sense, 
to prefix is to the passive concretion being built} 

conTiction, that I have a goodly fellowship of unacknowledged bed- 
lamites to bear me company. 

Mr. White, since reading my remarks on his extract from Home 
Tooke, has altered the passage quoted above. It now runs : " can 
any man who has preserved all his senses doubt, . . . ? '* This sub- 
stitution of the interrogative address for the affirmative indicates a 
modified view of insanity, certainly ; but, in stopping short of com- 
plete excision, Mr. White has also indicated, that, whereas * is inap- 
prehensive * was formerly to be predicated of him, we are now com- 
pelled to predicate * exists inapprehensive *. 

** The identity of thesis and antithesis is the substance of all beinff ; 
their opposition, the condition of all existence^ or being manifested ;** 
&c. Coleridge, The Friend (ed. 1818), Vol 1, p. 155. 

1 Samuel Richardson writes : " Jenny, who attends me'here, has more 
than once hinted to me, that Miss Jervois loves to sit up late, either 
reading or being read to by Anne, who, tho' she reads well, is not fond 
of the task." Sir Charles Grandison (ed. 1754), Vol. 3, p. 46. 
Y The transition is very slight by which we pass from * sits being read 
to * to * is being read to.* 

The idiom formed by the adjection of a present participle to being, 
for the purpose of expressing continuous action, may here be re- 
levantly adverted to. Examples of it are abundant. 

** Being gaping a-slepe." Bishop Bale, The Vocacgon, &c. (1553), 
The Harleian Miscellany (ed. Oldys and Park), Vol. 6, p. 457. 

" Robin Good-fellow being walkifig, onej night," &c. Robin Good- 
fellow, &c. (bef. 1588 ?), p. 38 (ed. 1841). 

" Being eating of oysters '*, " being a-carousingJ* TarltorCs Jests, 
&c. (ed. Mr. J. 0. Halliwell), pp. 6, 8. 


The analogical justification of is being built which 
I have brought forward is so obvious, that, as it 
occurred to myself more than twenty years ago, 
so it must have occurred spontaneously to hundreds 
besides. It is very singular that those who, like Mr. 
Marsh and Mr. White, have pondered long and 
painfully over locutions typified by e.s being built, 
should have missed the real ground of their gram- 
matical defensibleness, and should have warmed 
themselves, in their opposition to them, into uttering 
opinions which no calm judgment can accept. 

" One who is being beaten '' is, to Archbishop 
Whately, "uncouth English." "'The bridge is 
being built/ and other phrases of the like kind, have 
pained the eye " of Mr. David Booth. Such phrases, 
according to Mr. M. Harrison, " are not English." 
To Professor J. W. Gibbs, "this mode of expres- 
sion .... appears formal and pedantic ; " and " the 
easy and natural expression is, ' The house is build- 
ing.^ " ^ In all this, little or nothing is discernible 
beyond sheer prejudice, the prejudice of those who 

" Jieinff then preaching.''* Thomas Fuller, Abel Redevivus, p. 229. 

" Two large wax candles were also set on another tahle, the ladies 
being going to cards.*' De Foe, The Political History of the Devil (ed. 
1840), p. 336. 

** After which, the sun being now setting j* &c. Graves, The Spirit- 
ual Quixote (ed. 1820), Vol. 2, p. 193. 

** Merchant, with some rudeness, demanded a room, and was told that 
there was a good fire in the next parlour, which the company were 
about to leave, being then paging their reckoning.'* Dr. Johnson, 
Life of Savage. 

These extracts illustrate forcibly what nice distinctions of tense 
we are enabled, by the flexibility of our conjugation, to give expression 


* I am here indebted to Dr. "Worcester's Dictionary^ Preface, p. 




resolve to take their stand, quite regardless of utility, 
against an innovation, simply because it is an inno- 
vation, and who are ready to find an argument 
against it in any random epithet of disparagement 
provoked by unreflecting aversion. And the more 
recent denouncers in the same line have no more 
reason on their side than their elder brethren. 

In Mr. Marshes estimation, is being built illustrates 
" corruption of language ; *' it is " clumsy and un- 
idiomatic ; " ^ it is, " at best, but a philological cox- 
combry;"^ it "is an awkward neologism, which 
neither convenience, intelligibility, nor syntactical 
congruity demands, and the use of which ought, 
therefore, to be discountenanced,- as ah attempt at 
the artificial improvement of the language, in a point 
which needed no amendment."^ Again: "To re- 
ject^' is building, in favour of the modern phrase, 
"is to violate the laws of language by an arbitrary 
change ; and, in this particular case, the proposed 
substitute is at war with the genius of th^ English 
tongue."* Mr. Marsh seems to fancy, that, wher- 
ever he intimates a beauty in is building, he points 
out, inclusively, a blemish in is being built. 

The fervour with which Mr. White advances to 
the charge is altogether tropical. "The fiiU ab- 
surdity of this phrase, the essence of its nonsense, 
seems not to have been hitherto pointed out." It is 
" a new phrase which has nothing of force or of 
accuracy in its favour." It is not " consistent with 

1 Lectures, &c., p. 649. * Ibid,, p. 664. 3 Ibid., p. 649. 

* Ibid., p. 656. It is quite beyond me to conjecture in what sense 
Mr. Marsh here talks of '* an arbitrary change." 


reason ; " and it is not " conformed to the normal 
development of the language." It is " a monstrosity, 
the illogical, confusing, inaccurate, unidiomatic cha- 
racter of which I have, at some length, but yet im- 
perfectly, set forth.'* "In fact, it* means nothing, 
and is the most incongruous combination of words 
and ideas that ever attained, respectable usage in any 
civilized language.'' These be " prave ^ords ; " and 
it seems a pity that so much sterling objurgatory 
ammunition should be expended in vain. And that 
it is so expended, thinks Mr. White himself; for, 
though passing sentence in the spirit of a Jeffreys, 
he is not, really, on the judgment-seat, but on the 
lowest hassock of despair. As concerns the mode of 
expression exemplified by is being built, he owns, 
that, " to check its diffusion would, be a hopeless 
undertaking." If so, why not reserve himself for 
service against some evil not avowedly beyond 
remedy ? 

Again we read : " Some precise and feeble-minded 
soul, having been taught that there is a passive voice 
in English, and that, for instance, building is an 
active participle, and builded or built a passive, felt 
conscientious scruples at saying ' the house is build- 
ing,^ For what could the house build ? " As children 
say at play, Mr. White bums here. A participle it 
was, no question, though not builty but being built, 
that excited, in his hypothetical " precise and feeble- 
minded soul," " conscientious scruples at saying * the 
house w building ' ; " and, if Mr. White had hit upon 
the right participle, I suspect his chapter on Is Being 
Done would have been much shorter than it is at 


present, and very different. " The fatal absurdity in 
this phrase" consists, he tells us, "in the combina- 
tion of is with being ; ^ in the making of the verb to 
be a supplement,'* or, in grammarians' phrase, an 
auxiliary to itslelf,^ — an absurdity so palpable, so 
monstrous, so ridiculous, that it should need only to 
be pointed out to be scouted." Lastly : " The ques- 
tion is, thus, narrowed simply to this : Does to be 

^ " This is being wicked for wickedness' sake." Charles Johnson, 
Chrysal (ed. 1777), vol. 2, p. 65. 

" This is being candid indeed." Miss Buraey, Cecilia, Book 3, Ch. 7. 

And so we all say every day; perpetrating, with " fatal absurdity,'* 
" the combination of is with being.** 

2 Changed, in Mr. White's new edition, into "complement." The 
first reading gave rise to my remark, in 1871, at the end of note 1 
in the next page. 

3 By what linguistic criterion, I beg to know, is such a " supple- 
ment" as Mr. White refers to made out to be an absurdity.^ No one 
is better aware than the true philologist, of the hazard attending 
generalizations and universal assertions. In Hindi and Urdu, * be- 
coming ' is hot& huuj literally, * being been ' ; the present imperfect 
is main hotd hurt, literally, * I am being' ; * I had been ' is main hud 
thd, literally, * I was been ' ; * I may have been ' is main hud hungd, 
literally, * I shall be been ', &c. &c. So, in Persian, * I had been ' is 
shudah budam, literally, * I was having been ' ; ' I shall have been ' is 
bMah busham, literally, * I may be having been *. 

I shall recur, a little further on, to the point here adverted to. In 
the mean time, I will only add, that I need not have gone to Asia for 
facts subversive of Mr. "White's assumption. Even the neo-Latin lan- 
guages are, more than one of them, conclusive as against it ; and so is 
the German. 

Is being thus has many parallels in language. In this expression, 
of two parts of a verb, one is made to qualify the other, just as in has 
had. If, then, is being is absurd to Mr. White, the old-fashioned has 
had ought to be equally absurd to him ; for the self -qualification of, in 
Mr. White's phraseology, " simple absolute existence, or whatever at- 
tribute follows it," must be quite on a par with the qualification of 
possession by possession : if * existent beings ' is not to be borne, 
neither is * having possessions.' And still worse, to him, should be is 
becoming, in which * simple absolute existence ' qualifies process. For 
who can imagine a condition of simultaneous station and motion P 


being (esse ens) mean anything more or other than 
to be ? " 

Having convicted Mr. "White of a mistaken 
analysis, I am not concerned with the observations 
which he founds on his mistake. However, even if 
his analysis had been correct, some of his arguments 
would avail him nothing. For instance, is being 
built, on his understanding of it, that is to say, is 
being -\- built, he represents by ens cedificatus est, as 
*' the supposed corresponding Latin phrase."^ The 
Latin is illegitimate ; and he infers, that, therefore, 
the English is the same. But cedificans est, a trans- 
lation, on the model which he oflfers, of the active is 
building, is quite as illegitimate as ens cedifieattis est} 
By parity of non-sequitur, we are, therefore, to sur- 
render the active is building. Assume that a phrase 
in a given language is indefensible, unless it has its 

^ " It is being is simply equal to it is. And, in the supposed cor- 
responding Latin phrases, ens foetus est, ens adijicatus est (the obso- 
leteness of eus^ as a participle, bein^^ granted), the monstrosity is not 
in the use of ens vf'i^ foetus, but in that of ens with est. The absurdity 
is, in Latin, just what it is in English, the use of is with being, the 
making of the verb to be 2i complement to itself." 

In writing thus, Mr. White recognizes no more difference between 
supplement and complement than he recognizes between be and exist. 
See the preceding page, note 2, and p. 335, note 2, supra. 

^ Is being done, we are told, " is a worthy offspring of English 
grammar ; a fitting, and, I may say, an inevitable, consequence of the 
attempt to make our mother-tongue order herself by Latin rules and 

^Vhat is there in Latin, — which helplessly leaves it doubtful whether 
amor is to mean * I am loved *, or * I am being loved ', — to suggest is 
being done ? This very doubtfulness, if anything. 

Mr. White is unfortunate in his Latin. But where is he not un- 
fortunate ? The French se bdtissait, and the Italian sUdificava and 
a' apporechehiava, he takes to be preterites, and translates them by 
" was built " and " was prepared." ^ 


counterpart in some other language ; from the very 
conception and definition of an idiom, every idiom is 

I now pass to another point. " To he and to exist 
are," to Mr. Whitens apprehension, "perfect sy- 
nonyms, or more nearly perfect, perhaps, than any 
two verbs in the language.^ In some of their TOean- 
ings, there is a shade of difference ; but, in others, 
there is none whatever; and the latter are those 
which serve our present purpose. When we say, 
' He, being forewarned of danger, fled/ we say, * He, 
existing forewarned of danger, fled.' When we say, 
that a thing is done, we say that it exists done. 
When we say, * That being done, I shall be satisfied,' 
we say, * That existing done, I shall be satisfied/ Is 
being done is simply exists existing done.'' But, if 
is and exists be equipollent, and so being and exist- 
ing, is being is the same as the unimpeachable is ex- 
isting. Q. non E. D. Is existing ought, of course, 
to be no less objectionable, to Mr. White, than is 
being. Just as absurd, too, should he reckon the 
Italian sono stato, era stato, sia stato,fossi stato, saro 
stato, sarei stato, essere stato, and essendo stato. For, 
in Italian, both essere and stare are required to make 

^ I here use idiofn in its strictest acceptation. " By idiom is meant 
that use of words which is peculiar to a particular language." Dr. J. 
H. Newman, Lectures and Essays on University Subjects, p. 160. 

** Every language, more especially the English, has its idioms, which 
we should not register, with grammarians and lexicographers, among 
its irregularities, but, with poets and orators, number among its 
beauties." Colman, The Gentleman, No. 3. 

2 In his new edition, Mr. White has : " To be and to exist, if not 
perfect synonyms, are more nearly so, perhaps, than any two verbs in 
the language." 


up the verb substantive/ as, in Latin, both esse and 
the oflFspring of fuere are required ; ^ and siare, pri- 
marily, ' to stand,^ is modified into a true auxiliary.* 
The alleged " full absurdity of this phrase,'' — to- wit, 
is being built, — "the essence of its nonsense," vanishes, 
thus, into thin air.* So I was about to comment 

^ So, in German, both sein and an outgrowth of the obsolete weaen 
are required to the same end. Ich bin geweaen is the counterpart of 
to 80110 atato. 

' Agglutinations I purposely pass by, as belonging to the region of 
speculation. The classical scholar will not need to be reminded, that, 
in fueramj faeroy &c., the verbs fuere and esse are supposed, by some, 
to be welded together. 

3 As Landor notices,— in his Worka^ Vol. 2, p. 72, — Milton, more 
than once, Italianizes his verbs, and imitates atavano pregandoj where 
he writes, at the beginning of the Eleventh Book of The Faradiae 
Loat : 

" Thus they, in lowliest plight, repentant atood 

Just before, Adam and Eve " prostrate fell " ; and we have no in- 
timation that they had risen to their feet. 

^ Ecference to the present Appendix, as, in essentially its present 
shape, it first appeared, is made in the following passages. 

" I have twice gone attentively through Dr. Hall's article, 

and 1 did so with the purpose, I might also say the hope, of finding 
occasion for the modification of my judgment. I found, on the con- 
trary, not a single point brought up which I had not carefully con- 
sidered before, as could be sliown, if the chapter and the article were 
printed side by side. Dr. Hall reat^hes one conclusion ; I, another. I 
venture to say, that this is possible, without my being arrogant or 
unwise. It is not the first case, in the annals of literature, in which 
arguments thought to be overwhelming by those on whose side they 
were used, were regarded as not at all so by those against whom they 
were directed." Mr. R. G. White, Letter in The Nation^ March 
13, 1873. 

" As there is not a view that he [Dr. Hall] presents, which I had 
not previously considered and rejected in my chapter on the subject, 
any mention of his article would have been, at least, superfluous. The 
Nation decides that my assailant (not my * antagonist,' if you please) 
is right throughout," &c Ibid., Letter in The New York Timea, June 
7, 1873. 


bluntly, not forgetting to regret, that any gentle- 
man's cultivation of logic should fructify in the shape 

As I have pointed out in a previous foot-note, Mr. White has 
thought certain facts of history, hearing on is being built, &c., well 
worth helping himself to from my pages ; and he has helped himself 
to them in perfect quiet. Would m^ition of his obligation to me 
therefor also have come under the head of the " superfluous" ? 

However wide may be the prevalence of anything in the way of 
language, Mr. White's great principle is, that you can say very little 
for it, unless you can justify it by reason. Fancying himself within 
the charmed circle of science, he misanalysed is being built into ia 
being t built ; and, on the implied ground of its Ibeing only thus ana- 
lysable, and to the effect of yielding an absurd element, i% being^ he 
passed sentence on it, as unendurable. I, for my part, formally 
analysed the expression, and analogically, into is + being built ; and it 
has not been shown that I was not original in this my formal analysis, 
at least as regards setting it forth in print. If Mr. White knew of 
this analysis before he read my paper, why did not he upset it ; the 
upsetting of it being indispensable to the setting up of his own 
analysis ? And, now that he knows of my analysis, why does not he 
expose its sophisticalness, if it be sophistical } Does he really take in 
my argument ? As The Nation puts it, " if Mr. White cannot see the 
point, his perspicacity is not to be envied." Further, if he cannot, 
what is his aptitude for philology ? 

Charged with having buried my " adverse arguments under the pro- 
foundest silence,*' he replies, as we have seen, that he had anticipatively 
considered and rejected every view that I present, and, addressing 
my friendly reviewer, asserts, that he has " the right to protest against 
your unmistakable implication, that I shrink from argument, under 
the cover of a cowardly silence." Vague assertions and a bold front 
are not refutation ; and, as to the first, if he can circumstantiate, to 
his advantage, those which he has ventured, why does he hesitate to 
do so } 

To bring out clearly Mr. White*s utter impracticability as a philo- 
logist, I subjoin extracts from his two Prefaces, with a few words of 
comment thereon. 

" To assault any position of mine, which is not, itself, taken upon 
the ground of usage, by bringing up the * authority,' that is, the 
mere example, of eminent writers, is at once to beg the question at 


In other words, whether, as regards any given expression, the con- 
current practice of eminent writers is extensive enough, or sufficiently 
grounded in reason, to constitute iisage, is a matter of which Mr. 


of irrepressible tendencies to suicide. But this would 
be precipitate. Agreeably to one of Mr. Whitens 
judicial placita, which I make no apology for citing 
twice, " no man who has preserved all his senses will 
doubt, for a moment, that ' to exist a mastiff or a 
mule ' is absolutely the same as * to be a, mastiff or a 
mide.' *' Declining to admit their identity, I have 
not preserved all my senses ; and, accordingly, — 
though it may be, in me, the very superfetation of 
lunacy, — I would caution the reader to keep a sharp 
eye on ray arguments, hereabouts particularly. The 
Cretan who, by declaring all Cretans to be liars, left 
the question of his veracity doubtfiil to all eternity, 
fell into a pit of his own digging. Not unlike the 
unfortunate Cretan, Mr. White has tumbled head- 
long into his own snare. It was, for the rest, en- 
tirely unavailing, that he insisted on the insanity of 
those who should gainsay his fundamental postulate.* 

White alone is to be judge. He may take his stand on what he con- 
siders to be usage ; but, if others, without his permission, presume to 
take their stand on what they consider to be usage, they at once ** beg 
the question at issue.'' A hard saying, this, for all who are not will- 
ing to accept Mr. White as absolute philological dictator. 

Again : ** The points from which I have regarded words are, in 
general, rather those of taste and reason than of history; and my 
discussions are philological, only as all study of words must be philo«> 

But, as concerns words, how, without historical knowledge, ac- 
quaintance with usage, is one to ascertain their conformity, or incon- 
formity, to taste ^ Intuition guides us in our preference as between 
strawberries and coloquintida ; but it would never teach us not to call 
a person a party. As to reason, Mr. White's endowment of it has led 
him to denounce militate as " absurd", and to similar conclusions by 
dozens. Of his closing clause the darkness is well nigh impenetrable. 
Unless he thereby assumes the privilege of philologizing without in- 
curring a philologist's responsibilities, his drift has eluded me. 

^ Mr. White is rather addicted, in a metaphorical way, to hoyering 



Sanity, of a crude sort, may accept it ; and sanity 
may put it to a use other than its propounder's. 

Mr. Marsh, after setting forth the all-sufficiency 
of 18 building, in the passive sense,* goes on to say : 
" The reformers who object to the phrase I am de- 
fending must, in consistency, employ the proposed 
substitute with all passive participles, and in other 
tenses as well as the present. They must say, there- 
fore : * The subscription-paper is being missed, but I 
know that a considerable sum is being wanted to make 
up the amount ; ' ' the great Victoria Bridge has been 
being built more than two years ; ' ' when I reach 
London, the ship Leviathan will be being built ; ' * if 
my orders had been followed, the coat would have been 
being made yesterday ;* *if the house had then been 
being built, the mortar tcould have been being mixed/ *'^ 

about the melancholy precincts of the mad. ** To this day we say, 
every man and boy of us who is not fitter for Bedlam than many who 
are sent there, * There is a storm a-brewing \ as our forefathers have 
said for centuries." 

Besides, what point is there in this ? Brew is not exclusively a verb 
active, any more i\i2LH gather^ as where we say * the clouds are gathering ,* 

^ The dead Polonius was, in Hamlet's phrase, at supper, "not 
where he eats^ but where he t* eaten" ; and Mr. "White takes is eaten 
to be, here, a present imperfect. As such, it would be ambiguous ; and 
yet Mr. White commends Shakespeare for it, though is in eating would 
have been not only correct in his day, but, where it would have come 
in his sentence, univocal. With equal reason, a man would be entitled 
to commendation for tearing his mutton-chops with his fingers, when 
he might cut them up with a knife and fork. " Is eaten^^ says Mr. 
White, "does not mean has been eaten.** Very true ; but what it does 
mean, he, though an editor of Shakespeare, is very far from seeing. 
The eats and is eaten in question are aoristic ; and the character of an 
aorist is to abstract from any definite time, past, present, or future. 
The King of Denmark's lord chamberlain had no precedent in Herod, 
when " he was eaten of worms ; " the original, ycvo/ievoc <ricwXijB<5- 
/3pwroc, yielding, but for its participle, * he became worm-eaten.' 

2 Lectures^ &c., p. 654. Professor Fowler argues in the same way. 


There was a time when, as to their adverbs, people 
compared them, to a large extent, with -er and -est, 
or with more and most, just as their ear or pleasure 
dictated. They wrote plainlier and plainliesf, or more 
2)lain/f/ BLiii most plainly ;^ and some adverbs, as early , 
late, often, seldofn, and soon, we still compare in a way 
now become anomalous. And, as our forefathers 
treated their adverbs, we stiir treat many adjectives. 
Furthermore, obligingness, preparedness, and designedly 
seem quite natural ; yet we do not feel that they 
authorize us to talk of ' the seeing ness of the eye,' 
' the understoodness of a sentence,' or of * a statement 
acknowledgedly correct.' The now too notorious fact is 
tolerable ; but the never to be sufficiently execrated mon- 
ster Buonaparte is intolerable. The sun may be shorn 
of his splendour ; but we do not allow cloudy weather 
to shear him of it. How, then, can any one claim, 
that a man who prefers to say is being built, should 
say has been being built ? While awkward instances 
of the old form are most abundant in our literature, 
there is no fear that the repulsive elaborations which 
have been worked out in ridicule of the new form ^ 

*• Expressions like the following haTC, for some years, been stealing 
into the language : * While the house was being burned % instead of 

* while the house was bunting* ; * while the battle was being foug /it** 
instead of * while the battle was foitght* , Some expressions like these 
are awkward, and difficult to b^ dealt with. Is it not better to say 

* He will find the house will be building ', than to say * He will find 
the house will be being built * f Is it not better to say ' I knew the 
liouse to be building *, than to say * I knew the house to be being built * ?** 
JCnglish Grammar (ed. 1855), p. 605. 

* Vide supra ^ p. 188. 

' Mr. White, with his usual infelicity in drawing conclusions, writes 
ns follows: *' If precise affectation can impose upon us such a phrase 
as is being done, for is doing, it must needs drive all idioms kindred 


will prove to have been anticipations of future usage. 
" The reformers ^' have not forsworn their ears. 
Mr. Marsh, at p. 135 of his admirable Lectures, lays 
down, that " the adjective reliable, in the sense of 
icorthy of confidence, is altogether unidiomatic ; " and 
yet, at p. 112, he writes " reliable evidence." Again, 
at p. 396 of the same work, he rules, that " we should 
scruple to say ' I passed a house whose windows were 
open ' ; " and, at p. 145 of his very learned Man and 
Nature, he writes of " a quadrangular pyramid, the 
perpendicular of whose sides," &c. Really, if his own 
judgments sit so very loose on his practical conscience, 
we may, without being chargeable with exaction, ask 
of him to remit a little the rigour of his require- 
ments at the hands of his neighbours. 

Beckford's Lisbon for time- teller, before had into 
court, was ^^ dragging into light," and, perchance, 
" was taking to account." Many moderns woidd say 
and write * being dragged into light ' and * was being 
taken to agcount.' But, if we are to trust the con- 
servative critics, in comparison with expressions of 

to the latter from the language. Our walking sticks^ our fishing rods, 
and onr fasting dags, because they cannot walk, or Jish, or fastf must 
be changed into to-be-walked-with sticks, to^be-Jished-with rods, and tO' 
be-fasted'on days ; and our church-going bells must become for-to- 
church-go bells, because they are not the belles that go to church. 
Such ruin comes of laying presumptuous hands upon idioms, those 
sacred mysteries of language. " 

The true character of the terms walking-stick, fishing-rod, &c., is 
here misunderstood. The first member of each of these compounds is 
static, and, consequently, no longer a participle. Moreover, if Mr. 
White's principles were correctly applied, walking-stick, for instance, 
would demand resolution into stick-that-is-being-walked-with. See 
my remarks on churchgoing-bell, &c., in Recent Exemplifications of 
False Fhilology, p. 4, text and note 2. ^ 


the former pattern, those of the latter are " uncouth," 
** clumsy," "awkward neologisms," "philological 
coxcombries," " formal and pedantic," " incongruous 
and ridiculous forms of speech," "illogical, con- 
fusing, inaccurate monstrosities." Moreover, they 
are neither " consistent with reason '' nor " con- 
formed to the normal development of the language ; " 
they are " at war with the genius of the English 
tongue;" they are " unidiomatic ; " they are "not 
English." In passing, if Mr. Marsh will so define 
the term unidiomatic, as to evince that it has any 
applicability to the case in hand, or if he will arrest 
and photograph "' the genius of the English tongue," 
so that we may know the original, when we meet 
with it, he will confer a public favour. And now 
I submit for consideration, whether the sole credit 
of those who decry is being built and its congeners, 
does not consist in their talent for calling hard 
names. If they have not an uneasy subconscious- 
ness that their cause \\ weak, they would, at least, 
do well in eschewing the violence to which, for want 
of something better, the advocates of weak causes 
proverbially resort. 

I once had a friend who, for some microscopic 
penumbra of heresy, was charged, in the words of his 
accuser, with " as near an approach jto the sin against 
the Holy Ghost as is practicable to human infirmity." 
Similarly, on one view, the feeble potencies of philo- 
logical turpitude seem to have exhibited their most 
consummate realization, in engendering is being built. 
The supposed enormity perpetrated in its production, 
provided it had fallen within the sphere of ethics, 


would, at the least, have ranked, with its denuncia- 
tors, as a brand-new exemplification of total de- 
pravity. But, after all, what incontestable defect in 
it has any one succeeded in demonstrating ? Mr. 
White, in opposing to the expression objections 
based on an erroneous analysis, simply lays a phan- 
tom of his own evoking;^ and, so far as I am in- 
formed, other impugners of is being built have, 
absolutely, no argument whatever against it, over 
and beyond their repugnance to novelty. Subjected 
to a little untroubled contemplation, it would, I am 
confident, have ceased, long ago, to be matter of 
controversy. But the dust of prejudice and passion, 
which so distempers the intellectual vision of the- 
ologians and politicians, is seen to make, with ruth- 
less impartiality, no exception of the perspicacity of 

Prior to the evolution of is being built and was 
being built, we possessed no discriminate equivalents 
of cedificatur and (edificabatur ; is built and was built, 
by which they were rendered, corresponding exactly 
to cedijicatus est and cedificatus erat. ^dificaretur — 
after cum, — was, to us, the same as cedificabatur. On 
the wealth of the Greek in expressions of imperfect 

^ So much for the career of Mr. White, with his black flag and 
no quarter. In appearing as an essayist on the niceties of language, 
he has wandered from his congenial element, which, whatever it may 
be, is not criticism; and the self-confident iraperiousness and the im- 
petuous disdain which too often disfigure his pages, are all the more 
provocative of raillery, from being associated, at every turn, with tokens 
of haste, caprice, and imperfect information. Of that equanimity, 
circumspection, patience of research, intellectual discipline, and equip- 
ment of micrological scholarship, without which it is given to no man 
to be a philologist, he has, unhappily, made the most penurious 


passion I need not dwell. With rare exceptions, the 
Romans were satisfied with the present imperfect and 
the past imperfect; and we, on the comparatively 
few occasions which present themselves for express- 
ing other imperfects, shall be sure to have recourse 
to the old forms, rather than to the new, or else to 
use periphrases.^ The purists maj^ accordingly, dis- 
miss their apprehensions, especially as the neoterists 
have, clearly, a keener horror of phraseological 
ungainliness than themselves. One may have no 
hesitation about saying ' the house is being built,* and 
yet may recoil from saying that * it should have been 
being built last Christmas ; ' and the same person — 
just as, provided he did not feel a harshness, inade- 
quacy, and ambiguity, in the passive ' the house is 
building y he would use the expression, — will, more 
likely than not, elect is in preparation, preferentially 
to is being prepared. If there be any who, in their 
zealotry for the congruous, choose to adhere to the 
new form, in its entire range of exchangeability for 
the old, let it be hoped that they will find, in Mr. 

1 '* But those things which, beingi not now doin^f or having not yet 
been done, have a natural aptitude to exist hereafter, may be properly 
said to appertain to the future." James Harris, Hermes, Book 1, Ch. 
8 (p. 156, foot-note, ed. 1771). For Harris's ^'' being not now doings** 
which is to translate fi^ yivofAtvUf the modern school, if they pursued 
uniformity with more of fidelity than of taste, would have to put ' be- 
ing not now being done* There is not much to choose between the ti^o. 

** And a book was then said to be printed, though 1 never saw any 
but one of late with any date of the year ; the things then being in 
Jleri, when it was printed." Dr. Horneck, in Saddueismus IVium- 
phatus (ed. 1726), p. 363. 

Dr. Horneck resorts to the Latin, where Harris, more boldly, 
writes " being doing." 

Compare with Harris's expression the expressions quoted in note 
1 to p. 336, supra. 


Marsh's speculative approbation of consistency, full 
amends for the discomfort of encountering smiles or 

The ambiguousness of the old neuter possessive 
hin ^ was not, even by very long prescription, inde- 
feasibly sanctified to our practical forefathers. With 
the him of himself^ for a precedent, — if they thought 
of it as such, and if, in improving our language, they 
governed themselves, except unconsciously, by pre- 
cedents, — they first tried, in place of this hky it^ 

* In Exodm^ 27, 2 and 3, hx% refers to "altar"; in the Psalms ^ 
64, 7, to "eye" ; in St, MattheWy 6, 33, to " kingdom" ; in Acts, 
12, 10, to "gate"; and in 1 Cor., 15, 38, to "seed". In some of 
these passages, the Geneva version has it. 

His is the Anglo-Saxon possessive of hoth he and hit (our it), 

* His self was used in the Elizabethan period, and earlier. See 
Bishop Bale, A Brefe Chronycle, &c. (1544), in Select Works (1849), 
p. 39 : Kynge Johan (ed. 1838), p. 98. Questions of Frojitable and 
Pleasant Concernings (1594), fol. 31 r. The vulgar use it still. 
Themselves, of old, like himself had its rivals, and as regarded both its 

Them self Lydgate, Minor Foems (ed. 1840), p. 108. Simon Fish 
{eirc. 1629), Four Supplications (ed. 1871), p. 10. Sir Thomas More, 
ApoUHjye (1633), fol. 7, b^. Sir Thomas Elyot, The Govemour (1531), 
fol. 85 (ed. 1680). 

Them seffs. Udall, Apophthegmes, &c. (1642), fol. 106, 306. Also 
see Raphe Robynson, as quoted supra, p. 332, note 2. 

Their self Ascham, Toxophilus (1645), pp. 44, 69, 101 (ed. 1868). 

ThHr selves. Id., The Scholemaster (1570), p. 97 (ed. 1870). 

3 The Anglo-Saxon form hit is found, interchangeably with it, as 
nominative, &c., in Lydgate, Sir Thomas More, Sir Thomas Elyot, and 
writers of their times. Shortly before, only hit occurs ; shortly after, 
only it, % 

In the central parts of North Carolina, it appears, it is even now 
pronounced hit. See a letter by Mr. Fisk P. Brewer, in The Nation, 
Feb. 27, 1873. 

Him is, in one passage, used, by Ascham, for it. " But take hede 
that youre bowe stande not to nere a stone wall ; for that wyll make 
hym moyste and weke ; nor yet to nere any fier ; for that wyll make 
him shorte and brittle." Toxophilus (1546), p. 119 (ed. 1868). 


neuter as to gender, and objective as to ease, and 
wrote " of it own accord ".^ Time rolled on, and, in 
its fulness, emerged the scholastic opprobrium of his 
age, the inventor of its.^ For what can be said in 

Hitf as a possessive, — see Dr. Morris's £arli/ English Alliterative 
Poeim (ed. 1864), p. 46, 1. 264, and p. 66, 1. 966,-— was in provincial 
use at least from about 1360. Also see The Anturs of Arther, &c., 
in Three Early English Metrical Romances (1842), p. 6, 11. 2, 3. 

* This, or, rather, ** of it owne accord *', is the true reading of Le- 
viticus^ 25, 5. 

Did itj for * its ', survive the Restoration ? It was not quite obso- 
lete just before. 

" If merit be all-sufficient to entitle it possessor to preferment, what 
merit gieater then what is resident in persons in holy orders?" 
Ilamon L'Estrange, The Reign of King Charles (ed. 1656), p. 37. 

^ The earliest instance of Us that I know to have been pointed out, 
occurs in Florio, A Worlde of Wordes (1598). 

Shakespeare, it has been shown, has, by the Folio of 1623, its ten 
times, and it, in the same sense, fifteen times. See The Bible Word- 
booky by Messrs. J. Eastwood and W. Aldis Wright, pp. 273 — 275. 

*^ Ben Jonson neither employs its in his works, nor recognizes it in 
his Grammar." Mr. Marsh, Lectures, &c., p. 399. 

This statement is partly erroneous. As Dr. Abbott has observed, 
Ben Jonson employs its in The St lent Woman, Act 2, Scene 3. See 
A Shakespearian Grammar (ed. 1871), p. 151. 

Some old writers, before the introduction of its, denoted an insen- 
tient object by ?ie and him^ especially when there was occasion to refer 
to it by the neuter possessive, then his. And the relative of such a 
he or him was who. Puttenham is rather fond of this style of con- 

" The sharpe accent falles upon the penultima, or last save one 
Billable of the verse, which doth so drowne the last, as he seemeth to 
passe away in manor unpronounced.*' The Arte of English Pocsie, p. 59. 

*' A sta£fe of sixe verses is very pleasant to the eare, and also serveth 
for a greater complement then the inferiour staves, which maketh him 
more commonly to be used." Id., p. 55. 

" Both ver^s be of egall qnantitie, vidz., seaven Billables a pcece ; 
and yet the first seemes shorter then the later, who shewes a more 
odncsse then the former, by reason of his sharpe accent," &c. Id,, p. 59. 

Similar illustrations might be given from Ascham and many other 
Elizabethan authors. See note 3 in the preceding page. 

Whom^ in old times, was often used for which. See Bishop Bale, 



defence of tliis yerbal Yahoo P As has, again and 
again, been pointed out, it would have a precise par- 
allel in the Latin portent illudius, where one case- 
ending is adjoined to another, instead of displacing 
it. The word, viewed scientifically, is monstrous, 
certainly ; and yet, as it was needed, it eventually 
came to be accepted by everybody, though not with- 
out a weary struggle ; ^ even as it took several 

Select Works (1849), pp. 140, 147, &c. ; also, my Becent Exemplifica- 
tianSf &c., p. 7, note 1, adjinem. 

* Among the early writers who employ, lY* with peculiar frequency, 
Mabhe is noticeable. In The Eogue^ which he published in 1623, it 
is found, I should say, several score times. 

To the philologist The Rogue is of great value. The high en- 
comium passed, by Ben Jonson, on this translation, its language in- 
cluded, is well deserved. This encomium, which has escaped Jonson's 
editors, is here transcribed. 

" On the Author, Worke, and Translator. 
** Who tracks this authors, or translators, pen. 
Shall finde that either hath read bookes and men : 
To say but one were single. Then it chimes. 
When the old words doe strike on the new times, 
As in this Spanish Proteus ; who, though writ 
But in one tongue, was form'd with the worlds wit ; 
And hath the noblest marke of a good booke, 
That an ill man dares not securely looke 
Upon it, but will loath, or let it passe. 
As a deformed face doth a true glasse. 
Such bookes deserve translators of like coate- 
As was the genius wherewith they were wrote : 
And this hath met that one that may be stil'd 
More then the foster-father of this child. 
For, though Spaine gave him his firat ayre and vogue, 
He would be call'd, henceforth, T?ie English Rogue, 
But that hee 's too well suted, in a cloth 
Finer then was his Spanish, if my oath * 

Will be received in court : if not, would I 
Had cloath'd him so. Here 's all I can supply 
To your desert, who have done it, friend. And this 
Faire aemulation, and no envy, is, 


generations to get rid of phrases like * the man his 
name\^ And, as were the tinal fortunes of its, so. 

When you behold me wish my selfe the man 
That would have done that which you onely can. 

Ben Jonson." 

* In England, to this day, the vulgar write, in their Bibles, Prayer- 
books, and elsewhere, *^John Cratw hit book", ** Esther Hodges her 
book '*, &c. 

*' Abtam hi* name '*, and *^ Sarai her name ". Genesis^ 17> heading. 
** Arteucerxes his lettero". 1 Esdras, 2, 30. *' Darius his pillow". 
Ibid., 3, 8. ** Oiofernes his heart". Judith, 12, 16. " Olof ernes his 
head ". Ibid.^ 13, 9. And other such eipressions might be quoted from 
the Bible. 

In Ruth, 3, heading, there is a modem sophistication of *•* Naomi 
her instruction", and of ** Boaz his feete"; in 1 Kings, 15, 14, of 
** Asa his heart " ; and, in Esther, 3, 4, of *' Mordecai his matters." 
I here give the readings of the edition of 1611. 

** Socrates his disciples ", *' Xenophon his house ", ** every bodye his 
hande." Udail, Apophthegtnes, &c., fol. 21, 32, 149. '* Aristotle his 
judgement." Ascham, 2'iucophilus, p. 46. But, at p. 56, we have 
•* Chancers verses." And Ascham puts his after the plural. " Other 
men his lippes.'* Ibid,, p. 30. ** Plato and Aristotle his brayne." 
Ibid , p. 41. At p. 44, in " more like Robin Koode servaunt than Apol- 
lose ", we find both the absence of inflexion and a modification of the 
present use. 

i^ike Ascham*s '^ other m^n his lippes " is '^ Ilere gynneth a dyt^ of 
women his horiiys,'* the heading which Lydgate gives to his ballad on 
the forked head-dresses of ladies. See his Minor Poems, p. 46. 

As in ** Robin ffoode servaunt", the equivalent of *« was once freely 
forgone, where the addition of it would have produced cacophony. 
** Findarus sand ", ** Hercules race ", " Miltiades example ", " Lyeurgus 
lawes", ** Oyrillus sonne", ** Cyrus carape". The French Academic^ 
Part r. (ed, 1589), pp. 162, 167, 192, 203, 490. ''Oiofernes head". 
Judith, 13, 6. We have, in these phrases, the retention of a very old 
usage. See Mr. Marsh, Lectures, &c., pp. 397 — 401. 

*' But sucli answers are no testimony of the fact, but helps for the 
searching out of truth ; so that, whether the party tortured his answer 
be true or false, or whether he answer not at all, whatsoever he doth, 
he doth it by right." Hobbes, H^orks (ed. Sir W. Molesworth), Vol. 
2, p. 26. 

This I have quoted for its extreme awkwardness. 

'* Asa his heart *', and the like, even long after his, so construct- 
ed, passed for a pronoun, was generally accepted. But, as the pro- 


there is not much hazard in forecasting, will be those 
of locutions like is being done and was being built. 

noun his seemed absurd, unless referring to a male, and to one male 
only, her and, to a certain extent, their came in. 

Instances of her I have given irora the Bible, in its incorrupt form. 
I add an instance of later date, and several instances of earlier date. 

" They continued all along Queen Elizabeth Iter reign." Hamon 
L'Estrange, The Alliance of Divine Offices (1659), p. 304. 

"Wee doo not omytte Elizabeth Holland her bowse, newlio made in 
Suffolk." State Fapers, &c., Vol. 1 (1830), p. 889. This passage 
dates in 1546. 

" In this his absence, one Curio, a gentleman of Naples, of little 
wealth and lesse wit, haunted Lueilla hir company," &c. Lyly, 
Euphues (1579-80), p. 94 (ed. 1868). 

" had I not ben better abyd Amarillia her anger ? ** 

"Webbe, A Discourse of English Foetrie (1586), in Ancient Critical 
Essay 8j &c.. Vol. 2, p. 76. 

** Had I thought your maistership would have taken my free speeches 
in so ill part, which concerned onely my selfe and my ready abilitie to 
forward, to my power, my Prince her occasions and services, I would 
have forborne to have uttered my minde, wherein I onely giieved that 
any should exempt themselves, or forbeare to extend their uttermost 
helpe and indevour in such good workes.*' Questions of Profitable 
and Pleasant Concernings, &c. (1594), fol. 8 v. 

Queen Elizabeth is here alluded to, and in a way, apparently making 
her epicene, which now seems ludicrous. 

*^ A little wasted cates stood us instead of Ltmillus and Appicias 
their most sumptuous banquets." The Comical Jlistory of Francion 
(1655), Book 3, p. 73. 

" Catullus J Tibullus, and Propertius their unbridled lusts." Henry 
Earl of Monmouth, Advertisements from Parnassus (ed. 1656), p. 354. 

Gabriell Harvey, writing to Spenser, in 1580, speaks of " absurd- 
ities" which "yl-favourcd orthographye, or, rather, pseudography, 
hathe ingendred " ; and he goes on to instance, with " sithencef for 
since" t **phantasief for phansie'\ &c. &c., *^^God hys wrath*, for 
* Goddes wrath *,.... whereinlthe corrupte orthography, in the moste, 
hathe beene the sole, or principall, cause of corrupte prosodye in over- 
many." Ancient Critical Essays, &c.. Vol. 2, p. 281. 

Charles Butler, one of our early grammarians, writes, under the 
date of 1634 : " The Tcutonik termination of the genitive some refined 
wit hath turned to his, pcrswading himself that s is but a corrupt 
abbreviation of Ats, which hee thought necessary to restore; and, 
therefore, hee wil not write * my masters son is a child ', but * my 


Their history, short as it is, evinces that they were 
wanted; as legitimate developments, they are un- 

master his son is a child' ; which is just as good as if, ia Latin, hee 
would say, not JieriJiliiM, bat herua e/us^lius, est infans,** 

Ben Jonson, in his Orammar, — first printed in 1640, after his 
death, — speaks of " the monstrous syntax of the pronoun his joining 
with a noun, betokening a possessor ; as * the prince his house ', for 
*^i\iQ princess house'.** Jonson, however, published, in 1605, — as I 
see by the original edition, now lying before me, — his drama entitled 
" Sejanus his Fall **, in the preface to which he speaks of " my ob- 
servations upon Horace his * Art of Poetry ' " : and he has like ex- 
pressions elsewhere. 

And this ** monstrous syntax'*, consciously as such, is found in 
books by the most learned authors, for the space of near two cent- 
uries. Even Addison practised it ; as in The Spectator ^ Nos. 171, 183, 
409. Not long after his time, however, — though it was not scorned by 
Warburton and Sterne, — it fast fell into disrepute. When Horace 
Walpole, in 1767, wrote "King Edward the Fourth his death", 
doubtless his contemporaries looked on him as rather quaint, to say 
the least. See Historic Doubts, &c. (ed. 1768), pp. 66, 67. 

** The same single letter s on many occasions does the office of a 
whole word, and represents the his and her of our forefathers.'* 
Addison, The Spectator, No. 135. This is carelessly worded; but 
Bishop Lowth*s comment on it is hardly fair. In one sense, s " repre- 
sents **, certainly, the his and her of those among " our forefathers " 
whose language, alone, Addison seems to have been conversant with. 
Further, though Addison omitted to mention, still he no doubt knew, 
that '* our forefathers ** who wrote, for instance, king his and queen 
her, wrote kinges and queenes, also. No less uncritical than Addison 
is the Bishop himself, in saying : ** * Christ his sake*, in our liturgy, is 
a mistake, either of the printers or of the compilers." How ** a mis- 
take", when nobody hesitated at such an expression.^ And do not 
manuscripts abundantly prove that expressions of this sort need not be 
set to the account of old printers ? 

Where we write *«, to mark the possessive singular, there was, an- 
ciently, in some masculine and neuter substantives, the syllable -es, 
often corrupted into -ys, 'is, &c. ; as landes, landys, or landis, for 
land's. Words like man*s, succeeding mannes, &c,, arose sooner than 
words like church's, for which we find, much later, churches. In 
prince's, and the like, equally with princes,— in. the first of which, the 
apostrophe only precludes confusion with the plural, — we are obliged 
to muke the possessive termination a distinct syllable ; but, in old 
times, the possessives kinges^ nightes, &c., also, were dissyllables. 


impeachable ; and their most inveterate assailants 
must admit, bowever reluctantly, that, eyen among 

" And to the God of loTe thus seyd he, 
With pitoiis voys : * Lord, now youria is 
The spiryt which that ought ever yonria he." 

Chaucer, Fbetieal Works (ed. 1855), Vol. 5, p. 33. 

In like manner, theirin^ &c., were, of yore, two syllables. 

For several centuries, the rights of A were far from being rigidly 
defined; and old authors often have hahle, habundanee, hangie, happle^ 
hearif helder^ hoak, howiet, hitaanee, &c., with abit, emtupheie, emoT' 
rhoids, ierareh, oly^ t/mn, ypoerite^ yssop, &c. In the thirteenth, four- 
teenth, and fifteenth centuries, as I could show from Koherd of 
Gloucester, "William of Palerne, Capgrave, and a host of other author- 
ities, his, the pronoun, was corrupted into f>. I shall make use, a 
little further on, of the fact here shown, namely, that the initial h 
was once prefixed, or omitted, with great carelessness. 

" He was afered he was to slowe ; 
He rose up he wyst not howe, 
And brake out at a wyndow, 
And brake fowle ps heed." 

Lydgate, Minor Foema^ p. 113. 

" The pryst toke a by pathe ; wyth them he wolde not mett ; 
yit ys hed was fowle brokyn ; the blod ran dowen to ys fett.** 

Id., ibid., p. 114. 

" "Whilom the thridde hevenes lorde above, 
As wel by hevenysh revolucioun, 
As by desert, hath wonne Venus his love." 

Chaucer, Vol. 8, p. 30. 

** The Kinges Highnesse doith perceyve that the Queene is thoonly 
cawse of this mannys goyng into Spaijrne, as he that is, and hath .bene 
allways, prive unto the Qiiene his affaires and secretes." Secretary 
William Knighte (1527), State Papers, &c., A'ol. 1 (1830), p. 215. 

" And, where ye write to me that the Quene is good favour must be 
alewred with geving hir one other moneth wagis for 200 men ", &c. 
Duke of Norfolk (1524), State Papers, &c., Vol. 4 (1836), p. 225. 

As, in the same page with this passage, the Duke of Norfolk uses 
the possessives Qnenes and Kingis^ it is plain, that, in his " Q^ene 
in'\ — with which compare "the moone is light", in Bishop Percy's 
Folio Manuscript (1867-8), Vol. 1, p. 161, 1. 548,— we have simply 
a resolution of Quenes, and not a corruption of the pronoun his, ap- 
plied anomalously ; and, manifestly, Chaucer's his, in " Venus his ", 


our best writers, the current is setting, day by day, 
more and more strongly in their favour. 

and Knighte's, ia '* Quene hU ", eihibit no such corraption. Neither, 
where, as quoted at p. 355, aupra^ Lydgate has ** women hU hornys ", 
and Ascham has ** men his. lippes ", can we readily suppose that they 
intended Am for theirf but simply for a sign of the possessive case. 

This hit, then, I incline to consider as having been, originally, de- 
praved from -w, the possessive case-ending, taken as a substantive 
word. At first it came by its h through carelessness, perhaps, or, 
much less probably, from a wish to prevent its being mi^ken for the 
verb is. That it was not, until a comparatively late period, identified 
with the pronoun Aw, seems evident from the earliest date of such ex- 
pressions as * the woman her child ', * the dog and eat their food '. If 
the h of his for -t^, &o., began with being silent, the word did not, so 
far as the ear was concerned, suggest the pronoun his, as, presumably, 
ordinarily pronounced. It may have been its visible identity there- 
with that led, at last, to its being coniPounded with it. This confusion, 
however produced, naturally gave rise, when it had taken root, to the 
analogous uses of her and their^ as in Hhe woman her ', a style of 
phraseology which I have noticed no instance of earlier than the 
sixteenth century. 

The theory here set forth I worked out, in its entirety, many yean 
ago. Taken as a whole, I do not know that it has been forestalled. 


P. 8. With the remarkB there quoted from Dr. Bentley, the follow- 
ing, also hy him, ill harmonize. 

*' Every living language, like* the perspiring bodies of living crea- 
tures, is in perpetual motion and alteration. Some words g^ off, and 
become obsolete ; others are taken in, and, by degrees, grow into com- 
mon use ; or the same word is inverted to a new sense and notion, 
which, in tract of time, makes as observable a change in the air and 
feature of a language, as age makes in the lines and mien of a face." 
JForks, Vol. 2, p. 1. 

P. 8, note 1. In Book 3, p. 63, of The Comieal History of Fran- 
Hon (1655), a translation, parallels of what are called *•* Dugardismes *' 
are offered in ^^eom^ hav, &c., without e, and detor^ dout, without b,** 

Richard Hodges, in The Flainest Direettotut, &c. (1649), p. 40, 
among *' som special observations, very needful to bee known, for the 
help of true writing," gives, as the first : *' Take heed, that you never 
put a double consonant with an e in the end of any word ; for there is 
no necessitie thereof. And the rather wee may bee bold so to do, be- 
caus the learned, both in printing and writing, do daily practise it" 
Exceptions are admitted ; and one of the earliest is the proper name 
Anne, Hodges goes on to prescribe al {all), cal {call), lodg, judg, lae 
(lack), nek {neck), medle {meddle), Jidle {Jiddle), feebl, ateepl, giv, liv, 
hous, mous, &c. &c. 

P. 45, 1. 20. Sepulture, in the sense of *■ sepulchre ', or * burial- 
place', is used repeatedly by Lydgate. See his Minor Foeme (ed. 
1840), pp. 60, 142, 148, 236. 

P. 58, note 2. Instances like the following are not uncommon in 
our older literature : 

<^ He rose hym up, and priveliche he ia went 
Into hys ohambre." 

Lydgate, Minor Poems, p. 64. 

** Duryng my lyf, with many gret trespace, 
By many wrong path wher I have myawent** &c. 

Id., ibid., p. 241. 





P. 59, note 1. Gilt, for gild. Sir Thomas More, A Byahge (ed. 
1629), fol. 8, 13. Quafty for quaff. Of the Olde God and the Netce, 
&c. (ed. 1534), sig. 0. 

Dr. Richardson's genealogy of the verb rent from reiid, through 
"rended, rend'd", is not very plausible. 

Many of our verbs, obsolete and current, end in a <^ for which there 
is no etymological justification. Such a one is rounds for * whisper ', 
the preterite of which had come, however, in 1649, to be identical, to 
the ear, with the infinitiye. See Richard Hedges, T/ie Flaineat 
Directions^ &c., p. 18. Funne^ which preceded our pounds occursu as 
late as 1589. See Thomas Coghan, The Haven of Healthy Ch. 1, 111. 
Udall, in his Apophthegtnesy fcc, has eompoutie, expoune, propoune^ 
eoune, for compound^ &c., which have no more respectable origin than 
the vulgar drownd and gownd. 

The freedom with which a superfluous <^once was tacked to certain 
verbs, is illustrated by tlie two following extracts. 

** By so dooyng, the bruite of that same his high praise and com- 
mendacion was not to be hidden or pended within the limites & pre- 
cmtes of grece." Udall, Apophthegmes, &c. (1542), fol. 217 ▼. 

'* If thou, oh sillie booke, doe chaunce 
To light into the hand 
Of any such as takes delight 

Ech others worke to acand,** &c. 
John Norden, A Sinfull Mans Solace (1585), foL 161 v. 

In the work last quoted, there occurs, in fol. 88 v., beetraughted, 
which resembles Fuller's unshakened. 

** Thou wmtedstf^ in Robert Southwell's A Hundred Meditations, 
&c. (ed. 1873), p. 152, I take to be an error of the press. 

P. 63, foot. Older than the passage from William Watson are the 
following extracts. 

** Such are they which, having godly wisdom, uttereth it according 
to the talent given them of the Lord," &c. Bishop Bale, Select 
Works (1849), p. 608. 

*' For there is a God in heaven, that will, one day, aske accompt 
what taletit he gave thee in his absence to use,*' &c. John Norden, A 
SinfuU Mans Solace (1585), fol. 16 v. 

P. 79, foot. For wert, instead of wasti other references to old 
authors here follow. Bishop Bale, Kynge Johan (ed. 1838), p. 71 : 
Select Works (1849), pp. 308, 309. John Norden, A Sinfull Mans 
Solace (1585), fol. 67 r. Robert Southwell (before 1595), Prose 
Works (ed. 1828), pp. 16, 21, 22, 28, 63, 70, 74, 77 : A Hundred 
Meditatiotts, &c. (ed. 1873), pp. 9, 52, 57, 69, 70, 76, &c. &c. Dekker, 
Chettle, and Haughton, Patient Grissil (1603), p. 37 (ed. 1841). 

Werest, for wert, occurs in the Geneva Bible, as in JSevelation, 3, 15. 


The aathorized version has, there and elsewhere, toert. And so has 
Bishop Bale, Select Works, p. 292. 

For * thou weie \ indicative, see Udall, Apophthtgme* (1542), fol. 
18 : John Norden, A Sinfull Mans Solace, fol 28 r, 81 r, 90 v. 

r. 80, 1. 2. Connected with the references thereto appended, a 
personal matter has arisen, of which it seems expedient that I should 
take some notice. 

Inquiry having been made as to the age of the expression * different 
to \ I sent to The Nation a letter on the subject, which was published 
Sept. 5, 1872. I gave numerous quotations for the phrase; and 
among them were three under the dates of 1636 and 1668, as I took 
pains to particularize. 

In The Nation of Sept. 19; 1872, is a letter from Mr. Richard Grant 
"White. Therein we read : *' Mr. Hall has shown that the phrase 
was used about a hundred and fifty years ago." 1 had, it is true, 
pointed out that Steele uses it in The Guardian ; but, as I state above, 
I had traced it back much further. Mr. White also writes : 

*' Let me add to Mr. IlalFs examples, for use in his forthcoming book, 
which cannot fail to be an interesting one, the following singular use, 
by a distinguished dramatist of the beginning of the last century, of 
* different /ro;n * and ' different to ', in two * contagious ' lines. 

** * Aurelia, Sir, you appear very different to me /row what you 
were lately.* 

" * Truelove. Madam, you appear very indifferent to me to what you 
were lately.* Farquhar's Twin Rivah, iii., 3, p. 42, ed. 1703. 

** It may have been by mere chance ; but Farquhar made the lady 
Bay from, and the gentleman, to J* &c. 

Havin^: more to observe on the phrase in question, I sent a second 
letter to The Nation, in which it appeared Oct. 31, 1872. And there, 
after copying and commenting on Mr. White's remark, *' Mr. Hall has 
shown that the phrase was used about a hundred and fifty years ago,** I 
mentioned that I had very lately found * different to ' in Sir Arthur 
Gorges (1619), in Brathwait (1640), and in Addison, The Spectator^ 
No. 239. 

Regarding Mr. White's offer of material contributory to my book 
which the reader now has before him, I wrote : 

" * You appear very different to me from what you were lately * ; * yon 
appear very indifferent to me to what you were lately '. Here, says Mr. 
White, are examples of * different from * and * different to '. But, 
surely, indifferent is not diff&rent, or, in the sense which it bears in the 
latter of these passages, even the opposite of differetit. There is, here, 
just as much a play on words as there is on concision and eireumei' 
sion in ^hilippians, iii., 2, 3, or in the Greek original. Nor does it 
follow, that, because, for instance, dependent takes on, independent must 
be followed by the same preposition. That our ancestors put on and 



from after independmU I am aware. Besides, what preposition bnt to 
could indifferent take, the meaning being * as compared with ' ? We 
say * this is ordinary to that/ Bishop Bale, with a keen appreciation 
of the odium theologicnm, wrote, before 1563 : 

* There is no malyce to the malyce of the clergye '." 
Coleridge says, and says very justly : " Talk to a blind man : he 
knows he wants the sense of sight, and willingly makes the proper 
allowances. But there are certain internal senses, which a man may 
want, and yet be wholly ignorant that he wants them.** One of these 
senses Mr. "White wants, most undeniably. For the following, from 
his pen, appeared in The New-York Times of June 7, 1873: "I re- 
cently . . . furnished Dr. Hall with a very peculiar use of * different 
to *, somewhat earlier than any with which he seemed to be acquainted, 
and directed his attention to my own incidental discussion, nearly 
twenty years past, of that phrase^ to the eonsideration of which he has, 
since theUy given his whole mindy that is, all of it that he did not put 
into his recent exemplification of pedantry, which seemed, at first, a 
mischievous attack, but a second perusal showed me that his pages 


* Tantidem, quasi foeta canes, sine dentibu* latrat : ' 

and, as I turned to the line, I was reminded, moreover, that, in the 
words of the same author, he was of that 

* stolidum genus ^acidorum, 
Bellipotentes sunt magi* quam sapientipotentes.' " 

Mr. White is anxious, evidently, to have it believed, that he supple- 
mented the fruit of my researches. Yet bow could I have explained 
more clearly than 1 had explained, that he did nothing of the kind ? 
AVho does not see, that he did not exemplify ' different to * at all ? 
Really, I am compelled to say to him, as somebody once said to some- 
body else: " Intelligentiam, noa intellectum,adfero.*' Why, too, has 
he brought forward this matter, if not with purpose to make out that 
he has Inid me under an obligation, to the increase of his own credit, 
by adding to my previous stock of knowledge ? 

It is not clear whether Mr. White means that I have given,, with 
a reservation, my ** whole mind ** to * different lo *, since Sept., 1872, 
or since ** nearly twenty years past." And it little signifies. Only 
how was he to know, that, even since Sept., 1872, I had given the 
point a single thought ? Vague petulant flings of this sort, besides 
being much too cheap tor any person of proper self-respect to indulge 
in, must, in the very nature of things, be essentially untruthful, and 
betray a most obtuse condition of moral sensibility. For the rest, it 
sometimes befals, that a man goes off at score, and, by merely a line 
or two, enables the world to take his exact intellectnid measure. Of 
this description are the lines which I have italicized. 


By "recent exemplification of pedantry", Mr. White alludes to my 
Recent Exemplificatione of False Philology ^ in which I have anatomized 
some samples of his maunderings on words and phrases. The contents 
of that work he is pleased, hy a quotation from Ennius, to liken to 
the barking of a pregnant toothless bitch ! Fie ! fie ! discomposed 
good sir. Why, in what Oliver Goldsmith calls a brachistochrone, 
choose to take an ethical header, and befoul yourself spontaneously 
with the very garbage of the ungentle } Besides, you know that I 
have not written under a pseudonym, but that I am what Steele's 
l^hillis, in The Conscious Lovers^ means by ** an odious filthy male 
creature". Why, then, rob me of my sex.^ As to doggishness, in 
nothing, so far as I can see, am I at all like a canes parturient, or, in- 
deed, even like a canes mniden. Furthermore, if you were bent on in- 
sinuating that I was canine, but an innocuous specimen of caninity, 
you might have had your will, without going out of English, and in 
language not only tolerably decorous, but intelligible to your sup- 
porters ; as thus : 

" Thy toothless jaws should free thee from the fight : 
Thou canst but mumble, when thou meanst to bite." 

If I can no more concur with Mr. White in taste than I can in 
judgment, few, I am sure, will be disposed to dissent from me. Ex- 
cept at second hand, I know nothing of the notions of decency which 
prevail among respectable people in the chief city of my native State ; 
but I have been grossly misinformed, if my lampooner be a favourable 
representative of them. In answer to his coarseness, I shall not even 
honour him by a search for his parallel. Brunck, to be sure, delighted, 
like him, to grovel in the cesspools of fetid epithets ; but Brunck was 
a man of learning, and, therefore, is not here to be utilized for pur- 
poses of comparison. 

As regards Mr. White's second bit of very unrecondite Latin, its 
applicability is, equally with that of his first, a riddle. If Mr. White 
here understands what he quotes, — which I very much doubt,— he 
taxes me, for exposing him, with impolicy. The race of the ^acidee 
are reported to have been beef-witted, and mightier in war than in 
prudence. Therefore, according to Mr. White, I am one of them ; 
and, though I have never been a soldier, he publishes this to the 
world, as if he were charging some heavy dragoon, or other professional 
man of blood, who had blunderingly beaten his sword and revolver 
into steel-pens. But it is all one, most likely, to Mr. White's clients. 
Graecum est, non legendum, the old monks used to whisper, with a holy 
shudder ; and the illiterate, when they see Latin hurled at one in wrath, 
of course assume it to be something very demolishing. The admirers 
of Mr. White would, no doubt, at once believe my extinction imminent, 
if he were to call me an hypotenuse, or an omithorhynchus. I should 


hope it was rather late in the day, in New York especially, for any sciolist 
to imitate successfully the cosmogony-man of The Vicar of Wakefield, 

AH that Mr. White declaredly finds, in my Recent Exemplijicationt 
of False Fhilology^ is "pedantry"; and this, agreeably to Dr. John- 
son, is "awkward ostentation of needless learning", or "the un- 
seasonable ostentation of learning.'* Now, of philologizing 1 know 
but one rational method, — accumulating facts, and bringing common- 
sense to bear upon them. Mr. White's staple, in his Words and Their 
UseSf is made up, chiefly, oi negative assertions and of personal pre- 
judices. Against these I array, in my critique, substantial masses 
of quotations directly pertinent to expressions which have been im- 
pugned, — now to prove the long currency and establishment of one 
phrase, now to show that another phrase has the sanction of the most 
eminent modem usage, and so on and so on. If, where Mr. White 
denies, I had replied by simply affirming, how could it have been 
known who was riglit, and who was wrong? There was but one satis- 
factory way of meeting him ; and that I took. His rejoinder is ad- 
mirable in its simplicity, — bad temper, worse manners, two similes, 
and an accusation of pedantry. 

If he had betrayed only want of knowledge and inability to reason, 
and had stopped there, I should have stopped with indicating that 
want and that inability. But he did not stop there. To say ho more 
of his ignorance, and of his impotence of logic, I encountered, in his 
book, to a degree which I never saw surpassed in any second book, 
arrogance of attitude, self-opinionative dogmatism, and the most in- 
tolerant disdain of all who differ from himself; and on these peculiar- 
ities, over and above confuting his philologastry, I bestowed the 
designations which such things, especially when aggravated by com- 
bination, inevitably invite. A sense of fit characterization has led me, 
I acknowledge, to employ divers dyslogistic metaphors, in application 
to varying exhibitions of his deplorable deficiency of scholarship, and 
of himself, as an implied "glass of fashion", and type of high-class 
aesthetic intuition. In every case, however, I have studied appro- 
priateness and just proportion. I would urge, with Hobbes : " I am 
not so inhuman as not to pardon dulness or madness : they are not 
voluntary faults. But, when men adventure, voluntarily, to talk of 
that they understand not, censoriously and scorafully, I may tell them 
of it " ; and with Bentley : " There 's nothing so nauseous and pro- 
voking as a superficial ostentation of learning, while profound ignor- 
ance lies at the bottom." 

Of the style of retort which Mr. White accounts becoming, I have 
said enough. And the same style, in all its essentials, is that of his 
half-educated and ill-bred satellites. My facts, arguments, and con- 
clusions, both he and they, as unmistakeably as if they categorically 
avowed it, recognize to be absolutely impregnable; and, in unwise 


alternatire to tileiice, they slaice me with hap^hasard hillingsgate. 
It is idle for them to hope, that their affecting to make light account 
of me will not he interpreted hy others, and rightly, as a clutch- 
ing at the last straw of despair. Genuine contempt is anything rather 
than clamorous; hiit the vulgar, when alarmed and irritated, invariably 
seek relief in a free secretion of scurrility. It is not thus that what I 
have called false philology can be made out to be true. 

P. 80, note 1. * Different to ' is used by Mrs. Lennox, in TheFemaU 
Quixote (1752), Vol. 1, p. 67 (ed. 1820). 

P. 82, note 2. For "disagree /row**, also see The French Aeade- 
mie, Part 1 (ed. 1589), p. 9J : UakewiW, Ah Apoloffiey &c. (ed. 1630), 
p. 192. 

P. 88, note 1. Other old instances of respect, for 'relation*, 
* reference *, here follow. 

** Bondemenne are, in respecte and comparison, the feete* of their 
maistcrs, & these as the heddes of the servauntes.'* Udall, Apoph- 
thegtnes, &c. (1542), fol. 148 r and v. Also see fol. 59 r. 

** Seven are they named here, in a universal respect both of the times, 
persons, places, and perverse doctrines of the whole world." Bishop 
Bale, Select Works (1849), p. 471. 

** But, in this canon, hee disclaimes any jurisdiction to judge of titles, 
which those Popes tooke to themselves, who excommunicated our late 
Queeiie (if l^arsons say true, that they had respect to the injustice of 
her title, by reason of a statute), and all those Popes must doe, which 
shall doe any act which mi«(ht make this oath unlawfull to you.*' Dr. 
Donne, Pseudo-martyr (1610), pp. 309, 310. 

P. 107, note 3. Both frugality and temperance were used by Udall 
in 1542. See, for these words, his Apophthegnies, &c., fol. 90, 128, 
189, 263, and fol. 128. 

P. 108, 1. 3. Udall, in his Apophthegmes^ &c. (1542), plainly in- 
dicates that several of his words were, in his day, uncommon. Of 
pedagogue he gives, before using it, a long explanation. Fol. 182, 
183. ''^Parasites wer called suche smellefeastes as would seeke to bee 
free geastes at riche mennes tables." Fol. 199. "A clime is a region 
or coste of a countree." Fol. 216. Prorogation is explained by " a 
longer tyme in his dictature." Fol. 278. Stratagems are defined as 
" the sleightes and policies of warre." Fol. 279. Geography is " the 
descripcion of the yearth " ; and fountains are ** hedsprynges." 
Fol. 285. 

In one case, Udall glosses a word which had been ventured long 
before his time. *' An epitaphie is the writyng that is sette on dedde 
munnes toutnbes or graves, in memoiie or commendacion of the parties 
there buiried." Fol. 196, 197. For epitaji, see Capgrave's Chronicle, 
p. 125; for epitaff^ Lydgate's Minor Poems (ed. 1840), p. 93. 

P 109, 1. 2.and note 1. Diction, with Sir Philip Sidney, has the 


sense it now bears. Donne, in making it mean * word ', — a classical 
acceptation of dictiOy — had been anticipated. Udall, in his Apoph- 
thegmea (1542), employs three synonyms of ' word ', one of which is 
vocable. The others are diction, fol. 121, 129, 200, 241, 243, 245 ; 
and voice, fol. 112, 121, 125, 164. 

P. Ill, 1. 12. Udall used contaminate, the verb. See bis Apoph- 
thegmee, &c. (1542), " The Preface of Erasmus.*' 

P. 111. In the comedy of Patient Grissil, by Dekker, Chettle, and 
Haughton, published in 1603, Emulo exemplifies what is called ** the 
gallimaufry of language *% by many words such as the substantives 
eollocution, delinquiahinent, disconsolation, impriaion, eynteresie, and the 
verbs conglutinate, imperish, oblivionize, recuperate, vapulate, vulnerate. 
These, doubtless, were among the affectations of the time. Incoft- 
gruent, ventured some generations before, was then still strange, and, 
in fact, never fuund wide acceptation. Adulatory, too, was looked on 
as outlandish ; and it is not much more than a centuiy since it really 
became English. 

P. 122, note 2. Dr. Eichardson quotes, for the verb neuter smoulder, 
Gascoigne and Dryden, alsu. 

P. 132, foot. Devilry is used by Bishop Bale, Select TForke (1849), 
p. 354. 

P. 133, notes, 11. 9, 10. I should have written : Dr. Kichardson 
gives, for modern times, the participial adjective humiliating, only. 

P. 141,1. 13. I may mention that the word adjectival was used 
long before Dr. Latham's day, as by William Taylor. See The 
Monthly Review, Vol. 24 (1797), p. 558: The Monthly Magazine, 
Vol. 12 (1801), p. 98. And Bentham has it. 

P. 155, note 3. Livelehood, that is to say, our modem livelihood, is 
used by Udall, Apophthegmea (1542), fol. 322. 

P. 156, note 1. Since this note was printed, I have found, that, in 
the Amsterdam edition of The Doctrine and Diacipline of Divorce, 
published in 1698, Milton is made to write help meet, in Book 1, Ch. 
2. In the editions of 1738 and 1753, the reading is help-meet. 

For this information I am indebted to a very intelligent, critical, and 
kind friend, Mr. Frederic Pincott, who has often laid me under 
obligation by assistance he has rendered me in my philological re- 

P. 162, notes, 11. 1 — 3. I am aware that forms like w/a«*, for enfanta, 
were not first used in modern times. Kor particulars, see M. Genin, 
R4ertationa Philologiquea, Vol. 1, pp. 354—368. 

P. 162, note 1. BaatiU, for * dungeon', is very old English. See 
Lydgate, Minor Poema (ed. 1840), p. 207 {bis). 

P. 173, 1. 14. Suburb tan is used by William Rowley, A Search for 
Money (1609), p. 37 (ed. 1840). 

P. 180, note 4. Like aymbology are aymbolatry and aymbolatroua. 


used by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, in The Origin and Development nf 
Jteliffioua Belief (e«l 1871), Vol. 1, p. 185. Among other monstrous 
formations occurring in the same volume, are the following. Heliatic^ 
p. 147. Helativibility, 'p. 210. Ideolatry, ^, 187. Ideographic, •^. 
263. Anthropomorphize, p. 239. Hypostatize, p. 394. 

P. 211, note 2. Altitudes, for * heroics', is used by Mrs. Lennox* 
The Female Quixote (1762), Vol. 1, p. 166 (ed. 1820). 

P. 219, 1. 7. Can carriwitchet be a corruption oi colijithet ? 

P. 226, note 3. Dispense, substantive, once meant 'expense' ; and 
the verb dispendy * expend'. See Lydgate, Minor Poems (ed. 1840), 
pp. 166, 167, 196, 208, and p. 210. The latter is used by so late a 
writer as Hakewill. See his An Apologie, &c. (ed. 1630), p. 362. 

P. 240, note 8. Add the three following illustrative extracts : 

" The bread and the wine were left us for a sacramental communion, 
or a mutual participation of the inestimable benefits of his most pre- 
cious death and blood- sheddi ng. " Mrs. Anne Askewe (1646?), in 
Bishop Bale's Select Works, p. 196. 

** Ye will, paraventure, say, it is Christ's body. But, truly, that is 
all false. For thereof is no mutual participation, where one eateth up 
all." Bishop Bale, Select Works, p. 627. 

" Numbring up the holy dayes, hee concludes, at last, that neither 
any processe hold, nor sentence bee in force, pronounced on any of those 
dayes, though both parts mutually should consent unto it." . Heylin, 
The History of tJie Sabbath (ed. 1636), Book 2, p. 159. 

P. 264, note 3. Add : " So would he woundrefuU pacientely take 
merie bourdyng, — yea, some tymes beeyng with the largest and over 
plainly, — either begonne, orels reversed backe again upon hyra." 
Udall, Apophthegmes (1542), fol. 243 v. 

" The same Julia begoonne, somewhat with the soonest, to have 
whyteheares in hir hedde." Id., ibid., fol. 252 v. 

Also see Sir Philip Sidney, Arcadia (ed. 1613), p. 154. 

P. 280, 1. 16. The following is from Lydgate : 

" Cheese we the roosys, cast away the thorn, 
Criste boute us alle with his precious bloode : 
To that he bouhte us lat no thyng be lorn ; 
For our redempcioun he staif upon the rood." 

Minor Foans (ed. 1840), p. 149. 

P. 288, note 5. The substantive democratic was used, I find, in 
1681, in the Preface to Heylin's De Jure Paritatis Episcopoi'um, by 
the Rev. George Vernon. Robert Southwell has domesticals for do- 
mestics. See A Hundred Meditations, &c. (ed. 1873), p. 167. 

P. 304, note 4. Centenary, for * aggregate of a hundred ', is used 
by Heylin, The History of the Sabbath (ed. 1636), Book 1, p. 23. 


*«* The letter f ., where attached to the number of a page, U intended 
to denote the pages immediately following. 

Abbot, Archbishop, 74. 

Abbott, Dr. E. A., 265, 363. 

Addison, Joseph, 9, 42, 66, 62, 66, 
80. 82, 91, 117, 119, 120, 126, 
148, 174, 190, 198, 231, 233, 
234, 250, 256, 292, 294, 367, 

Addison and Steele, 233. 

Aleman, 112. 

Alford, Dean, 74,- 77, 78, 84, 87. 

Andrewes, Bishop, 82, 92, 242. 

Aquinas, Thomas, 144. 

Anstarchus, 143. 

Arnold, Mr. Matthew, 82, 234, 

306, 330, 331. 

Arnold, Dr. Thomas, 63, 191, 300, 

307, 328. 

Ascham, Hoger, 47, 67, 93, 161, 
176, 362, 353, 366, 369. 

Ash well, Rev. George, 213. 

Askewe, Mrs. Anne, 368. 

Augustine, St., 129. 

Bacon (Lord Verulam), Francis, 
14, 36, 43, 86, 99, 266, 307. 

Bailey, Nathaniel, 116. 

Bailey, Mr. Samuel, 44, 66, 72. 

Baker, Robert, 80,211. 

Baker, Rey. Thomas, 43. 

Bale, Bishop, 40, 76, 146, 223, 
336, 362, 363, 361, 362, 363, 
366, 367, 368. 

Baring-Gould, Rev. 8., 330, 368. 

Barlow, Joel, 297. 

Barrow, Dr. Isaac, 43, 68, 66, 83, 
89, 91, 92, 160, 180, 186, 189, 
206, 272, 276, 284, 286. 

Barry, Spranger, 133. 

Bartlett, Mr. J. R., 80. 
Baxter, Rev. Richard, 131. 
Beattie, Dr., 103, f., 123. 
Beaumont and Fletcher, 189. 
Becher, William, 283. 
Beckford, William, 63, 106, 226, 

260, 271, 331, 383, 348. 
Bentham, Jeremy, 19, 20, 31, 169, 

186, 228, 270, 283, 297, 309, 
317, 326, 367. 
Bentley, Dr. Richard, 8, 9, 33, 82, 
90, 96, 116, f., 132, 137, 156, 
180, 189, 217, 229, 241, 266, 

261, 306, 860, 366. 
Berkeley, Bishop, 281. 
Berkeley, Mr., 266. 

Bernard, Rev. Richard, 224, 272. 
Bickerstaffe, Isaac, 211, 228, 239, 

240, 260, 256. 
Bickerstaffe and Foote, 263, 268. 
Blackley, Rev. W. L., 67, 77, 78, 

79, 172, 181, 296. 
Blackstone, Sir William, 118, 133. 
Blackwell, Dr. Thomas, 121. 
Bolingbroke, Lord, 178, 318. 
Bolton, Edmund, 109, 132. 
Booth, Mr. David, 337. 
Boucher, Rev. Jonathim, 47, 128, 

169, 215. 
Bowditch, Mr. N. I., 273. 
Boyle, Hon. Charles, 116, 117, 

118, 119. 
Boyle, Hon. Robert, 43, 122. 
Brachet, M. A., 66. 
Bradshaigh, Lady, 63. 
Brathwait, Richard, 42, 46, 47, 80, 

89, 93, 133, 173, 180, 187, 910, 



226, 232, 2«, 270. 272, 362. 

Bntluid, Rer. John, 32S. 

Brewer, Mr. F\A P., 352. 

Bront^ Uiss Cluriotte, 81, 1S4. 

Brooke, Henry, 3fi, 43. 60, 62, 
160, 206, 210, 211. 213, 214, 
220, 221, 224, 230, 231, 235, 
237, 239, 244, 246, 2i7, 248, 
249, 262. 2S3, 2r,i. jati, 269, 
SS, 300, 318. 


d, 46 





ng, Hr. Bobert 



Dr. John, 



R. F. P, 


BockinBham, Duk 



Bull, liishnp, 146 


Mr. E. L 



Bnrgny, M. 0. F 



Edmund, 43, 52, 69 



184, 208, 





























Bnmitby. Sit Wilaon, B.. & Co. 

Bumey. MiM France* (Madame 
D'Arblay), 53, 80, 82. 83, 121, 
126, 128. 172, 191, 208, 210, 
216, 218, 219, 220, 221, 225, 
227, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 
242, 243, 244, 249, 253, 280, 
261, 262, 264, 267, 288, 271, 

Burtho^e, Dr. Richard, 76, 118, 

Butler. He». Charlee, 366. 

Byron, Lord, 28, 44, 304, 

Csesar, Julius. 34. 

CailliSre, M., 288. 

Cambrii^e, E, 0., 80, 121, 156, 

Camden, Lord. 207. 

Camden, William, 6, 7, 61, 107, 
133, 187, 190. 

Campe, J. H., 99. 
, Campion, Thomas, 186. 
'Canning, George. 260, 266. 

CapgiaTe, 46. 276, 368, 366. 

C»rey, Henry, 61. 

CarleU, Lodowick, 172, 211, 229. 

CarlyltsMr.ThonlM, 19, 132, 161, 
184, 189, 331. 

Carter, Hiss Elizabeth, 12. 52, 56, 
122, 123, 125, 176, 187, 207, 
208, 209, 215, 217, 219, 222, 
223, 228, 231, 238, 239, 24S, 
267, 302. 

Casaubon, Dr. Merie, 166. 

CaalalioD, Sebastian, 112. 

Catullus, 14, 70, 327. 

Centlirre, Mre. Sueanna, 156, 190, 
228, 240, 245, 262. 

CerranCee, 28. 

ChslmerB, Dr. Thomas, 48. 

Chapman, Dr. Geoi^e. 64, 187. 

Chaucer. 4, 9, 11, 67, 64, 66, 123, 
196, 368. 

Cheke, Sir John, 3, 4, 278. 

Chesterfield, Lord, 125, 144, tS9, 
221. 288. 

Chettle, Henrie. 60, 1 11, 174, 186, 
20S, 250, 259, 264, 314, 361, 

Chilliugworth, Ber. William, 68. 

Gibber, CoUey, 166, 176, 253, 259. 

Cibbfir, Mrs. 8. M., 63. 

Gibber, Tbeophilua, 80, 230. 

Giceto, 2, 8, 70, 168, 186, 278. 

Clarendon, Lord, 65. 326. 

Clark, Mr. Bracy, 176. 

Clinton, Mr. H. F., 173. 

Clive, His. Gatberine. 272. 

Glough, Mr. A. H., SI. 

Gobbe, HissF. P., 180. 

Cobbett, William, 18, 138, 139. 

Cockerani, Henry, 131, 138, 298. 

Coghan, Dr. Thomas, 361. 

Gole, Rev. Thomas, 318. 

Colehrooke, Mr. H. T., 283, 310. 

Coleridge, 8. T., 21, 63, 68, 70, 
n, f, 82, 85, 106, 106, 121, 
130, 132, 133, 162. 1S7, 168, 
171, 178, 183, 184, 194, 197, 
213, 256, 261, 269, 283, 285, 
286, 289, 306, 306, 314, 315, 
317, 323, 327, 329, 336, 363. 

Collier, Rev. Jeremy, 65, 61, 66, 
'.19, 128, 160, 168, 180, 189, 

Caiman, George, 36, 63, 62, 63, 
117, 124, 128, 166, 206, 207, 


208, 211, 212, 216, 217, 
219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 22a, 
227, 228, 230, 231, 236, ~— 
238, 239. 2*1. 2«, 248, 2*9, 
251, 252, 256, 257. 258, 263. 
266, 267, 269, 271, 312, 318, 

Colman and Garrick, 217. 

Colmaa aad ThnrnMn. 10, 80, 82, 
156, 206, 211, 213, 217, 262, 

238, 261. 

Corte, Earl of, 241. 

Cotlington, Lord Francis, 132. 

Cuusin, M, Victor, 303. 

Cowtll, Dr. John, 90. 

Cowley, AbrahaiD, 8, 14, 43, 180, 
183, 247. 

Cowlejr, Mr>. Hannah, 208, 218, 
231, 233, 238, 250, 271, 273. 

Cowper. William, S3, 65, 62, 74, 
82, Oo. 9B, 108, , 124, 127, 
139, I4il, 176, 181, 190, 205, 
206, 207, 208, '209, 210, 213, 
214, 216, S16, 217, 219, 220, 
223, 227, 228, 233, 238, 240, 
243, 244, 246, 247, 248, 261, 
263, 236, 269, 2S7. 268, 269, 
283, 299, 301,312. 

Creaay, Sir Edward, 17, 141. 

Cromwell, 01i«er, 119. 

Cudworth, Dr. Ralph, 128, 

Cumberland, Richard, 148. 207, 
208, 209, 217, 228, 233. 234, 
236, 239, 241, 244, 255, 257, 
259, 260, 263, 271, 306. 

Dacrea, Edward, 69, 82. 

Uasent, Dr. G. W., 65, 

D'Arenant, Bir William, 229. 

Datis, Bir John, 331. 

De Foe, 82, 123, 128, 160, 168, 
190, 206. 216, 228, 236, 266, 
296, 337. 

Dekker, Thomaa, 79, 112, 173, 
189, 211, 217, 223, 229, 24( 
261, 272, 332. 

Deklcfr. Chettle, and Hanghtoi 
80, 260, 269, 361, 367. 

De Quince]', Mr. Thomaa, 29, SI 

63. 69, 82, 83, 84, 106, 130, 

140, 168, 171, 174, 176, 180. 

183, 184, 186, 191, 194, 269, 

276, 283, 285, 292, 298, 300, 

301, 302, 304, 306, 307, 317, 

Derham, Dr. W., 160. 
De Vera, Prof. M. S., 220, 234. 
Dihdin. Charles, 217, 240, 253, 

Dibdin. Thomaa, 128, 230, 233, 

Dickens, Mr. Charles, 82, 242, 

267. 331. 
Disraeli, Mr. B., 242. 
D'laraeU, Mr. Isaac, 43, 44, 120, 

Donne, Dr., 42. 44, 88, 109, 132, 

133, 144, 145, 159, 181, 186, 

188,258, 286, 366. 367. 
Douce, Francis. 133. 
Dojle, Sir F. U., 161. 
Dryden, 10, 11. 14, 21, 120, 123, 

144, 149, 187, 190, 217, 229, 

263, 281, 293, 367. 
Ducange, 64. 144. 
Dumaat, M. P. G. de, 202. 
D«pr6, William, 100, 129. 201. 
Dyce, Rey. A., 137. 
Earle, Rer. John, 322. 
Eastwood. Mr. J., 363. 
Eaton, iter. John, 46, 87, 90, 93, 

Echjin, Ladj, 62. 
Edeb, Richarde, 108, 109. 
Edwards. Thomaa, 183. 261. 
Elyot, Sir Thomas. 46. 67, 79, 88, 
93, 107, 108. 109, 122, 137, 

167, 188, 306, 352. 
EnnlDB, 15, 364. 
Eatiennc, Henri, 4, 16, SO. 
Etherege, Sir George, 218. 
Eusden, Rev. Lawrence, 101. 
Evelyn, John, 287. 
Fanshawe, Sir liichard, 188. 
Farquhar. George, 362. 
Feltliam. Owen. 21, 42, 62, 74, 75, 

88, 242, 286. 
Fielding, Henry, 161, 190, 246. 
Fish, Simon, 3S2. 
Fieke, Mr. John. 46, 47. 
Fleckno, Bct. Richard, 42, 120. 



Fletcher, John, '271. 

Florio, John, 178, 363. 

Foote, Samuel, 67, 80, 124, 166, 
173, 211, 217, 218, 219, 220, 
221, 223, 228, 230, 231, 232, 
233, 236, 237, 238, 239, 244, 
246, 246, 247, 248, 260, 261, 

262, 263, 266, 267, 268, 261, 

263, 313, 317. 
Foster, Rev. John, 292. 
Fowler, Prof. W. C, 346. 
Fox, C. J., 21, 331. 
Fox, John, 287. 

Franck, Richard, 93, 111, 118, 

167, 174, 236, 239. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 286, 286. 
Freeman, Dr. E. A., 296, 299, 

300, 330. 
Frere, John, 266. 

Fuller, Dr. Thomas, 42, 60, 55, 
69, 76, 113, 116, 168, 169, 173, 
176, 187, 188, 207, 216, 229, 

232, 241, 264, 268, 283, 286, 
332, 337, 361. 

Gainsford, Thomas, 42, 117. 

Gait, John, 320. 

Garrick, David, 121, 217, 219, 

233, 238, 246, 249, 264, 268. 
Gascoigne, 367. 

Gataker, Eev. Thomas, 68, 90, 

146, 241, 242, 266. 
Gaule, Rev. John, 26, 38, 44, 75, 

81, 82, 117, 131, 132, 133, 167, 
179; 186, 266, 286, 287. 

Gay, John, 61, 126, 210, 222, 

231, 246, 269. 
Gellius, Aulus, 34. 
Genin, M. F., 129, 367. 
Gibbs, Prof. J. W., 337. 
Gibbon, Edmund, 63, 55, 66, 83, 

117, 118, 168, 202, 208, 222, 

264, 317. 

Gladstone, Mr. W, E., 298, 300, 

301, 307, 308. 

Glanvill, Rev. Joseph, 31, 42, 
80, 82, 89, 117, 144, 160, 16*8, 
183, 189, 211, 229, 268, 284, 

Godwin, William, 8, 10, 11, 69, 

82, 83, 121, 160, 164, 186, 207, 
214, 216, 223, 226, 246, 264, 
271, 287, 291, 296, 300, 306. 

Godwin, Mrs., 126, 249, 262. 
Goethe, 164. 

Goldsmith, Dr. Oliver, 62, 190, 
197, 207, 208, 210. 212, 213, 
218, 219, 220, 226, 227, 228, 
231, 237, 238, 240, 249, 251, 
263, 260, 262, 266, 267, 269, 
271, 272, 306, 326, 364. 

Gorges, Sir Arthur, 80, 93, 117, 

Gosson, Rev. Stephen, 67. 

Gower, 46, 64. 

Graves, Rev. Richard, 63, 82, 122, 
123, 178, 210, 219, 223, 234, 
236, 237, 239, 240, 243, 246, 
247, 267, 262, 266, 268, 269, 

Gray, Thomas, 42, 62, 67, 70, 
103, 123, 127, 148, 162, 176, 
207, 208, 210, 220, 221, 228, 
246, 247, 249, 260, 262, 326. 

Greene, Robert, 79. 

Grenville fWilliam Wyndham), 
Lord, 70, 86. 

Grimstone, Viscount, 229, 247, 

Grote, Professor John, 168. 

Grove, Rev. Henry, 216. 

Guizot, M., 163. 

GumhilL Rev. James, 80. 

Hakewill, Dr. George, 79, 232, 
304, 366, 368. 

Hakluyt, Rev. Richard, 212. 

Hall, Kishop, 66, 74. 

Hall, Rev. T. D., 322. 

Hallam, Henry, 83, 101, 132, 297. 

Halle, Edward, 128. 

Halle, Dr. John, 68, 314. 

Hallifax, Bishop, 123, 227, 235, 
310, 316. 

Hare, Archdeacon, 102, 139, 316. 

Harington, Sir John, 109, 143. 

Harris, James, 239, 268, 266, 270, 

Harrison, Mr. M., 337. 

Harvey, Gabriell, 79, 109, 110, 
111. 112, 133, 190, 366. 

Haughton, William, 80, 260, 269, 
361, 367. 

Hawkesworth, Dr. John, 148, 206, 
209, 246. 

Hawkins, Sir John, 119, 332. 



Hawthorne, Mr. N., 173. i 

Hay ward, James, 58, 68, 80, 133, 

156, 172, 174. 187. 
Haywarde, Sir John, 88, 167, 264, 

Hazlitt, WUliam. 69, 102, 218, 

Heber, Bishop, 283, 307. 
Helps, Sir Arthur, 17. 
Herbert, Sir Thomas, 128. 
Hesketh, Lady, 80. 
Heylin, Dr. Peter, 41,44, 93, 111, 

112, 113, 114. 115, 118, 137, 

186, 190, 216, 234, 272, 286, 

286, 368. 
Heywood, Thomas, 190. 
Hieron, Key. Samuel, 46, 108, 

148, 156. 
Hill, Aaron, 121, 176, 216, 268. 
Hoadly, Dr. John, 124, 273. 
Hobbes, Thomas, 19, 31, 89, 288, 

356, 366. 
Hoby, Sir Thomas, 4. 
Hodges, Richard, 160, 360, 361. 
Hodgson, Dr. Shadworth H., 336. 
Holinshed, Raphael, 46, 46, 122. 
Holland, Dr. Philemon, 69, 113, 

165, 167, 187, 212, 214, 266, 

286, 307. 
Hooker, Rev. Richard, 36, 116. 
Hope, Mr. A. J. B. B., 318. 
Horace, 70, 160, 198. 
Home, Bishop, 67, 211. 
Homeck, Dr. Anthony, 247, 361. 
Hotten, Mr. J. C, 130. 
Howell, James, 40, 42, 67, 63, 76, 

80, 157, 167, 173, 232, 304, 

Hughes, John, 184. 
Hughes, Mr. Thomas, 81. 
Hu^o Carrensis, 60. 
Hugo, M. Victor, 163. 
Hurd, Bishop, 62, 190, 235, 262, 

Hutcheson, Dr. Francis, 133. 
Huxley, Prof. T. H., 296, 304, 

Inch bald, Mrs. Elizabeth, 207, 

208, 214, 217, 228, 230, 231, 

232, 243, 249, 265, 269. 
James, Dr. Thomas, 132, 186, 223, 


Janris, Charles, 323, 324. 

Jeffries, Miss, 260. 

Jephson, Robert, 128, 233, 263. 

Jewell, Bishop, 122, 331. 

Jodrell, Mr. R. P., 156, 186. 

Johnson, Charles, 90, 160, 240, 
246, 247, 248,253, 273, 305, 

Johnson, Richard, 79. 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 2, 3, 8, 9, 
10, 11, 15, 17, 22, 36, 40, 42, 
43, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52r, 61, 62, 
66, 70, 76, 77, 79, 88, 90, 93, 
96, 101, 103, 120, 121, 123, 
124, 126, 128, 130, 131, 132, 
133, 136, 136, 139, 140, 143, 
144, 148, 160, 166, 168, 172, 
177, 184, 188, 190, 192, 196, 
198, f., 207, 208, 215, 216, 
217, 218, 222, 223, 225, 236, 
236, 240, 243, 244, 246, 251, 
266, 268, 263, 269, 270, 276, 
281, 286, 286, 287, 289, 294, 
296, 303, 304, 316, 317, 318, 
319, 333, 337, 366. 

Jones, Edward, 117. 

Jones, Sir William, 55, 124, 225, 
236, 276. 

Jones, Rev. William, 80, 90, 226, 
234, 262, 286, 287, 318. 

Jonson, Ben, 14, 47, 79, 106, 167, 
161, 174, 187, 189, 166, 363, 
354, 366, 367. 

Jordan, Thomas, 10. 

Kelly, Hugh, 234, 263. 

Eenney, James, 230, 261, 263, 

Eilmore, Bishop of, 211. 

Kingsley, Rev. Charles, 132, 166, 
187, 194, 213, 230, 262, 300, 

Knight, R. P., 231, 260. 

Knighte, William, 358, 359. 

Kuster, Dr. Ludolph, 33. 

La Bruydre, 163. 

Lactantius, 18. 

La Fontaine, 100. 

Lamb, Charles, 46, 68, 69, 103, 
121, 166, 167. 191, 283, 297, 
313, 323, 327, 329. 

Landor, W. S., 13, 14, 16, 17, 29, 
41, 46, 64, 67, 69, 60, 61, 62, 



67, 69, 71, 82. 83, 103, 105, 117, 
183, 184, 191, 192, 206, 265, 
267, 270, 286, 288, 290, 298, 
302, 323, 327, 329, 331, 343. 

Lansdowne, Lord, 236. 

Lansdowne, Marquis of, 296. 

Larchey, M. Loredan, 288. 

Latham, Dr. R. G., 46, 124, 132, 
133, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 
319, 367. 

Latimer, Bishop, 47, 173, 188. 

Laveaux, M. J. C, 13, 129. 

Lavington, Bishop, 68, 66, 167, 
220, 247, 261. 

Lawrence, Rev. Matthew, 72, 90. 

Lee, Professor S., 173. 

Lempriere, N., 94. 

Lennox, Mrs. Charlotte, 366, 368. 

L' Estrange, Hamon, 41, 44, 47, 
90, 91, 114, 116,117, 118,167, 
189, 224, 241, 272, 353, 356. 

L'Estrange, Sir Roger, 223. 

Lewis, Matthew G., 325. 

Leycester, Mr., 261. 

Lind, John, 119. 

Lithgow, William, 46, 134, 156, 

Littre, M. E., 64. 

Lloyd, Bishop, 121. 

Lloyd, Charles, 81, 83. 

Lloyd, Robert, 228. 

Lockhart, J. G., 184. 

Longfellow, Prof. H. W., 131. 

Lowell, Mr. J. R., 193. 

Lowth, Bishop, 62, 77, 79, 90, 
119, 207, 210, 213, 220, 224, 
227, 234, 235, 236, 239, 246, 
251, 262, 263, 266, 270, 357. 

Lydgate, 352. 366, 358, 359. 360, 
366, 367, 368. 

Lyly, John, 79, 186, 356. 

Lyttelton, Lord, 228. 

Lytton, Lord, 99, f., 139, 207, 
214, 262, 298. 

Mabbe, James, 46, 47, 60, 63, 68, 
80,90, 112, 162, 180, 186, 188, 
218, 232, 243, 247, 250, 254, 
264, 283, 313, 364. 

Macaulay, Lord, 13, 17, 54, 62, 
69, 84, 129,130, 141,142,160, 
156, 171, 213, 216, 248, 264, 
283, 285, 289, 292, 293, 300, 

303, 306, 307, 317, 319, 331. 
Macaulay, Mrs. C, 186. 
Mackintosh, Sir James, 21, 43. 
Macklin, Charles, 201, 208, 263. 
Macrobius, 34, 64. 
Maillard, Olivier, 60. 
Maitland, Dr. S. R., 313. 
M alone, Edmond, 285. 
Mandeville, Dr. Bernard de, 68, 

160. 234. 
Mandeville, Sir John, 146. 
Marsh, Mr. G. P., 46, 46, 49, f., 

77, f., 198, 262, 273, 324, 332, 

337, 338, 346, 348, 349, 352, 

353, 365. 
Martial, 128. 

Martyn, Rev. Henry, 296. 
Mason, Rev. William, 212, 270. 
Massinger, 173, 263, 303. 
Mathias, T. J., 105, 248, 317. 
Mede, Rev. Joseph, 255, 268. 
Manage, 64. 
Menander, 25. 
Mendoza, D. H. de, 42. 
Middleton, Dr. Conyers, 294. 
Mill, James, 313. 
Mill, Mr. J. S.,83, 181, 296, 304, 

Milman, Dean, 18, 304. 
Milton, 14, 42, 70, 72, 82, 89, 

100, 105, 114, 119, 133, 147, 

149, 150, 156, 157, 160, 161, 

173, 185, 187, 190, 212, 218, 
232, 265, 284, 285, 289, 293, 
34.3, 367. 

Monboddo, Lord, 30. 
Monmouth (Henry Gary), Earl of, 
70, 75. 132, 139, 160, 162, 167, 

174, 190, 221, 307, 356. 
Monro, Rev. T., 233. 
Montagu, Lady Mary W.. 118. 
Moore, Edward, 52, 125, 156, 216, 

More, Miss Hannah, 208, 225, 

More, Dr. Henry, 42, 43, 82, 89, 

116, 128, 132, 158, 166, 167, 

175, 180, 284, 288. 

More. Sir Thomas, 58, 109, 114, 
122, 132, 190, 229, 352, 361. 

Morris, Dr. Richard, 79, 322, 



H Mndeiii. P. A,, -15. 

Pullenham. George. 5, 47, 59, 61 , 

^B Mtiltt-r, Piol'. MaximiUut, 54, 



110, 112, 179, 1B3, 188, 255, 

H UniM, tiisB, 213. 

273, 306, 353. 

^H Murpbf, Anhiir. 129, 208, 210, 

Pjcriift, Re». J..81. 

^H 217, 2le, 233, 2.14, 247, 248, 

Pylches, Mr. John, 127. 

^M 249, 25U, 238, 239. 2U3. 

QuiQliJian, 41. 

^H Narea. Arcfadeauon, 272. 

Hahelais. 21, 100, 117. 

H Niuh, Thamaa. 21, 61, 79, 110, 

H 112, 131, 132, 133, 187. 2G1, 

Re»de, Mr. Chwlea. 25, 26, 82, 

H 2«5, 2B6, 312. 

217.230, 262,3.31, 

H Newmnn, Dr. J, H.. IG. 17. 69, 

Reeve, Hks Clara, 226, 249. 

^M 82, 83, 144. 156. 177, 178, 191, 

Reynolds. Sir Joahua, 214, 222, 

^M 2b2, 26.1, 2GS, -267, 28-3, 291. 


^M 292, 29t>, 302, 304, 312, 329, 

■ 331, 342. 

72. 73, 80, 117. 122, 128. 132, 

^H Newton, Rev. John, 48, 296. 

133, 134, 144, 145, 287, 319, 

^H Nonlon. John, 139, IHS, 3m, 362. 

361. 367. 

^H Nurfolk, Duke of, 358. 

H N»tt, Dt. John, 24S. 256. 261. 

BichardBon, Samuel, 51, 54, 66, 

H O'BTien, Mr. Henry, 167. 

72,80, 82,120,123, 125,134, 

H 0-K»ffc, John, 211, 21S, 22f), 

161. 167, 168, 195, SID, 211, 

^M 23U, 237, 243, 244, 248, 2til, 

214, 215, 217, 223, 223. 226, 


227. 230, 231, 233, 234, 236, 

^ OLwbv. 189. 231. 

239, 2411, 248, 249, 250, 251, 

i 0<fi.rd. Earl of, 79. 

254. 256, 258, 259, 260. 261, 

Pace, H«v. Richard, 137. 

262, 271, 273. 285. 286, 287, 

Paley, Archdeacon. B3, 191. 2IG. 

297. 298, 300, 320, 336. 

248, 260, 267, 283, 287, 3(17, 

Riche, Bainabe, 47, 50, 79, 86, 

^ 312. 


K Parr. Dr. Samuel. 3S. 43, 148. 

Richelet. C. P.. 232. 

^B Peai»on. Bishop, 89. 

Hcibetd of Gloucealer, 358. 

^H Pecuuk. Blahup, 43. 

RobiuBon. Mr. H. C, 331. 

H Philon, Frederic. 249, 2.-i7. 260. 

"SS "■"■•■"• ''■'"■ 

Pilkington, Mrs, M.. 223. 

Plautiu, 13, 159. 

Roger. Dr. P. M.. 33. 

PonlMU.. 1. 

iiokeby. Lord, 318. 

Pope, Alexander, 11, 40, 149, 

Roquelori, M. J. B. B., 65. 

^— 19U. 2 ill. 

Kuscammon, Earl of. 3. 

H, PoT<«l, Iliuhard, 67, 253, 267. 

Rosin i, Sign. Q.. 83. 


Rowlands, Samuel, 40, 93, 110, 

^m Porler, Heury, 79, I9U, 249, 271. 


^H Prealun, Lord, 68, 265. 

Rowley, Williani. 367. 

H Pri<:e. 8ir U*ed>le. 53. »2, I2S. 

RuBkiu, Mr. John, 28,29, 3-1, 64, 

^M 126, ItiU, 191, 207, 222, 224, 

156, 176, 181. 191, 201. 216, 

■ 2ie,25tt. 

259,2X3,315,330. • 

^M Prinilev. Dr. JMeph. 1 1 . 75. 104, 
^B 122. 212, 245, 246. 257, 264, 

Bust, Bishop. 89. 

S, Victor. Hugo da, 144, 


^M Prynne. Wtllum, 132. 


^H Pnllcr. Dr. TiiDOLhy, 47, 75, 112. 

ScoH, Sir Waller, 21. 28. 65, 132, 

^K Pu*ey,Dt.E. B.,296. 

133, 202, 283, 284, 307. 


Seneca, 6. Steme, Rev. Ltuwnce, 43, 66, 

Serign^, Madame de, 326. 16S, 2(18. 213, 217. 221, 223, 

Shakesptare, 24, 42. 47, 70, 79, 228, 230. 232. 231. 240, 241, 

88, 92, 93. 105, 106, 1(J9. 123, 243, 245, 257, 259, 262, 287, 

125, 14), 160, 168, 173, 176, 357. 

189, 22.'i, 210, 272, 300, 307, Stow. John, 46. 

•" -"■ Strode, Dr. WiUUra. 156. 

Stubbn. Phillip, 46, 132. 133, 

ouo, oio. 144, 155, 173, 226, 272, 273. 

Shelley. Mre., 328. Surrey. Earl of, 109. 

Shelton, Thomas, 283. Swift, Dean, 2, 3, 10, 11, 14, 15, 

Shenstone, William. 52, 66, BO, 65, 82,105. 120, 122, 153, 293. 

202. 219, 231. 266, 3U6. Sffinburne, Mr. A. C. 191. 

Sheridan. R. 8.. 70, 178, 212, Symes, Chriatt>rei:, 174. 

225, 22B, 233, 238, 210, 245, Tacitu;<, 98. 

254,271. Talbot, Mias Catherine, 52, 176, 

Shipley. Bishop. 124, 209. 220. 22!, 231. 

Sidney, Sir Philip, 9, 40, 109, Talbot, Mr. H. Fox, 157. 

307, 366, 368. Talfourd, Sir T. N., 1 59. 

SkUlem, Mr. R. S., 326. Tavlor, Mr. Isaac, 132, 174, 176, 

Smart, Mr. B. H., 140, 162, 308, 185, 194. 

309. Taylor, Biahop Jeremy, 44, 128, 

Smith, John, 90. 180. 

Smith, Rev. Sydney, 53, 55, 105, Taylor, John, 21. 176, 221. 

132.176,214,217,263. Taylor, Thomas, 55, 123, 157, 

Smith, Dr. W., 322. 216. 

South. Dr. Robert. ]4. 281, 293. Taylor. William. 43. 45. 60, 61, 

Southey, Robert. 20, 21. 22, 29. 69, 99,'I21, 126. 131. 133, 135, 

44. 63. 60. 62. 64. 71, 6U, S3, 151, 173. 175, 177, 183, 185, 

84,92, 101,104. 121, 123, -29, 222. 283, 289, 301, 313, 315, 

132, 135,156, 73, 78,179, 317,367. 

1B2, 183, 184, 90, 191, 94, Tei^Quuih. Lord, 82, 216, 296. 

202, 205, aOB, 2]0, 216, ^25, Temple. Sir William, 14, 44, 119, 

238. 242, 260, 2S1, 267 26!j, 148, 160, 268. 

283, 2SI, 285. 289, 29 atf7. Tennyson, Mr, Alfred, 78, 139. 

298, 299, 300, 301, 301, 305. Terry, Rev. Edward, 47, 161, 174. 

306, 307 3U9. 314, 313, 3 9, Tliaokeray, Mr. W. M., 16, 54, 

323. 326, 3-i9, 331. 81, 82. 172, 271, f., 307, 331. 

Southvell, Rer. Robert, 79, 361, Thornton. Bonnel, 10. 80, 82, 

368. 156, 206, 211, 215, 217, 262, 

Spenser, 10, 15. 42. 57, 59, 108, 264. 

123, 180, 287, 356. Thrale, Mrs. H, L., 176, 

Sprat. Bishop, 7, 8, 9, 118, 156, Thucydides, 265. 

211. Tickell, Richard, 172. 

Stael. Madame de, 152. Tillotson, Archbishop, 95. 

Stanhop«, Lady Hestar, 176. Tilson, J., 43. 

StebbinK, Dr. H., 81. Todd, Archdeacon. 44, 46, 73, 74, 

Steele, Sir Richard, 63, 66, 80, 115, 120. 128, 129. 132. 133, 

82. 160, 161, 174, 215, 221, 140, 143. 144, 160, 172, 176, 

232. 233, 234, 217, 256, 259, 178, 215. 272, 283, 297, 298, 

362,364. 299,301,305.317. 

StephMua, Queen of Navarre, 64. Todd, Dr. J. H., 49, 50. 



Tooke, Rev. John Home, 15, 

183, 295. 335, 336. 
Townley, Col. John, 105. 
Trench, Archbishop, 44, 62, 63, 

69, 131, 151, 172, 287, 292. 
Tusser, Thomas, 207, 211, 229, 

230, 233, 252, 272, 314. 
Twisse, Dr. William, 215. 
Udall, Rev. Nicholas, 64, 79, 108, 

159, 162, 197, 224, 230, 249, 

261, 264, 272, 312, 352, 355, 

361, 362, 366, 367, 368. 
Urquhart, Sir Thomas, 43, 117, 

125, 132, 157, 186, 206, 226. 
Vanbrugb, Sir John, 65, 206, 224, 

Vanbrugh and Colley Gibber, 156, 

253, 259. 
Vaugelas. C. F. de, 12. 
Vernon, Rev. George, 115, 368. 
Verstegan, Richard, 4, 6, 91, 111, 

112, 183. 
Viennet, M., 129. 
Vincent, St., of Lerins, 39. 
Virgil, 15. 

Voltaire, 26, 28, 100. 
Walker, John, 161. 
Walpole, Horace, 13, 64, 122, 

124, 132, 133, 168, 173, 176, 

206, 209, 212, 225, 228, 239, 

240, 254, 258, 262, 299, 309, 

317, 357. 
Warburion, Bishop, 43, 82, 83, 

90, 134, 160, 166, 21 1, 212, 213, 

215, 223, 246, 256. 299, 357. 
Warton, Dr. Joseph, 246, 266. 
Warton, Rev. Thomas, 116, 173, 

252, 257. 
Washington, George, 326. 
Waierland, Dr. D., 115. 
Watson, George, 230, 318. 
Watsun, Rev. William, 42, 63, 

88, 111,222,361. 
Watts, Dr. Isaac, 35, 43. 
Webbe, William, 223, 242. 356. 
Webster, Dr. Noah, 139, 140,' 

143, 175, 179, 221, 282, 283,! 

295, 298, 304. 

Webster's Editors, Dr., 38, 49. 

66, 132, 139, 143, 149, 158, 

162, 166, 167, 176, 179, 185, 

216, 221, 229. 242, 263, 272, 

283, 284, 285, 298, 301, 307, 

3U8, 309, 319 
Wenley, Rev. John, 48, 298. 
Westcomb, Miss, 43. 
Wey, M. Francis, 12, 100, 129, 

153, 250, 263, 303, 315, 316. 
Whately, Archbishop, 300, 304, 

Whettitones, George, 314. 
Whewell, Dr. W., 132. 
White, R., 132. 
White, Mr. R. G., 36,192, 193, f., 

302, 303, 307, 316, 322, f., 

362 f. 
Whiilocic, Dr. Richard, 272. 
Whittier, Mr. J. G., 182. 
Wicliffe, 49, 50, 73, 146, 159. 
Wilberforce, Bishop, 48, 90, 290, 

296 329 
Wilkes, John, 82, 90, 128, 149, 

214, 222, 223, 232, 235, 240, 

244, 256, 268, 317, 318. 
Wilkes, Miss, 53. 
Wilkin, Mr. Simon, 46. 
Wilkins, Bishop, 45, 89, 121. 
Wilies, Richarde, 108, 109. 
William of Palerne, 358. 
Wilson, Prof. H. H , 174. 
Wilson, Burnaby & Co., 236. 
Wiseman, Cardinal, 46. 
Wiiherspoon, Dr. John, 136. 
Worcester, Dr. Joseph E., 48, 49, 

132, 133, 143, 156, 179, 216, 

287, 296, 305, 307, 309, 313, 

320, 322, 337. 
Wordsworth, Bishop Christopher, 

33 298 
Wordsworth, W., 29, 68, 156, 

178, 216,306,307. 
Wraxall, Sir N. W., 306. 
Wright, Mr. Thomas, 313. 
Wright, Mr. W. Aldis, 353, 
Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 109. 
Young, Dr. Edward, 236. 


Abel RedeviTus, 223. 
Anturs of Arther, The, 353. 
Apology for Lollard Doctrines, 

Asiatic Journal and Monthly 

Register, &c., The, 198. 
Bible, authorized version of the, 

162, 252, 307, 352, 353, 355, 

356, 362. 
Bible, Geneva, 332, 352, 361. 
British Critic, The, 298. 
Cardinalismo di Santa Chiesa, II 

(translated by G. H.), 44, 63, 

190, 222. 
Cruel Assault of Gods Fort, The, 

Discoveries of the World, The, 

Dorset Glossary, The, 279. 
Early English Alliterative Poems, 

Edinburgh Review, The, 72, 116, 

128, 286, 293, 313. 
Eikon Basilike, 114. 
Eulogium, 107. 
Felon Sowe, The, &c., 59. 
Francion, The Comical History 

of. 87, 111, 190, 212,223,232, 

250, 265, 356, 360. 
French Academic, The, Part 1 

(ed. 1589), 67, 70, 133, 156, 

355, 366. 
Giles's Trip to London, 81, 220, 

Guardian, The, newspaper, 142. 
Humours of Whist, The, 223, 

Hurlothrumbo, 113. 
Letters of Junius, 67, 222, 225, 

238. 244, 249, 254, 258, 269. 
Literary Churchman, The, 108, 

London Review, The, 280. 
Maroccus Extaticus, 249. 
Mede, The Life of Joseph, 128. 
Nation, The, 323, 344. 

Naturall and Experimental! His- 
tory of Winds, &c.. The (1653), 
translated by R. G., 93, 128, 
132, 189. 

Newes out of Purgatorie, 254. 

Nipotismo di Roma, II, Transla- 
tion of, 43, 80. 

North American Review, The, 

Notes and Queries, 48, 315. 

Of the Olde God and the Newe, 
226, 361. 

Pall Mall Budget, The, 72. 

Pall Mall Gazette, The, 168. 

Pasquine in a Traunce, 226, 332. 

Paul, The Life of . . Father, 133. 

Percy's Folio MS., Bp., 358. 

Praier and Complaynte, &c., The, 

Primer, Henry the Eight's, 167. 

Promptorium Parvulorum, 287. 

Public Opinion, 321. 

Quarterly Review, The, 105, 297. 

Questions of Profitable and Plea- 
sant Concernings, 58, 79, 223, 

272, 352, 356. 

Remarks on the * Life of Mr. Mil- 
ton *, &c. 66. 

Rubin Good-fellow His Mad 
Prankes and Merry Jests, 336. 

Saturday Review, The, 45, 194, 

Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, 
The, 121. 

Sir Amadace, 59. 

Sir Gawayne and the Green 
Knight, 65. 

State JPapers, 356. 

Stella Cleiicorum, 50. 

Tarlton's Jests, &c., 172, 2I2« 

273, 336. 

Times, The, newspaper, 158, 29.3. 
Westminster Review, The, 108. 
World of Wonders, A, translated 

by R. C, 106, 112, 123, 232, 

272, 304. 


*«* Many terms adduced in this book are not here indexed. Groups of 
such, generally arranged in alphabetical order, will be found at pp. 21, 22, 
37, 38, 60, 61, 75, 100, 103, 104, 106, 108—110, 112, 114, 116, 120, 123, 127, 139, 
141, 142, 149, 162, 158—163, 169, 174, 176, 182, 185—188, 194, 206, 206, 296, 297, 
299, 301, 305, 311—314, 319, 320, 360. 

A, misuses of, 209. 
A-preparing, was, 

&c., 332, 333. 
Abandon, v. a., 131. 
Abandonment, 131, 

Abhominable, 158, f. 
Abhominal,. 159. 
Ability, old use of, 

Able, der. of, 162. 
Abomino, 159. 
Abruption, 203. 
Acclivitous, 176, 185. 
Accommodate, 106. 
Accommodation, 105, 

According as, 142. 
Accredit, 283, f . 
Accuse, for blame, 

Accustomed, for fre- 
quented, 210, 276. 
Act, V. a., for do, 203. 
Act, for actuate, 166. 
Activer, v. a., 129. 
Adamantif erous , 1 7 7. 
Adjectival, 141, 318, 

Adjectivial, 176. 
Admire, for wonder, 

&c., 210, 265. 
Admittible, 176. 
Adulate, 172, 299. 

Adulatory, 286, 367. 

Advertise, for inform, 

Advertisement, 127. 

Advocate, v. a., 276, 

Advocate, v. n., 285. 

Aerolite, 158. 

Esthetic, 126. 

Aliixal, 318. 

Againsaw, 165. 

Age, V. n., 285. 

Aggressive, 275, 314. 

Agree, for settle, 

Agree to, for fit, 210. 

Agressif, 314. 

Aid, der. of, 163. 

Akme, 302. 

Alert, alertness, 120. 

Aliant, &c., 162. 

Alien, 117. 

All, for aU the, 205. 

All along of, &c., 211. 

AU and all, 210. 

All as ever, 203, 210. 

All one, for neverthe- 
less, 210. 

All that ever, 210. 

All the same, for 
nevertheless, 275. 

Allay, for alloy, 266. 

Alluvions, 319. 

Alms, der. of, 163. 

Alone, for only, &c., 
46, f., 246. 

Alonely, 188. 
Alt, 187, 211. 
Altitudes, 187, 211, 

Amalgamize, 174. 
Amb^e, 110, 254. 
Ambassador, 120. 
Ample, 119. 
An end, 211. 
Anachronic, &c., 315. 
Anachrouous, 314, f. 
Analogie, 4. 
Analogon, 302. 
Analogue, 302. 
Analyse, v. a., 174, 

Analyse, sb., 174. 
Analyser, 174. 
Analysis, 174. 
Analysize, 174. 
Analyze, 158, 175. 
Anastomose, 174, 175, 

Anastomosis, 174. 
Anastomosize, 174. 
Anathemize, 176. 
Ancestorial, 132. 
Ancestorially, 132. 
Anchylose, 295. 
Ancient, 158, 161. 
Ancylose, 295. 
Ancylosize, 295. 
Andirons, 130. 
Anent, 104. 
Anguished, 71, f. 
Anklet, 157. 



Ankylose, 295. 
Another from and to, 

AnotherguesSf 212. 

Antecedent, 303. 

Ant^c^dent, 303. 
Antecedents, 302, f. 

Antic, 166. 

Antipatriotic, 317. 

Antiquarian, sb., 306. 

Antique, 103, 166. 

Antiques, for an- 
cients, 108. 

Any, uses of, 196. 

Anywhere than,*82. 

Apoplectic balsam, 

Apostate, v. n., 169. 

Appeach, v. a., 248. 

Appendical, &c., 185. 

Appendicatory, 185. 

Appendixious, 185. 

Appetize, 132, 297. 

Appliance, 307. 

Apply, v.n., 123, 124. 

Appreciant, 315. 

Appreciate, v. a., 288. 

Appreciation, 288. 

Appreciative, 315. 

Appreciatory, 315. 

Apprehension, 111. 

Appropriated, for ap- 
propriate, 212. 

Approve, for prove, 

Arbalist, 175. 

Aristarchy, 143. 

Aristocrat, 288. 

Aristocrate, 305. 

Aristocratic, sb., 288. 

Armlet, 144, 157- 

Arrangements, 121. 

Artificial, 166. 

Artilize, 178. 

Artize, 178. 

As, misuses of, 199, 

As, omitted, 212. 

As, superfluous, 212, 

As how, for that, 213. 
As now, for now, 213. ' 
As that, bad use of, 

As this day, for on 

this day, 212. 
As to-morrow, 203, 

As who, for who. 213. 
Ascertain, for deter- 
mine, &c., 213, 214, 
Ash, ashes, 132. 
Asparagus, 161. 
Assai. 54. 
Assassin, 4. 
Assay, for essay, 266. 
Assez, 54. 
Assist, for be present, 

Assubtiling, 110. 
Assumptiousness, 318 
At, for after, 2(4. 
At, for in. 235. 
At full, for in full, 
• 214. 

At the long run, 214. 
At unawares, 214. 
Atrabilarious, 132. 
AtrabiUous, 132. 
Attach, v.n., 142, 275, 

Attainder, 121. 
Attitudinarian, 312. 
Audacious, 110. 
Authenticate, v. a., 

116, 132. 
Authenticate, part. 

adj., 132. 
Authoress, 122, 187, 

Authress, 187. 
Avant-peau, 112. 
Averse from & to, 83. 
Avocation, misuse of, 

214, f. 
Avocatifins, 214, f. 
Away, to do, 267- 
Away with, can't, 

203, 216. 
, Axial, 175. 
i Azymes, 112. 

Bad, for ill, 104, 217. 
Bahn, der. of, 163. 
Bam, V. a., 217. 
Bam, sb., 217. 
Bank, v. n., 299. 
Banter, 120. 
Barbarious, 160. 
Base, V. a., 288. 
Bastile, 162, 367. ' 
Battalion, 120. 
Bawdry, for bawds, 

Be to seek, to, 217. 
Because, for in order 

that, 203, 217. 
Bedsister, 165. 
Beetlmg, 125. 
Begun, for began, 

i04, 207. 
Behest. 108. 
Being battered, was, 

&c., 274, 283, 284^ 

294, 321, f . 
Being doini^, 351. 
Being gaping, &c., 

336, 337. 
Being in fieri, 351. 
Being, is, 340. 
Belongings, 307. 
Belovedest, 189. 
Bemean, v. a., 293. 
Benevolence, 117. 
Benevolist, 176. 
Berth, 128. 
Beseeched, 139, 206. 
Beseechinglike, 166. 
Bespoke, for be- 
spoken, 207. 
Bestowal, 303. 
Bestowment, 303. 
Bestraughted, 361. 
Betrayal, 304. 
Betrayment, 304. 
Better, for more, 104. 
Better cheap, 217. 
Better worth, for 

worth more, 217. 
Bibliophile, 176. 
Bibliophilist, 176. 
Blame, der. o^ 163, 

Blesseder, 189. 



Blood, for bleed, 217. 
Blowed, 139, 206. 
Blueth, 173. 
Body-spirit, 183. 
Bombast, adj., 256. 
Both, uses of, 196, 

197, 200. 
Bottom, for ball of 

threiwi, 217. 
Borachio, 217. 
Borealian, 100. 
Borracho, 217. 
Bounce, v. n., for lie, 

Bridal, der. of, 157. 
Bridemaid, 218. 
Broke, for broken, 

Brumal, 128. 
Bubble, V. a. for 

dupe, 218. 
Bubble, sb., for dupe, 

Bumpsie, adj., 273. 
Burstness, 165. 
Busto, 266. 
But now, for just 

now, 218. 
But I, for but me, 

&c., 104, 303. 
Buxom, for wanton, 

By, for from, 267. 
By, for on, 204. 
By and by, 166. 
Cab. der. of, 162, 187. 
Cable, V. a., 300. 
Cank, V. n., 219. 
Cannon, 166. 
Cannonade, 120. 
Capitalist, 311. 
Capitalize, 194. 
Captivate, for cap- 
ture, 219. 
Caricatura, 266. 
Caricature, v. a., 301. 
Carriage, 166. 
Carriwitchet, 219, 

Cartel. 120. 
Casual, sb., 306. 
Catched, 139, 206. 

Cates, der. of, 162. 
Causativity, 308. 
Cede, 275. 
Celebrity, new use of, 

Cense, sb., 313. 
Censorial, 110, 319. 
Census, 313. 
Cent, der. of, 162, 

Centenarian. 304, f. 
Centenary, so., senses 

of, 304, f., 368. 
Century, old sense of, 

Cephalomant, 26. 
Cereal, sb., 305. 
Chagnn, 120. 
Chamber, for bed- 
room, 203, 219. 
Chapman, 219. 
Chargeable, for cost- 
ly, 219. 
Chark, for char, 204. 
Cheapen, for ask the 
price of, 166, 219. 
Cherubim, a, 104. 
Chian, sb. and adj., 

Chieftain, 108. 
Chin-cough, 219. 
Chmk, for tit, 220. 
Chiromantist, 26. 
Chii'osopher, 179. 
Chirosophist, 179. 
ChiK)se, for wish, 

Chopping, adj., 220. 
Chose, for chosen, 

104, 139, 208. 
Chum. 129. 
Churcngoing - bell, 

Churchman, for ec- 
clesiastic, 220. 
Circumcision, 362. 
Circumvallation, 120. 
Cit, 187. 

Civility, for civiliza- 
tion, 166, 172, 
Civilizade, 177. 

Civilization, 173, 275, 

Clad, for clothe, 59. 
Classify, 299. 
Clem, V. a., 280, 281. 
Clever, for conveni- 
ent, &c., 220, 221. 
Clime, 366. 
Clumsy, 106. 
Cock of the game, 
for game-coc^ 22 1 . 
Cockroach, der. of, 

Coddle, V. a., 221. 
Codify, 301, 317- 
CoevaUty, 60. 
Collaborator, 184. 
Collection, 167. 
CoUocution, 367. 
CoUoquist, 311. 
CoUoquize, 194. 
Combustion, for tu- 
mult, 221. 
Commandant, 120. 
Conmience, misuse of, 

Comment, v. a., 205. 
Commentation, 132. 
Commentitious, 117. 
Commit one's self, to, 

Commode, for bawd, 

Commode, adj., 221. 
Commodi^, 167- 

Communicat e, 
strange use of, 204. 
Communionable, 176. 
Compage, 254. 
Comparison of, in, 94. 
Com{)a8sionate, for 

pitiable, 221. 
Compassionate, for 
one who pities, 222. 

Compatible, 110. 
Compendious, 109. 
Compete, 172, 287. 
Competitive, 287. 



Complement, 1(Hi. 

Complei. 8b., ai»7. 
Coiiipicxion, &<:., old 

use ot, 167. 2-2-2. 
CompluDce to, in, 93. 
CompUuieutal, 2±2, 

Complimentary, 2a3. 
CompoBiire, oM u»e» 

of, -JIM. 
Coiu{>ouiie, foi com- 

pomuj, 3lil. 
Cihceile, 114, 117. 
Ccincbiiuu, 3ti'2. 
CoDdeiinit;, 1.12. 
Condole, v. a., 222. 
Condone, 299. 
ConduL't, ah,, old use 

of, -222. 
Confident, adj., oIJ 

use of, iVi 
Conformance, 173. 
Conning, 1S9. 
Coogtutimkte, 3(i7. 
Congratulate, old use 

Conscious, 10.'), 106. 
Couaervative, sb., 

Considerable, for ini- 

portaut, 2ti7. 
Consonant, 111. 
CoDspicuity, 222. 
Constate, v. a., 180, 


Contaminate, 110, 

111, 367. 
Contemporary to, 87. 
Contemiitible, for 


168, 222. f. 
CoDtemptuouR, for 

contemptible, 223. 
Coutinuabur, 173. 
Contrary from and 

than, 82. 
Convalesce, 287- 
Conversation, If" 

Copy of 

Coquet, adj., 256. 
Cormorant, 161. 
Cornice, 119. 
Coqis, 12J. 
Correutioii, for cor- 

revtnesa, 204. 
Cotemporary, 118, 

Count on, to, 43. 
Conntryship, 6. 
Coxy, der, of, 272. 
Coy, der. of. 163. 
Crass, &c., 128. 
Credit, v. a., old use 




a old 

senses of, 223. 

Creolian, adj. & sb., 

Crescentade, 177. 
UrtHtuiuitcliy, 3()U. 
Criminate, 2'JH. 
Cnticality, 103. 
Criticize ut>on, to,273. 
Cross, for opposite, 

Cuckoldly, adj., 224. 
Cucuiiier, 119. 
Cuff, sb., 224. 
Culminate, 119. 
Cult, 172. 
Currant, 161. 
Curriculus, 309. 
Curriug, IMi). 
Curtail, der. of, 185. 
Curtal, adj., 18.i. 
Curtal-axe, der. of, 

Cushion, old use of, 

Custodian, 304. 
Cut a i)ersoii, to, 283. 
Cuticle, 117. 
Dagger, 161. 
Damageable, for de- 

triiueiital, 224. 
Damp, 106. 
Dare, pres. and pret., 

229. f. 
Dead-bom, 292. 
Dealtaking, 165. 

Dearworth, 16o. 
DebaUate. v. a.. 103. 
Deblaterat*, 138. 
Deeade. for ten years, 

Dfe»de, for ten days, 

Declamator, 173. 

Deckmatory, 110. 

Declination, 109. 

Decompose, 29^. 

Decompound, for de- 
c.iiii|..)«e, -224. 

Deducale, v. a., ISl, 

Deduct, for deduce, 

Defendant, for de- 
fender, 224. 

Defendress, 188. 

Deferential, 315. 

Detial, 173. 

Defile, 120. 

Defunct, 106. 

Degradation, for sub- 

SadatioQ, 171. 
ort, V. a., 227. 
Deific, l.'>7. 
Delineation, 109. 
Delmqutslunent, 367. 
Demagogues, 114. 
Demand, for ask, 224, 

Demand, sb. for ques-. 

tiouj 225. 
Demarcate, 293. 
Demarcation, 2S8, 

Democrat, 288, f. 
Democratic, eb., S88, 

Democratical, adj., 

Democratical, sb., 

Democratist, 28a 
Demonstration, Ill- 
Demoralisation, 43. 



Demoralize, 296^ 297. 

Denunciate, 132. 
Deny, old uses of, 

Depalmate, 138. 
Depauperize, misuse 

of, 295. 
Deploy, 301. 
Dereliction, old use 

of, 225. 
Desert, 108. 
Design for, old phrase 

Desirable, 167. 
Desirous, 166. 
Despecificate, 168. 
Despicable, 108. 
Destiny, v. a., 186. 
Destructive, 108. 
Desynonymize, 168. 
Detainal, 173. 
Deteriorate, 288. 
Devilry, 132, 367. 
Devotion, old use of, 

Dia, false etymology 

of, 64. 
Diabolus, ridiculously 

etymologized, 50. 
Diagnose, 174, 175, 

Diagnoser, v. a., 174. 
Diagnosis, 174. 
Diagnosize, 174. 
Dialectal, 167. 
Diamondiferous, 177. 
Diction, 109, 366, f. 
Differ with, &c., 82. 
Difference than and 

to, 82. 
Different than, 82. 
Different to. 77, f., 

276, 362, £., 366. 
Differente a, 83. 
Difticilement, 190. 
Dit!icilitate,y. a., 184. 
Difticilmente, 190. 
Difficultate, v. a.,299. 
Difficidtly, 189. 
Digged, 207. 

Dilapidate, v. n. , 204. 
Dihgence, for coach, 

Dilly, for diligence, 

Dime, der. of, 163. 
Dimension, 109. 
Diminutival, 318. 
Diplomacy, 313. 
Diplomate, 305. 
Diplomatist, 305. 
Diplomatize, 194. 
Directly, for as soon 

as, 275, 292. 
Dirge, der. of, 163. 
Disacquaintance, 110. 
Disadvise. v. a., 225. 
Disagree n-om and to, 

&c., 82, 366. 
Disannul, 292. 
Disclamatory, 26. 
Disconsolation, 367. 
Discordant from and 

to, 83. 
Discourse, v. a., 225. 
Discover, for reveal, 

&c., 267, f. 
Discovery, for ex- 
ploration, 268. 
Disculpate, v. a., 119. 
Disenaow, 301. 
Disestablish, 301. 

Disfumish, v. a., 225. 
Dish of tea, 225. 
DishabiUtate, 299. 
Disingenuity, 225. 
Dislogistic. 308, f . 
Disnatured, 225. 
Disorganize, 288. 
Dispend, for expend, 

Dispense, for exempt, 

&c., 263, f. 
Dispense, old uses of, 

226, 368. 
Dispense with, old 

uses of, 226, 263, 

Disputative, 110. 
Disserviceable, 227. 

Dissimilar from and 

to, 83. 
Dissuade, old use of, 

Dissyllable, adj., 227. 
Distemperature, 227. 
Distinguished, for 

marked, ^27. 
Ditionaries, 108. 
Divert, v. n., 227. 
Divest, 158. 
Divinesse, 189. 
Do, V. n., for contrive, 

Do away, v. a., 250, 

267, 281. 
Do away with, to, 

Doctrinaire, 312. 
Document, v. a., 227. 
Documentation, 227. 
Documentize, v. a., 

Domestical, sb., 368. 
Dominant, 319. 
Dominator, 108. 
Done up, for tired 

out, 283. 
Doubt, V. n., for sus- 
pect, 228. 
Douceur, old use of, 

Dowlas, 228. 
Dowry, der. of, 163. 
Doxy, der. of, 272. 
Drank, for drunk,292. 
Dreadful, 167. 
Dress, v. a., old use 

of, 228. 
Dricksie, 273. 
Dromidote, 110. 
Dropsy, der. of, 162. 
Drove, for driven, 

139, 208. 
Drownd, v., 361. 
Drownded, 59. 
Dry, for thii*sty, 228. 
Dunstical, 261. 
Durst, pres. tense, 

228 f. 
Dwindle, sb., 198,201.. 



Dying bed, 127. 
Dynaineter, 178. 
Dynamometer, 175. 
Dyslo^Ktic, 308, (. 
DyspepNj, 183. 
Each, for every, 229. 
Kacb, wiUi pla, 199. 
Bach other Ume,203, 

Each other week, 230. 
Eat, for ate, 207. 
Economiaer, 297. 
Economist, 311. 
Economize, 297. 
Bdit, 299. 
EducationaWe, 176. 
Educational, 131, f., 

Effete, 319. 
Effigy, der. of, 254. 
Egregious, 1 10. 

Elope, for eacape, 268. 
Elopement,' old use 

Emancipist, 176. 
Embarrass, sb., 230. 
Embowe), 292. 
BmigraDt, 312. 
Emigrate, 283 
Eminent, ff.- imini- 

neat, 15^. 
Emphas'^ 174, 295. 
Empirical, 126. 
Enajronont, 283. 
EnejciopsEdy, 193, 
Endeavour, v.a., 204. 
Eiifaus, for emanta, 

Enlarge, for liberate, 

Enlightenmont, 306. 
Emuiuus, aaT- 
Enorniiuus, 160, 289. 
Entalentei^ y. a., 65. 
Entirety, 43, 285, f. 

Epitaphie, &c., 366. 
Epitoniator, 173. 
Equal with, 303. 

E([ua]iUrian, 22,312. 
Eipiator, 120. 
Eijuip, 112. 
Equiralent with, 87. 
Equivoque, 120. 
Ere, misuse of, 292. 
BrgoDist, 110. 
Eschew, 123. 
Esperer, a use of. 

Essay, for assay, 266- 
Esse, 335, 34S. 
Essere, 342, 343. 

Evaporize, 174. 

Eventual, 288. 

Ever now and then, 

Every otiier while, 

Examinat«r, 173. 

Exauiplesa, aJj., 189. 

Exceiiti^fp, 40. 

Eyccptionable, mis- 
use of, 201. 

Exceptional, 201, 

Exceptive, 31S. 

Excurse, v. a. and n., 

Escursioiiize, 194, 

Executive, sb., SOS- 
Exhaustive, 127- 
Exigeot, eb., 170. 
Exist, 335, f., 342. 
Existence, 336. 
Existere, 335. 
Expect, T. n,, for 

wait, 230. 
Eipedicntial, 316- 
Experiential, 132, 

Experientially, 132. 

Expert, Eb., 


pect, 204. 

Femler, Hi!. 
Fierct-lier, 1S.S. 
Figurative. Ibi). 
riiiaudal, 17;!, ;!l.i. 
Financier, 286, 31."). 
Finesse, for fineness, 

Fishing-rod, 348. 
Fixture. 130, aia 
Fixate, 130, 313. 
Flagitious, 117- 
Flea, for flay, 160. 
Flesher, for butclier, 

Fleshhood, 166. 
Fhmay, 273. 
Float,v. a., forflood, 

Florentine, sb.. 231. 
Flush, adj., old use 

of, 231. 
Flux, adj., 204. 
Fob, v.a, 231. 
Fogo, 127- 
FoMe, 120. 
Fond, old uses of, 231 . 
FooUsh-fire, 183. 



Footfast, 166. 
For, old uses of, 268. 
For, for from, 231. 
For, ellipsis of, 271. 
Foray, 307. 
Fore, to the, 307. 
Fore-elder, sb., 6. 
Forego, 168. 
Foreign from and 

to, 83. 
Formuler, v. a., 129. 
Forsook, for for- 
saken, 139, 208. 
Forthj 123. 
Fortnightly, adj., 

319, f. 
Fouly, 188. 
Fountain, 366. 
Four, on all, 211. 
Fracas, 127. 
Franchise, 305. 
Fraught, for freight, 

Fridge, v. a., 232. 
Frightful, for timid, 

Frightfully, misuse 

of, 199. 
From, for to, 232. 
From, ellipsis of, 232. 
Frontispiece, 158. 
Frontispiece, old uses 

of, 232. 
Frugality, 108, 366. 
Fuldo, V. a., 6. 
Fumette, 233. 
Function, 109. 
Futile, 166. 
Futurely, 188. 
Gadsi, 273. 
Garotte, 313. 
Garran, 233. 
Gasconade, 120. 
Gaud, 123. 
Geldhood, 166. 
Gender. 161. 
General, 166. 
Genteel, old use of, 

Geography, 366. 
G et by, for overreach, 

203, 233. 

Gifted, 72. 
Gigmanity, 19. 
Gilt, for gild, 361. 
Gird, girt, 69. 
Girdlestead, 165. 
Gloomth, 176. 
Godlike- wise, 176. 
Gouvemante, 269. 
Governess, 188. 
Governor, 175. 
Gown, 107. 
Go wnd, for gown, 36 1 . 
Grade, 129, 288. 
Graff, graft, 59. 
Grain, in, 126.. 
Grandchild, 113. 
Grandiloquent, 319. 
Grandiose, 289. 
Grandiose, 289. 
Grandity, 61. 
Gratefulness, 172. 
Great, by the, 233. 
Greenth, 173. 
Grimace, 120. 
Griskm, 233. 
Grog, 128. 

Group, 119. 
Grow, V. a., 282. 
Gruntle, der. of, 272. 
GuUy, 128. 
H omitted, &c., 358. 
Habitat, 162. 
Uaematemesia, &c., 

Haematemesis, 295. 
Haltly, 58. 
Hand, at the best, 

Happen on, to, &c., 

Harass, sb., 292. 
Hardiness. 269. 
Harlot, adj., 256. 
Harmonical, 109. 
He, for it, 353. 
Head, of its own, &c., 

203. 23:}, f . 
Headlongly, 188. 
Hearing, 108. 
Heart-rending, 124. 

Heathenry, 133, 312. 
Heathnical, 155. 
Hehatic, 368. 
Helpmate, 156. 
Helpmeet, 156, 367. 
Hen-egg, 204. 
Her, for 's, 355, f. 
Hermaphrodite, 110. 
Hery, lieryinge, 108. 
Him, for he, 199. 
Him. for it, 352, 353. 
Hind, sb., 234. 
Hippodonomia, 175. 
His, for its, 352. 
His, for 's, 355, f. 
His self, 352. 
Hist, for hiss, 119. 
Hit, for it, 352. 
Hit, for its, 353. 
Hogo, &c., 127. 
Hoise, hoist, 59. 
Holocausts, 112, 114. 
Homicide, 108. 
Homoeosemant, 172. 
Homograph, 170. 
Homologon, 302. 
Homologue, 302. 
Homophone, 170. 
Homotaxia, &c.,295. 
Homotaxis, 295. 
Honeyed, &c., 70. 
Hospitabihty, 186. 
Hospital, adj., 187. 
Huggle, der. of, 272. 
HumaUj 166. 
Humanitaire, 316. 
Humanitarian, adj., 

Humanitian, 111. 
Humile, v. a., 133. 
HumiUate, 133, 276. 
Humiliating, 367. 
Hungarian, 112. 
Hunger-starve, v. a., 

Hydroprdtre, 175. 
Hypostatize, 368. 
Idea, 105. 
Idelly, 188. 
Identification, 312. 
Identify, 299. 
Identity, 312. 



IdeoCTaphic, 368. 

Ideolatry, 368. 

Ideology, 180, 288. 

Idiom, 109, 117, 118. 

Idiom, defin. of, 842. 

Idiotlsm, 118". 

Idlely, 188. 

Idlesby, 272, 273. 

Idolatry, 163. 

If, ellipsis of, 234 

Ignomy, 176. 

Ignore, 118, 166,301. 

Ill, for bad, 234. 

Illiterature, 22, 313. 

Illucidate, 159. 

Illudius, 354. 

Illustiicity, 176. 

Illustrious, 289. 

Imbibed, 108. 

Immediately, for as 
soon as, 275. 

Immerge, v. a., 234. 

Immigrant, 283. 

Impartation, 176. 

Imperatival, 318. 

Imperial, for imperi- 
ous, 276. 

Imperisli, 367. 

Impersonal, 102. 

Impertinence, old use 
of, 269. 

Impertinent, old use 
of, 269. 

Importable, 167. 

Importunacy, 234. 


Impossibilitate, v. a., 

Impress, for impress- 
ment, 204. 

Impression, 109. 

Imprision, sb., 367. 

Improvisation, 312. 

Improvise, 301. 

Impum, 62. 

Impulsive, sb., 169. 

Imson, sb., 182. 

In, for on, 235. 

In, now superfluous, 

In, ellipsis of, 269. 

In course, for of 

course, 234. 
Inadmissible, 319. 
Inaptitude, 305, f. 
IncongTuent, 367. 
Incontinently, 80. 
Incubus, 106. 
Incuriosity, 43, 1 14. 
Incurious, 44, 114. 
Incuriously, 44. 
Incuriousness, 44. 
Independent from, 

&c., 87, 362, f. 
Independently of, 94. 
Indifferent to, 362. 
Indi<mity, 109. 
Indulge, for allow, 

235, f. 
Indulgence, v. a., 292. 
Industrial, 288, 316. 
Industry, 107. 
Inept^ 306. 
Ineptitude, 305, f. 
Inerme, 176. 
Infallibilist, 301. 
Infamize, 133. 
Infamizer, 133. 
Infantry^ 113. 
Inferential, 284. 
Infinitely, 292, f. 
Inflate, 106. 
Influencive,.&c., 286, 


Influential^ &c., 276, 

286, f. 
Inform, old use of, 

Infuriate, adj., 123. 
Ingenious, 111. 
Ingenuity, misuse of, 

Ingredient into, 87. 
Inhabit, v. n., 236. 
Inhabitable, 167. 
Inimical, 140, 286, f. 
Inimicitious, 287. 
Inimicous, 287. 
Injury, v. a., 186. 
Ink, der. of, 163. 
Innovate, v. a., 204. 
Insane asylum, 127. 
Inseparable to, 82. 

Insolens, 168. 
Instantly, for as soon 

as, 275. 
Instructess, 187. 
Insularity, 306. 
lusuppressive, 173. 
Fn't, 203, 236. 
Intellect, 107. 
Intend, v. a., old use 

of, 236. 
Intend for, old 

phrase, 236. 
Intensate, 299. 
Intensify, 301. 
Intensive, 126. 
Interchangeable, old 

use of, 236. 
Interest of, in the, 

Interfuse, 110. 
Internmtual, &c., 

International, 19, 

173, 316, f. 
Inter-repellent, 317. 
Interrogate, 111. 
Interview, v. a., 300. 
Intimado, sb., 236. 
Intiment, 162. 
Into, for to, 236. 
Intreatable, 167. 
Invalid, 127. 
Inveigle, 109. 
Investigable, 167. 
Inveterably, 176. 
Inveterate, 35. 
Inwit, 165. 
Irreductibility, 181. 
Irrespectively of, 94. 
Is, for his, 358, 359. 
Is, for 's, 358, 359. 
Isolate, 298. 
It, for its, 352, 353. 
It is these, 40, f. 
Itinerate, v. n.. Ill, 

Its, age of, 353,354. 
Jakes, 80. 
Jemmy, sb., 237. 
Jeopara, jeopardy, 

Jewellery, 312. 



Jim-whiskee, 257. 
Joseph, sb., 237. 
Jouir, misuse of, 202. 
Jumps, sb., 237. 
Jungle, 306. 
Junkery, for junkets, 

Jimquetry, 312. 
Jut, sb., for push, 

Juxtapose, v. a., 334. 
Kayau, sb., 219. 
Kennel, for gutter, 

Kerchief, 157. 
Kicksy-wicksy, der. 

of, 272. 
Kmdly, 166. 
Kinswoman, 122. 
Knowable, 297. 
Knowing, old use of, 

Kypsey, 273. 
Lady, tor wife, 237. 
Lambs'-wool, 237. 
Lamentablely, 188. 
Lancent, 162. 
Landscape, 158. 
Largeity, 61. 
Latrina, 187. 
Lay, sb.. 237. 
Leadingiike, 166. 
Leaf of a hat, 237. 
Learned book, 168. 
Leasing, for glean- 
ing, 237. 
Leggings, 128. 
Lengthy, 56. 
Lenience, 315. 
Lewdsby, 272. 
Liberal, sb., &c., 296. 
Liberalize. 296. 
Lie, for lodge, 203, 

Lief, 203, 238. 
Lieve, 238. 
Lightning, 163. 
Like, had, 269. 
Limp, adj.. 320. 
Limpsy, 27^ 
Linguacious, 183. 
Liusey, ;273. 

Literate, sb., 184. 
Literato, 184. 
Literator, 184. 
Litherbie, 272. 
Livelihood, &c., 155, 

Livelong, 126. 
Loathsome, 167. 
Locate, 172, 282. 
Locution, 306. 
Long of, 211. 
Longsome, 56. 
Look, V. a., 205. 
Loseness, 166. 
Ludicrous talent, 127. 
Lurcher, for lurker, 

Lutestring, to speak 

in, 238. 
Lyingness, 189. 
Macaroni, for fop, 

Machine, for coach, 

Macliines, for machi- 
nery, 239. 
Mad doctor, 127. 
Magistratieal, 185. 
Magnanimity, 107, 

Magnetist, 311. 
Ma^etize, 288. 
Mails, old use of, 269. 
Main, adv., 203, 239. 
Make-belief, 292. 
Makeshift, senses of, 

313, f. 
Malapert, 239. 
Malinger, 301. 
Maltalent, 65. 
Manage, sb., 169. 
Manitorm, 26. 
Manipular, 101. 
Mannerism, 311. 
Mannerist, 311. 
Mansuetude, 107, 

Manufactural, 45. 
Many, a pretty, 239, 

Marauding, 120. 
Margent, 161. 

Material, sb., 306, f. 
Materiel, 307. 
Matter, v. a., 239. 
Maturity, 107. 
Maximize, 297, 317. 
Mazard, 239. 
Me, for I, 199. 
Meanly, 167. 
Meanly, misuse of, 

Meat, old use of, 205. 
Mediocrity, new use 

of, 304. 
Medium, for average, 

Meed, 123. 
Meet-help, 156. 
Meet helper, 156. 
Melancholiac, 26. 
Memorialize, 171, 

Menagery, 182. 
Mercy, der. of, 163. 
Messager, 161. 
MetalUne, 239. 
Metamorphize, 174. 
Metamorphose, 174. 
M6tamorphoser, 174. 
Metamorphosize, 1 74. 
Methodj 109. 
Methodical, 109. 
Metrical, 109. 
Midst, in our, 48, f . 
Migrant, sb., 313. 
Migrate, 299. 
MiUtate^ 285, 345. 
Millenmal, 128. 
MiUionaire, 183. 
Millionist, 22, 183, 

Mmimize, 297, 317. 
Minutiose, 168. 
Miscellaneous author, 

Miscellany, adj. ^239. 
Miscreate, miscre- 
ated, 42. 
Misnomered, 195. 
Missile, misuse of, 

171, 293. 
Mistress, old use of, 





Miswent, have, 360. 

Mob, der. of,163,187. 

Mobile, for mob, 240. 

Mockado, 240. 

Modesty, 107. 

Molasses, 128. 

Molotto, 113. 

Monetary, 288. 

Monograph, 307. 

Monomial, 175. 

Mononomial, 175. 

Monosyllable, adj., 

Monstruous, 160,289. 

Mopsy, 273. 

Morbific, 157. 

More but, 82. 

Mort, 203, 240. 

Mosquito, 112. 

Most an end, 211. 

Mountain, a bever- 
age, 240. 

Mountainous, old use 
of, 205. 

Much beneficial, &c., 

Mulata, 112. 

Mumpsimus, 137. 

Musquetade, 120. 

Mussel, 166. 

Mutinmg, 189, 240. 

Mutton, for sheep, 

Mutual, old uses of, 

240, f . . 368. 
Mutual, for alternate, 

&c., 242. 
Mutual friend, 26, 

241, f. 
Myriad, 113. 
Mystify, v. a., 129. 
Naivety, 182. 
Narrate, 121, 172, 

275, 287. 
Nation, for great deal, 

Naturalist, old sense 

of, 309. 
NaturaHstic, 309. 
Naturian, 111. 
Near, for stingy, 203, 



N6cromant, 26. 

Nefast, 100. 

Negoce, 117, 180. 

Negra, 113, 114. 

Neighbour, adj., 256. 

Neighbour, v. a., 243. 

Neither, for either, 

Neither . . nor . . are, 
&c., 199, 292. 

N6ologie, 179. 

Neologisme, 179. 

Neoterism, 19. 

Nephew. 113. 

Never, tor ever, 270. 

Nextly, 58. 

Night-raU. 243. 

Nine, to tne, 26. 

Nobiliary, 317. 

Noddle, V. a., 243. 

Nominatival, 318. 

Nonagenarian, 304. 

None, uses of, 196. 

Norm, 133. 

Notability, for nota- 
ble person, 304. 

Noteworthy, 317. 

Notice, V. a., 285. 

Noticeable, 173, 285. 

Notoriety, new use 
of, 304. 

misuse of, 292. 

Novel, sb., 133. 

Novelet, 133. 

Number . . were, 199. 

Nuraerosity, 110. 

Numerous, 109. 

Numerous, old uses 
of, 243, f . 

Objective, 126. 

Objectivity, 308. 

Oblivionize, 367. 

Obnoxious, for liable, 

Obscure, 109, 111. 

Obsequious, 108. 

Observation, for ob- 
servance, 292. 

Obtainal, 173. 

Obtundity, 176. 
Obviate, 111. 
Occasional, old use 

of, 270. 
Occasionally, old use 

of, 270. 
Occurrent, sb., 170. 
October, for cider, 

Octogenarian, 304. 
Of, old uses of, 205, 

244, f. 
Of, for at, &c., 87. 
Of, superfluous, 270. 
Of, eUipsis of, 270, f . 
Offspring, for origin, 

Oftenly, 58. 
Oil. der. of, 163. 
Olden, v., 275. 
Omnibus, sb., 254. 
Omniscian, 112. 
On losing, was, 332. 
On, for of, 245. 
On, for to, 246. 
On the long run, 292. 
On to, prep., 276. 
Onliest, 246. 
Onlight, 165. 
Only, for mere, &c., 

Only, odd use of, 246^ 
Only, misplacement 

of, 200. 
Only, misuse of, 200. 
Open, sb., 305. 
Operative, sb., 314. 
Oppidant, 162. 
Opposite from, 82. 
Optimist, 311. 
Optimize, 194. 
Or, with plu., 199. 
Oratorial, 246. 
Original, for origin, 

Oridnate, 298. 
Orphant, 162. 
Orthopaedic, 158. 
Otacust, 113. 
Outbreathed, 246. 
Outlander, 6. 
Outling, 165. 



Outlook, 121. 


Outtake, prep., 1G5. 

Outtaleuted, 72. 

Outwending, 1G5. 

Overthrowed, 207. 

Pair, old uses of ,246,f . 

Palate, v. a., for taste, 

Palisado, 120. 

Palsy, der. of, 163. 

Pander, 158. 

Pantisocrat, 289. 

Pantisocratist, 289. 

Papalin, 247. 

Papish, sb., 247. 

Paitilleless, adj., 189. 

Paralyse, v. a., 174, 
175, 288. 

Paralyse, sb., 175. 

Paralyser, v. a., 174. 

Paralysie, 174. 

Paralysis, 174. 

Paralysize, 174. 

Paralyze, 175. 

Parapet, 120, 121. 

Parasite, 306. 

Paichment, 161. 

Parenthese, sb., 174. 

Pareuthese, v. a., 174. 

Parenthesize, 20, 174. 

Parlour, 247. 

Partially, for not to- 
tally, 191, 192, 276. 

Particular, old use of, 

Parts, for talents, 292. 
Party, for person, 81, 

Pasche, 112. 
Pass, well to, 247. 
Passage, v. n., 292. 
Passager, 161. 
Passing, for more 

than, 248. 
Past, for after, 124. 
Patrial, 133. 
Patriarchess, 187. 

Patriotic, 117, 286, 


Paup^risme, 316. 
Peachj V. a., 248. 
Peaclufy, v. a., 26. 
Peasant, 161. 
Peculiar from, 82. 
Pedagogue, 366. 
Pedant, der. of, 175. 
Pence, der. of, 163. 
Pend, for pen, v. a., 

Penetrabilis, 168. 
Penetrable, 109. 
Penetrate, 109. 
Pennant, 161. 
Perfectionator, 173. 
Perfectionment, 22, 

Perflation, 205. 
Perk, for perch, 238, 

Perspective, 157. 
Pert, der. of, 162. 
Pervert, sb., 130, 308. 
Pessimist, 311. 
Pessimize, 194. 
Petrific, 158. 
Petted, for piqued, 

Phantasie, 356. 
Phantasmalian, 100. 
Pheasant, 161. 
Philander, 275, 299. 
Philosophaster, 179. 
Philosophastry, 179. 
Philosophate, v. n., 

Philosopher, v. n., 

Philosophiser, v. n., 

Philosophlsm, &c., 

178, 179. 
Philosophisme, 179. 
Philosophist, &c., 

178, 179. 
Philosophistical, 178. 
Philosophobist, 176. 
Philosophy, v. n.^186. 
Phrase, for smgle 

wordi 306. 
Physical, a use of, 


Physicist, 308. 
Physiocrat, 152, 289. 
PiccadUly, 107. 
Picnician, sb., 26. ' 
Pictorial, 286, f. 
Pictural, sb., 287. 
Picturesqueness, 126. 
Pin, for mood, 248. 
Pistate, V. a., 138. 
Pize, 248. 
Placation, 109. 
Plagiary, 271. 
PlamUer, &c., 347. 
Plain-sailing, 176. 
Plasticity, 308. 
Platitude, &c., 309, f. 
Pleasure, v. a., 248, 

Plebiscite, 310. 
Plenipo, 187. 
Plenty, adj., 248. 
Plunder, 113. 
Plurahty, old use of, 


Poetess, 123. 
Police, 124. 
PoUtien, 110. 
Polysemant, 170. 
Ponderous, 108.,254. 
Pontoon, 120.' 
Poor's box. 218. 
Popeling, aer. of, 247. 
Port, der. of, 187. 
Portentous, 108. 
Pos, 187. 
Possibilitate, v. a., 

22. 184. 
Postnumous, 158. 
Posthumous compo- 
sitions, 202. 
Power, for great deal, 

104, 249. 
Prayerful, 130, f. 
Preterable, old use of, 

Preheminence, 159. 
Preliminary, sb., 120. 
Premit, for premise, 




Prepuce, 112. 

Prejudice, misuse of, 
198, 201. 

Presbyter, eccentric 
etymologies of, 50. 

President, for prece- 
dent, 159. 

Pr6tentieux, 318. 

Pretentious, 173,318. 

Prevent, for forestall, 
166, 249. 

Priest, der. of. 163. 

Priest, false aer. of, 

Primeval, 117. 

Primosity, 176. 

Privado, 249. 

Problematical, 122. 

Proceeds, sb., 122. 

Process, old use of, 

ProcUvity, 307. 

Proctor, 176. 

Prodigious. 108. 

Productibility, 181. 

Profaness, 189. 

Professional, sb., 305. 

Professoress, 187. 

Profile, 182. 

Progress, v. n., 72, 
286, f. 

Progresser,v. n., 314, 

Propressif, 314, f. 

Proneme, 159. 

ProHx, 109. 

Promettre, slang use 
of, 260. 

Promiscuous, 111. 

Promiscuously, 111. 

Promise, for assure, 
249, f. 

Proness, 189. 

Propone, for pro- 
pound, 110. 

Propoune, for pro- 
pound, 361. 

Prorogation, 366. 

Prosaist, 308. 

Prothonotary, 158. 

Pseudomantist, 26. 

PubUcist, 288. 

Pudgy, 273, 319. 

Pudsev, 273. 

Puff, for praise, 130. 

Pulse, sb. plu., 250. 

Punue, for pound, 
V. a., 361. 

Pure, for very, 250. 

Purely, for notably, 

Puritant, 162. 

PiLsh an investiga- 
tion, to, 283. 

Put, sb., 250. 

Put up, V. a., 250, 

Put up with, to, 279, f . 

Put upon, to, 203, 

Putid, 117, 180. 

Quaft, for quaff, 361. 

Qualitative, 133. 

Quat, for squat, 250. 

Quisby, 273. 

Quite, 51, f. 

Quite a child, &c.,276. 

Raid, 307. 

Raillery, 127. 

Rampart, 120. 

Ransom, der. of, 163. 

Ratio, 95. 

Rational, 112. 

Raught, for reached, 
139, 206. 

Realize, senses of, 
292, 296, f . 

Reap-hook, 119. 

Reason, to have, 250. 

Receptivity, 126, 308. 

Reciprocal, 106. 

Reckon, old use of, 

Recognize, 118. 

Rocognosce, 118. 

Recompense, for com- 
pensate, 261. 

Reconnoitre, 120, 
121, 122. 

Reconvert, sb., 308. 

Rectoress, 187. 

Recuperate, 367. 

Redaction, 310. 

R^edify, 192. 

Reenverse, v. a., 181. 

Reestablish, 192. 

Reestate, 299. 

Reference of, in, 85, 

Refinmg, 109. 

Regard, for relation, 
&c., 90, f. 

Regard of, in, 84, f . 

Regard of, with, 87- 

Regard, in, for com- 
paratively, 93. 

Regimental, sb., 251. 

Rehabilitate, 299. 

Rehabilitation, 299. 

Rehabiliter, 299. 

Rehedification, 159. 

Relation of, in, 94. 

Relatively of, 85, 94. 

Relativibility, 368. 

Reliable, 320, 348. 

Relief, 119. 

Religion, 172. 

Religionist, 166. 

Relumine, v. a, 251. 

Remain, sb., 119. 

Remarker, 35. 

Remnant, 163. 

Remotion, 180. 

Remuneration, 105, 

Rended, 57. 

Rent, for rend, 57, 

Renverse, v. a., 180, 

Replete, 124. 

Reposit, 251. 

Repudiate, 117- 

Requirement, 2Q6. 

Requisition, 283. 

Respect, for relation, 
&c., 86; 88. f., 366. 

Respect, m, for rela- 
tively, &c., 85, 91, 

Respect of, in, 84, f . 
Respect of, with, 87. 
Respect, with, for 

relatively, &c., 85, 

91, f. 
Respectable, 288. 



Respective, for rela- 
tive, 93. 

Respective, for due, 
respectful, &c., 93, 

Respectively, for re- 
latively, 93. 

Respectively to, 85, 

Resurrect, 194. 

Resurrectionize, 194. 

Retainal, 173. 

Retrograde, 106. 

Retrovert, sb., 308. 

Revolt, V. a., 299. 

Rewrite, &c., 60. 

Rhinocerical, 174. 

Rhinocerot^ &c., 174. 

Rhinocerotic, 174. 

Rhodomontade, 158. 

Rhvme, 158. 

Rid, for rode, 207, 

Ridicule, 120, 127. 

Ridicule, for ridicu- 
lousness, 255. 

Rife, 125. 

Righteous, 155. 

Rightwise, 155. 

Rigsby, 272. 

Rimose, 251. 

Rimpled. 251. 

Ringle, aer. of, 272. 

Risible, misuse of, 
198, 201. 

Rivaless, 187. 

Rive. 280. 

Road, for inroad, 307. 

Rode, for ridden, 207, 

Roll, for enroll, 251. 

Rotund, sb., 266. 

Round, for whisper, 

Roundabout, a dance, 

Round - house, for 
lock-up, 251. 

Route^ 127. 

Row, tor disturbance, 

Rudesbey, 273. 

Rudesby, 272. 

Rim, for ran, 104^ 
207, 208. 

Run down, to, 279, 

Rural, 111. 

Rust, to take, 251. 

Sacerdocracy, 176. 

Sacrilegiously, 110. 

Saloon, old use of, 
251, f. 

Same with, 303. 

Sameness with, 303. 

S'anastomoser, 174. 

Sanction, v. a., 300. 

Sandapile, 138. 

Saturation, 129. 

Saturity, 129. 

Sausenger, 161. 

Savage, 109. 

Scand, for scan. 361. 

Scantle, der. ot, 272. 

Sciential, 157. 

Scientifial, 157. 

Scientific, 109, 157. 

Scientist, 309. 

Sconce, sb., 252. 

Sconce, v. a., 133,252. 

Scoundrel, adj., 256. 

Seek, V. n., for apply, 

Seen, for versed, 

Semeiology, 45. 

Senectude, 26. 

Seneschalship, 133. 

Sennight, 261. 

Sentimentahst, 311. 

Sentimentalize, 298. 

Septuagenarian, 304. 

Septuagesimal, mis- 
use of, 12. 

Sepulture, for sepul- 
chre, 45, f., 36U 

Sepulture, v. a., 149. 

Sere, 280. 

Serial, sb., 305. 

Set, for sit, 104. 

Sexagenarian, 305. 

Sexagenary, 144. 

Sheen, 123. 

Shined, 207. 

Shook, for shaken, 

Shore, from shear, 

Shred, for scatter, 

Shriftfather, 165. 
Shunt, V. a., 300. 
Sick room, 127. 
Significative, 109. 
Significative, for ex- 
pressive, 252. 
Simplician, 111. 
Sithence, 356. 
Sitten, 139. 
Sketchy, 319. 
Slided. 207. 
SUngsby, 273. 
Smaily, 188. 
Smash. 128. 
Smatcn, sb., 253. 
Smoke, v. a., old uses 

of, 253. 
Smoky, old use of, 

Smoothen, 40. 
Smoulder, 122, 123, 

SneakbUl, 272. 
SneaksbiU, 272. 
Sneaksby, 272. 
Sniff, snift, 59. 
Snore, snort, 59. 
So ... as, &c., old 

use of, 253. 
Soberize, 298. 
Sobriety, 108. 
Soddened, 59. 
Solicitate, 108. 
Solidarity, 310. 
SoUdary, 310. 
SoUdity, technical 

sense of, 310. 
Soly, for solely, 188. 
Somehow or another, 

Sooth, in, 123. 
Sound, for swoon, 

Sonne, for sound, 361. 
Souse, for sous, 266. 
Sparagrass, 161. 



Sparagos, 161. 
Sparrowgrass, 161. 
Special, sb., 305. 
Specialist. 308. 
Specie, old uses of, 

&c., 263, f., 310. 
Species, old uses of, 

Speech-lore, 183. 
Spoke, for spoken, 

207, 208. 
Sprang, for sprung, 

Sputatilic, 158. 
Square, in comp., for 

cornered, 254. 
Squirrelline, 176. 
Stand with, old use 

of, 254. 
Stand-pomt, 289. 
Stare, 342, 343. 
Start-up, adj., 254. 
Starvation, 279, f., 

Starve, 280, 281, 368. 
Starve, misuse of, 

Steel, for bastile, 162. 
Steorfan, 281. 
Sterling, der. of, 187. 
Stive, V. a., 254. 
Stole, for stolen, 208. 
Storey, 166. 
Story, for plot, 254. 
Strange of, to make, 

254, f . 
Strappado, 255. 
Stratagem, 366. 
Stratag^me, 4. 
Streak, for rung, 255. 
Strenuous, 105, 106. 
Stupendious, 159, 

Stupenduous, 160. 
Sub-clavian, 175. 
Subjective, 126. 
Subjectivity, 308. 
Sublime, for sub- 
limity, 255. 
Substantival, 318. 
Substraction, 119, 


Subtily. 188. 
Suburbial, 173. 
Suburbian, 173, 367. 
Succedaneous, 43. 
Succumb, 122. 
Such . . who, 256. . 
SuflSciency, 119. 
Suite, 122. 
Summarize, 194. 
Summist, 144. 
Superannuation, 124. 
Supercherie, 4. 
Supercheiy, 182. 
Superfinesse, 189. 
Superweening, 100. 
Supplement, v. a., 


Surebie, 272. 
Suresby, 272. 
Surgeon, 163. 
Surquedry, 182. 
Suspect, sb., 167. 
Suspectable, 167. 
Suspectful, 167. 
Suspense, v. a., 226. 
Suspicable, &c., 167. 
Sweeting, sb., 256. 
Sycophant, adj., 256. 
Swoon, 59. 
Swound, 59. 
Syllable, &c., 161. 
Syllogize, 43. 
Symbolatrous, 367. 
Symbolatry, 367. 
Symbology, 180, 367. 
Symbolology, 180. 
Synonym, 172. 
Syntaxical, 176. 
Synteresis, 367. 
Systemize, 175. 
Tabby, sb., 237. 
Tables, old use of, 

Tact, 286. 

Take in, for dupe, 1 25. 
Take place, old use 

of, 256. 
Take notice, old use 

of, 256. 

Take shame to one's 

self, to, 283. 
Talent, talents, 61, f., 

Talent, for talon, 161. 
Talented, 70, f. 
Talentif, 65. 
Talentum and its de- 
rivatives, 64, f . 
Tally, adv., 188. 
Tansy, der. of, 162. 
Taplash, sb., 256. 
Tardity, 61. 
Tarring, for tarrying, 

Tartar, 158. 
Teached, 139, 206, 

Technology, misuse 

of, 175. 
Teens, 162. 
Telegram, 100, 158, 

Telegrapheme, 158. 
Temperance, 108,366. 
Temperated, 256. 
Tender, 161. 
Tenent, 162. 
Teresa, sb., 256. 
Terrorist, 311. 
Terrorize, 298. 
Test, V. a., 300. 
Testimonialist, 311. 
Testimonialize, 194. 
Tetrastich, 112. 
That, old uses of, 257. 
That, ellipsis of, 257. 
That, misuse of, 202. 
Theaterian, 112. 
Theirj for 's, 356,359. 
Theins, theirs, 358. 
Their self, 352. 
Their selfs, 352. 
Them that, &c., 205. 
Them self, 352. 
Them selfs, 362. 
Think, for expect, 

Thrall, thraldom, 108. 
Threeness, 165. 
Throwed, 104, 139, 




Ticket, for visiting- 
card, 125, 126. 

Tiff of punch, 257. 

TiU, ellipsis of, 271, f. 

Timid, 117. 

Tim-whiskey, 257. 

Tipple, der. of, 272. 

Tipsy, der. of, 272. 

To, old uses of, 258. 

To, for compared with 

To, for on, 205. 

To, for with, 271. 

To, ellipsis of, 271. 

To. misuses of ,85,200. 

TooesBck, v. a., 110. 

Tohbant, &c.. 111. 

Tom-axe, 201. 

Too, misuse of, 54. 

Tootsy, sb., 273. 

Totality, 286. 

Tour, V. n., 301. 

Tomist, 311. 

Tout, V. n., 134, 287. 

Touter. 134. 

Toward, old use of, 

Toxophilite, 175. 

Toxophilus, 176. 

Tractarian, &c., 320. 

Trait, 127. 

Tramontane^ 259. 

Transatlantic, 275. 

Transverse, v. a., 259. 

Treacle, 128, 161. 

Tremenduous, 160. 

Tribal, 134. 

Tricksy, 272. 

Trisyllable, adj., 227. 

Tritical. 259. 

Triumphant, for tri- 
umphal, 167, 168. 

Truant, 161. 

Truepenny, 156. 

Trustwortmess, 176. 

Truthful, 287. 

Tunic, 112. 

Turbant,&c., 112,161 
Turned of, old use of, 

Twaddle, for twad- 
dler, 292. 

Tyran, &c., 161. 

Tyranness, 161, 259. 

Tyrant, 161. 

Ugglesorae, 173. 

Ugsome, &c., 173. 

Ultra^ sb., 163. 

Ultraism, 311. 

Unalienable, 259. 

Unconversable, 110. 

Uncreditable, 260. 

Undeadly. 166. ' 

Under, old use of, 

Under way, 176. 

Underganging, 166. 

Underwent, have, 58. 

Undiscovered, for un- 
explored, 268. 

Undisprivacied, 193, 

Uneath, 190. 

misuse of, 201, 316. 

Unexpressive, 173. 

Unfillmglike, 166. 

Unfullmaking, 166. 

Ungain,adj., 203,260. 

Unheal, 175. 

Umdeal, misuse of, 
198, 201. 

Unmind, v. a., 176. 

Unnoticed, 285. 

Unpicturesque, 126. 

Unpleasantry, 275. 

Unrespectable, 288. 

Unronmgness, 166. 

Unshakened, 59, 361. 

Unsuspectable, 167. 

Untalented, 72. 

Unthohnglike, 166. 

Untuneable, for in- 
harmonious, 260. 

Unwell, 124,125,287. 

Unwisdom, 314. 

Unwittingness, 165. 

Upon, old use of, 273. 

Upset, sb., 275. 

Use, SD., for interest, 

Usuring, 189. 

Usury, 166. 

Utiliser, v. a., 129. 

Utilitarian, 316, 320. 
Utilize, 128,129,167, 

Vales, der. of, 162. 
Valetudinary, adj., 

Valetudo, 186. 
Valuator, 173. 
Vapour, V. a., 260. 
Vapours, old use of, 

Vapulate, 367. 
VeheteiiDarius, 187. 
Velveret. 260. 
Vernacular, adj., 117. 
Vernacular, sb., 305. 
Very pleased, &c., 

54, f. 
Very shining, &c., 55. 
Vet, 187. 
Veto, sb., 310. 
Vetoist, 311. 
Viable, 181. 
Viandry, for viands, 

Vicissitous, 315. 
Vicissitudinary, &c., 

Vindictive, 163. 
Viparious, 101. 
Visitant, 273. 
Visto, 266. 
Vitable, 181. 
Vivable, 181. 
Vociferate, 283. 
Voice, for word, 367. 
Volcano, nobiliary 

pronunciation of, 

Vote one a bore, to, 

Vulgar, for vulgar 

tongue, 305. 
Vulgar, sb., misuse 

of, 201. 
Vulgarian, 312. 
Vulnerate, 367. 
Waff, 59. 
Wafry, for wafers, 

Waft, 59. 
Wafting, 119. 



Walking-stick, 348. 
Wanehope, 165. 
Warm, for affluent, 

260, f. 
Wart, for wast, 79. 
Was, you, 208, 209. 
Was a month, that 

dav, 203, 261. 
Wash- woman, 261. 
Weary, v. n., 275, 

301, f. 

Wedbreak, 166. 
Wend, 56, f. 
Wended, 56, f . 
Went, has, &c., 58, 

Wentedst, 361. 
Were, for wast, 79, 

Werest,for wert, 361. 
Werst, for wast, 79. 
Wert, for wast, 77, 

f., 361. 
Wet finger, with a, 

What, superfluous, 

25, 261, f. 
Whereabouts, sb.,307 

Which, old use of, 

WhUe, 62. 
Whiles, 62. 
Whimsey, 273. 
Whisper a person, 

to, 262. 
Whittle, sb., 292. 
Who. for which, 353. 
Whole, for all, 205. 
WhOly, 188. 
Whom,f or which,353. 
Whose, for of which, 

Wight, 123. 
Wise, to make, 255. 
Wiseliest, 188. 
Wish, V. n., old use 

of, 262. 
Wit-craft, 183. 
With, old uses of, 263, 

With the widest, &c., 

264, f., 368. 
With the worse, 265. 
With, acquiescence, 

Withal, for with, 265. 
Witherwin, 166. 
Withinside, 265. 

Without, for unless, 

Witword, 165. 
Woe, adj., 265. 
Woful-wan, 176. 
Womanhood, 122. 
Womanize, 40. 
Wondered, it cannot 

be, &c., 201, 265. 
Wording, 123. 
Worsen, v. a. and n., 

300, f . 
Wristlet, 157. 
Writ, for wrote, 139, 

Writ, for written, 139, 

Wrongoift, 155. 
Wrote, for written, 

104, 208. 
Yeaminglike, 166. 
Young person, for 

young woman, 276. 
Youris^ for yours,358. 
Zealotism, 104. 
Zed, 140. 
Zedity, 140. 
Zee for zed, 140. 
Zenith, 120. 
Zero, 311. 




The Atmabodha, with its Comlmentary, and the Tattvabodha. Pp. 
29 and 9. Mirzapore: 1852. 

The Sdnkbyapravachana, with its Commentary. Fp. 66, 233, and 
44. Calcutta: 1856. 

The Sdryasiddhduta, with its Commentary. Pp. 4, 388, and 13. 
Calcutta: 1859. 

The Vfisavadatta, with its Commentary. Pp. 66, 300, and 6. 
Calcutta; 1859. 

The Sankhyasdra. Pp. 51 and 48. Calcutta: 1862. 

The Dasarupa, with its Commentary, and four chapters of the 
NatyasAstra. Pp. 39 and 241. Calcutta: 1865. 


The Tarkasangraha, translated into Hindi from the Sanskrit and 
English. Pp. 24 and 48. Allahabad : 1850. 

The Siddhantasangraha, translated into Hindi from the Sanskrit 
and English. Pp. 7, 72, and 96. Agra: 1855. 

Elements of Hindi and Braj Bhakhd Grammar, by Dr. J. K. 
Ballantyne. New edition, with alterations and additions. Pp. 38. 
London: 1868. 

Hindi Reader. Pp. 19 and 184, quarto. Hertford : 1870. 


Lectures on the Nydya Philosophy, Sanskrit and English. Revised 
edition. Pp. 14 and 80. Benares : 1852. 

The Rdjaniti, in the Braj Bhashd Language. Pp. 7, 167, 10, and 
14. Allahabad: 1854. 

Classical Selections. Pp. 2 and 256. Agra : 1855. 

A Contribution towards an Index to the Bibliography of the Indian 
Philosophical Systems. Pp. 2 and 236. Calcutta : 1 859. 

A Rational Refutation of the Hindu Philosophical Systems, trans- 
lated from the Hindi and Sanskrit. Pp. 10 and 284. Calcutta: 

Ane Compendious and Breve Tractate, &c. By William Lauder 
(1556). Pp. 11 and 39. London: 1864. Second edition, revised, pp. 
11 and 43. London : 1869. 

The RigvedasaAhita, Professor H. H. "Wilson's Translation, Vol. 
1 ; Second Edition, with a new Index and a Postscript. Pp. 51 and 
348. London: 1866. 

Sir David Lyndesay's Works. Four Parts. Pp. 548. London : 

Benares, Ancient and Medieval : A Monograph. Pp. 23. Hert- 
ford: 1868. 

The Yishnupur&na, Annotated Edition of Professor H. H. Wilson's 
Translation. Five Volumes. Pp. 140 and 200 ; 343 ; 343 ; 347 ; 
392. London : 1864—1870. 


From * The New-York Daily Tribune.^ 

" If such a work as * Recent Exemplifications of False Philo- 
logy* were sold for a sixpence, or even circulated gratuitously, it 
would, probably, discredit its writer quite as much as it would 
discredit Mr. White. Being * held * or sold at a prohibitory price, 
it will, probably, 

* Die among its worshippers ', 

supposing that that word can truly be put in the plural." 

From * The Independent,^ 

" If a book deserves to be widely read, because it is almost the 
worst that can be written on a special subject, — on the principle 
which induced the Spartans to make Helots drunk before the 
children, as a frightful example, we ought cordially to recommend 
Mr. Eitzedward Hall*s Recent Exemplifications of Fals Fhilology, 
[This highly religious paper, as if the author's alleged sins were 
not grievous enough, here forges a little bad spelling for him.] The 
pamphlet is altogether a remarkable example of literary ferocity ; 
and its chief purpose is to fall foul on Mr. Grant White, in which 
it succeeds admirably. But, though Mr. White is the chief 
enemy, the writer attacks, with impartial virulence, pretty nearly 
everybody who has said a word about the English language for 
the last fifty years. Landor, De Quincey, Wordsworth, Cole- 
ridge, and men of less name are, all, assailed before us with hands- 
ful of indiscriminated mud. And. when we have finished reading 
the book, we have a general impression left on our mind, that 
Mr. Hall wishes it to be understood, that all philologists are mad, 
and that he is their keeper. 

" There is quite enough slang and vilification to be found in 
newspapers at present ; so we shall not cull any of Mr. Hall's 
hot-house flowers of rhetoric. But there is a useful word to be 
said about this gentleman's general drift. All the persons whom 
he assails have criticized current English speech, spoken and writ- 
ten, with a view to its purification by a standard of culture. 
That undertaking may be difficult ; perhaps it is impossible ; few 
would be found to say that it is not laudable or desirable. A 
man must be sunk very low, before he contentedly resigns the 

prospect of improvement of his language, whether he be French- 
man, German, Englishman, or Cherokee, when the possibility 
of the improvement is pointed out. Mr. Hall has fallen quite 
below the point, and revels In his fall, and declaims against 
everybody who, on grounds of good taste or public necessity, 
desires to keep the English language within some limits of 
scholarship and artistic feeling. Of English books of all cen- 
turies he seems to have read a quantity incompatible with sanity ; 
and it is quite sufficient, that a word is found in any of them, 
for him to attack anybody who objects to its use now in a new or 
an old sense. His notion of a language evidently is * all the 
words used at all times in all printed books.* The office of 
literature in castigating language is quite unknown to him. His 
notion seems to be, that everybody should say what he likes, and 
write what he likes, and so language will grow healthily. Never 
mind what happens to words, in the process. Suppose people do 
say now, for example, in England, * awfully jolly.* Why, all the 
harm that can come will be, that, in a century, * awful' will mean 
'jolly,' and * jolly ' will mean * awful.* And how good it will be for 
trade ; for, of course, all the Bibles and hymn-books will have to 
be re-edited ! Such writers as Mr. Hall can do no good, and 
they may do harm, by preventing serious study of a most serious 
subject among the unreflecting. As may be expected, Mr. Hall 
gives ample evidence of his being no philologer himself. He 
seems to know little German, and makes a great fuss about quite 
commonplace Greek etymology. We observe, on the last page 
of the volume, a list of his printed works, and mention of one 
in preparation, with the title * Modern English,' concerning which 
last we can only repeat, with much feeling, what Cowper says of 
the illustrious John Gilpin's performance on horseback : 

< And when he next doth ride abroad, 
May we be there to see.* 

We should add, however, that this little book contains a good deal 
of information for the curious, and will often interest where it 
does not edify." 

From * The Golden Age: 

" There are some good books of a bad kind ; and there are many 
bad books of a good kind ; but this book is the worst that we 
have ever seen of a very bad kind. . . Dr. Hall is full of learned 
pretence, both as to matter and manner, and crowds his pages 
with quotations, the most of which are entirely without interest 

and of no use whatever, except to bear witness to Dr. Hall's ac- 
quaintance with literature. Indeed, his quotations, and the 
notes that infest his pages, make his book one of the most for- 
bidding we have ever taken in hand. . . . Mr. Hall — we beg par- 
don, Dr. Hall, (for, knowing something of the value and signifi- 
cance of an Honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, we are not so deeply 
impressed by it as this possessor of it evidently expected us to be) 
— well, then, Dr. Hall sets out, as he declares, to subject Mr. 
Grant White to a strict appreciation, *that it may operate as a 
salutary warning.' The insolence of such a declaration is in- 
superable, and no less ridiculous ; but, as to Hall's right to submit 
Mr. White, or any one else who has published a book, to a strict 
appreciation, there can be no doubt. By so doing he might have 
conferred a benefit upon the public, and upon Mr. White ; and he 
might have done it in a scholarly spirit, and with the manner of 
a gentleman. On the contrary, he has done it like a braggart, a 
bully, and a blackguard. . . As to particular points, Dr. Hall may 
be sometimes right, and Mr. White wrong ; but we see no 
reason to change our original opinion as to the value, the interest, 
and the needfulness of Mr. White's book. And as to Dr. Hall's 
we have been chiefly concerned with it as an exhibition of arro- 
gance, of pompous pretence, and of literary brutality." 

From * The Boston Advertiser* 

"Mr. Richard Grant White's book on * Words and Their 
Uses ' bids fair to be preeminently useful in settling what is 
good usage of the English language, but not exactly in the way 
he intended. The attention he succeeded in arousing, coupled 
with his errors, not to say ignorance, has. provoked to enter the 
field of debate many champions of the mother-tongue. Professor 
Lounsbury, of Yale College, in the columns of *The College 
Courant,' made it evident that Mr. White's dicta were not in- 
fallible ; but Fitzedward Hall, formerly Professor of the San- 
skrit Language and Literature in King's College, London, has, 
even more completely than Professor Lounsbury, exposed his 
shortcomings. In a little work entitled * Recent Exemplifications 
of False Philology,' Mr. White is handled in a way which it 
would be kindness to call merely severe. In many particulars, 
and these essentially exemplary ones, Mr. White, as an authority, 
is annihilated." 

From « The New-York MaiV 

** Scholars who know our language nearly and familiarly, who • 
have traced it to its sources, who have followed it through its 
unfoldings, who have watched it varying with the varying 
seasons of thought and changing hue and texture, with the 
changing hopes and sensations of the centuries, — such only can 
understand and honour sufficiently its wealth and majesty, great 
and venerable. Fitzedward Hall, formerly Professor of Sanskrit 
in King's College, Loudon, ... a profound philologist, versed in 
many languages, knows the self-sustaining strength, and the en- 
during and fruitful riches of the English tongue, and bears for it 
a love alike patriotic and scholarlike. Therefore is his indigna- 
tion hot against those whom he believes to be smatterers and 
triflers, much puffed-up, as word-censors, with the self-confidence 
which comes from half-knowledge This little book de- 
serves notice otherwise, as a veritable curiosity of literature. 
In its hundred and fourteen pages, are direct references to, or 
citations of, over three hundred authors, — an evidence of faith- 
ful work which deserves all praise." 

From * The New-York Times? 

" It is especially in regard to their knowledge of the actual 
history of English words, that Prof. Hall scourges the deficiencies 
of the men whom he reviews. And he does it, certainly, from a 
height to which hardly another English student of the present 
day has ascended. His reading has been immense, his observa- 
tion keen, his annotation most industrious. . . . But we have 
too high an opinion of Mr. Hall, and have enjoyed his little book 
too much, k) want to close our notice with an unfavourable 
judgment upon a point of minor consequence. We will add, 
rather, that, in his argument about telegraph and telegram, he 
shows himself able to argue questions of classical as well as of 
English propriety ; we heartily concur, moreover, in his conclu- 
sion, that telegram has, in its general acceptance and use, the only 
support that it needs, in order to hold up its head in good Eng- 
lish society Mr. Hall has doubled the value of his book 

by providing it with ample indexes of authors quoted and of 
words treated. Its character justifies us in forming very high 
expectations of the work on ' Modern English,* by which he pro- 
mises that it shall be followed." 

Irom * The Nation* 

" Mr. Hall passes unnoticed, or with only a word or two of 
condemnation, some of those who have most moved our ire, as 
Alford and his antaj^nist Moon, Blackley, and Gould. He expends 
a few trenchant introductory pages on Landor and Coleridge, De 
Quincey and the London Athenmum. But his chief exemplar of 
false philology is Mr. Richard Grant White, as exhibiting himself 
in the volume, more than once mentioned of late in these pages, 
entitled * Words and Their Uses.' The second and revised edition 
of this work had not yet made its appearance, when Mr. Hall un- 
dertook to expose its weaknesses ; but the exposure will apply very 
nearly or quite as well to the new as the old form of it ; for we 
have not observed that the alterations recently made affect any of 
the points criticized. More than one additional revision may be 
made, we think, still leaving aplenty of matter for adverse criticism. 
Mr. White's dogmas and semblances of arguments have met with 
many severe answers, and from diverse points of view ; his phi- 
lological knowledge, as to the history of English words and forms, 
has been made the chief subject of one formidable attack ; his ideas 
of general grammar, of another ; his command of English author- 
ities, and the soundness and good taste of his decisions on dis- 
puted points of usage, of yet others ; and it is in this last direc- 
tion that Dr. HalPs criticisms expend themselves. They are, 
throughout, pungent and able ; and they are founded on a wide 
acquaintance with English literature, a philological cultivation, and 
an acuteuess and penetration, to which his antagonist can make 
no pretence. . . . Without claiming the title, or putting forward 
any pretensions, either to * scholarship ' or to absolute * reason * 
and infallible ^ taste,' Dr. Hall is really a scholar, and a profound 
one, known, as such, in three continents ; for his contributions to 
Sanskrit and other Oriental learning have been a credit both to 
America, the land of his birth, and England, the country of his 
adoption, in India, the scene of the larger share o*f his life's 
labour. Not deeming Mr. White a foeman altogether worthy of 
his steel, we welcome his present production especially as an 
earnest of the greater work on * Modern English,' which he an- 
nounces as in preparation, and which we hope to receive from 
him within no long time, sure that it will be a valuable contribu- 
tion to the knowledge of our native tongue."